added 4 research items
Abstract: This scientific paper gets to include a reading analysis of the identity as topic, Which consists of understanding the Negro man or Negros group their practices and their memories as a model and as a minority in Algerian society, Through their customs and their own traditions, so we were presenting in this part of substantive description by the remote observation technique , especially participant observation at whom ,and to ask for their some random questions from this sample studied , and by some selection of groups in Mascara city , - this last one – it’s the most preserve for their heritage traditional in the western of Algeria, and to highlight the role effective that could be played by "People of Diwan " or " Ahle El -Diwan " as they call themselves in dealing with their cultural and by their custom . At the same time to show their how can their. Keywords: The Black Identity Identity – Algerian Society –Diwan L’A3bid.
We discuss the application of in-situ rheological small angle X-ray scattering experiments to the study of complex fluids under shear, implemented using custom Couette cylinder rheometers mounted on the SWING beamline of the SOLEIL Synchrotron. We discuss several applications of this technique to the study of phase transitions in nanoparticle doped liquid crystals and shear alignment of clay suspensions. The concurrent capture of rheological and scattering data provides vital information that relates macroscopic properties such as viscosity to the microstructure of the fluid.
We study the influence of nanoparticle doping on the lyotropic liquid crystalline phase of the industrial surfactant Brij®30 (C₁₂E₄) and water, doped with spherical polyoxometalate nanoparticles smaller than the characteristic dimensions of the host lamellar phase. We present viscometry and in situ rheology coupled with small-angle X-ray scattering data that show that, with increasing doping concentration, the nanoparticles act to decrease the shear viscosity of the lamellar phase, and that a shear-induced transition to a multilamellar vesicle "onion" phase is pushed to higher shear rates, and in some cases completely suppressed. X-ray data reveal that the nanoparticles remain encapsulated within the membranes of the vesicles, thus indicating a viable method for the fabrication of nanoparticle incorporating organic vesicles.