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The speed and scale of climate change presents unique and potentially monumental security implications for individuals, future generations, international institutions and states. Long-dominant security paradigms and policies may no longer be appropriate for dealing with these new security risks of the Anthropocene. In response to this phenomenon, this book investigates how states have reacted to these new challenges and how their different understandings of the climate-security nexus might shape global actions on climate change. It focuses on the perceptions, framings, and policies of climate security by members of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC), the world's highest ranking multilateral security forum. Empirically, the book presents detailed, bottom-up case studies from local authors of every UNSC member state in 2020. It combines this with an innovative theoretical approach spanning national, human and ecological security that helps to capture the complex dynamics of state-led approaches to dealing with security in the Anthropocene. This book therefore offers readers a compelling picture of climate-security politics in the UNSC, beyond Council debates and resolutions. By comparing and contrasting how different framings of climate security impact various policy sectors of members states, the authors are able to assess the barriers and opportunities for addressing climate security locally and globally. • First systematic study of the different framings of climate security and policy responses by United Nations Security Council members • Innovative framework and methodology that includes multiple security approaches including traditional, human, and ecological • Case studies written by local, experienced researchers who draw from an extensive number of primary and secondary sources.
This book arises at a time when our skies are dark, and are becoming darker. There is now irrefutable evidence that the temperate era of the last 12, 000 years, the Holocene era, is drawing to a close. We are moving towards a series of tipping points that could well bring an end to the nurturing ‘ecological assemblages’ (Trisos, Merow and Pigot, 2020) and Schumacher’s (1973) ‘natural capital’, which provided humans and many other species with the provision of essential ‘ecosystem services’ (Farber et al., 2002). During this now vanishing era the earth has been characterised by what Rockström et al. (2009: 1) have termed ‘planetary boundaries’ that provide a ‘safe operating space for humanity’. The warning that these dark clouds carry with them is that we humans have been, especially since we have begun living in industrial societies, systematically destroying the very basis of our existence – an engagement that Brisman and South (2018) compare with self-cannibalism, autosarcophagy. This autosarcophagy has been, and remains, the consequence of carbon intensive economies -- ways of being, built on fire and the heat it produces (Hartmann, 1999) (PDF) Dark clouds: Regulatory possibilities. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/344350863_Dark_clouds_Regulatory_possibilities [accessed Apr 21 2021].
This chapter uses a desktop study to examine the insurance industry’s potential as a ‘fulcrum institution’ that can influence others to prevent and address environmental harms from climate change. As this chapter demonstrates, given insurance’s central economic role, the relationship between insurers and climate change is complicated and conflicted. After the discussion of insurers as shapers of climate risk (the first section of the chapter), this chapter explains how (in the second section) insurers are strongly implicated in creating climate change and attendant climate risk in the period since industrialisation through facilitating the accelerating fossil-fuel-based economic development and growth that causes climate change; this is the dominant dimension in insurers’ relationship with climate change. In the third section of this chapter, the authors review insurers’ responses over the past decade to increasing climate risk. Responses have been largely adaptive and aimed at increasing insurers’ capacity to accommodate the climate risks faced by their policyholders. Some responses have been ‘weakly mitigative’, meaning that they provide for some mitigation, but on a very limited scale, and largely as side effects of initiatives unrelated to climate change. In marked contrast, a very limited number of recent ‘divest and decline’ actions by insurance industry actors can be described as ‘strongly mitigative’, as described in the fourth section. The fifth section concludes the chapter with some remarks on the prospects for further strong mitigation action from insurers on climate change and their role as governors of security beyond the state.
This review explores past and future shifts in policing and criminology scholarship that have shaped, and been shaped by, what is done to enhance safety within political domains. Investigating established policing conceptualizations, the review demonstrates how the ideal of state-delivered safety as a public good was challenged by a sizeable policing industry, giving rise to debates about legal context, service provision, and conceptualizations of policing and security nodal arrangements. This review argues that these understandings are now confronted by new harms and new conceptualizations of social institutional affairs. Interrogating these claims through an examination of the Anthropocene and technologies of cyberspace, we canvass debates and show that a shared focus of attention for the future of policing will be a decentralization of security and an expansion of private security governance professionals (both human and nonhuman). Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Criminology, Volume 3 is January 13, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
This paper situates contemporary developments in policing in the context of an emerging cross-disciplinary focus on 'resilience'. We argue that an inchoate reimagining of how police, as security professionals, are engaging, and might engage, in the governance of safety with communities in response to emerging 'harmscapes' might be, and should be, conceptualized as 'resilience policing'. We situate our analysis within the context of developments in community policing.
This article analyzes the implications of the Anthropocene for the governance of security. Drawing on environmental law, green criminology, and international relations, the article examines the development of environmental security scholarship over recent decades and shows similarities and differences in perspectives across the three disciplines. It demonstrates that the Anthropocene represents a significant challenge for thinking about and responding to security and the environment. It argues a rethinking is needed, and this can benefit from reaching across the disciplinary divide in three key areas that have become a shared focus of attention and debate regarding security in the Anthropocene. These are, first, examining the implications of the Anthropocene for our understanding of the environment and security; second, addressing and resolving contests between environmental securities; and third, developing new governance responses that mix polycentric and state-backed regulation to bring safety and security to the planet.
This article analyses the implications of the Anthropocene for the governance of security. Drawing on environmental law, green criminology and international relations the article analyses the development of environment and security scholarship over recent decades and shown similarities and differences in perspectives across the disciplines. It demonstrates that the Anthropocene represents a significant challenge for thinking about and responding to security and the environment. It argues a rethinking is needed and can benefit from reaching across the disciplinary divide in three key areas that have become a shared focus of attention and debate regarding security in the Anthropocene. These are first, examining the implications of the Anthropocene for our understanding of environment and security; second, addressing and resolving contest across environmental securities through more holistic and integrated thinking and practice; and third, developing new governance responses that mix polycentric and state backed regulation to bring safety and security to the planet.
During the first half of the 20th century, responsibility for enforcing environmental laws often fell to police. This chapter charts how the transboundary nature of environmental harms has contributed to and is creating shifts in environmental policing, which is broadly conceived as the governance of environmental security (Shearing, 2015). After briefly mapping the traditional enforcement approach, the chapter will examine ongoing shifts toward networks, cooperation, and more pluralized forms of security governance. After mapping these developments, the chapter turns its focus to some emerging issues and areas of analysis for understanding and explaining environmental problems. and policing. It argues that the ‘cooperation imperative’ demanded by global environmental problems has for sometime been shifting thinking and practice toward new responses to environmental harms (Holley et al., 2011). We suggest that the most recent iterations of these new approaches can be characterized as ‘New Environmental Governance’ (NEG) (Holley et al., 2011). The analysis proceeds in three parts. Part one commences by charting how the transboundary nature of environmental harms has led to NEG, highlighting shifts in the thinking and arrangements of security governance, from traditional environmental enforcement to markets, early forms of partnerships and finally NEG. Part two goes on to examine the NEG approach, identifying its distinguishing features; examples in practice and the key benefits that NEG could contribute to effectively police and govern transboundary environmental harms. Attention is paid to international harms and domestic contexts (including those of weak states), since transboundary environmental problems infiltrate administrative regions at all levels, in addition to crossing sovereign state boundaries (Yu, 2011: 188–189). In the course of this chapter we will highlight recent debates, with a focus on whether nodal forms of environmental governance such as NEG can deliver on their promised benefits to offer a more effective, efficient and legitimate resolution to environmental harms than traditional modes of environmental policing and enforcement. As we will see below, precisely because of its nodalapproach NEG’s successes in practice often depend on its coexistence with traditional enforcement focused forms of environmental policing (De Burca et al., 2013; Driessen et al., 2012: 157; for a general discussion of forms of collaboration between police and other agents of security governance see Ayling et al., 2009). Part three will offer some concluding thoughts and sum up the chapter by setting out emerging issues and new areas of analysis for understanding and explaining environmental problems and policing.
During the first half of the 20th century, responsibility for enforcing environmental laws often fell to police. Some of the earliest policing activities focused on counteracting illegal and criminal activities in the area of hunting and poaching (Loo, 2006; Wijbenga et al., 2008: 323). However, since the 1970s, environmental laws expanded to regulate a growing raft of environmental problems (e.g. waste and pollution), and with this expansion came many different regulatory and administrative agencies, at many different levels, to deal with environmental crimes (White, 2011). New treaties and legal instruments established a plethora of enforcement and compliance functions, powers and procedures to be carried out by an increasingly complex cohort of police; specialist environ-mental protection agencies; customs and specialist environmental courts (United Nations Office of Drug and Crime (UNODC), 2012: 87).
The Anthropocene may require a fundamental rethinking of safety and security. The safety and security that earth systems have provided can no longer simply be regarded as the work of Nature, and as something that we humans must simply live with. We are now revealed as a geological force that has, and is shaping these systems. And this, to invoke Klein, changes everything. And it most certainly may change, and has already begun to change, criminology, an area of enquiry whose fundamental topic has been safety and security. In this chapter, we outline some of the fundamental questions posed by the Anthropocene for criminology. To push the limits of existing criminological knowledge we ask: • What has already been achieved in criminology and what remains unanswered for confronting the key intractable problems of the Anthropocene? • What might criminology be in the Anthropocene? • What does the Anthropocene suggest for future theory and practice of criminology more generally? We synthesise key generalisable lessons and insights from leading thinkers and respond to the questions we have posed above.
The Anthropocene signals a new age in our earth’s history, a human age, where we are revealed as a powerful force shaping planetary systems. What might criminology be in the Anthropocene? What does the Anthropocene suggest for future theory and practice of criminology? This book seeks to contribute to this research agenda by examining, contrasting and interrogating different vantage points, aspects and thinking within criminology. Bringing together a range of multidisciplinary chapters at the cutting edge of thinking and environmental rethinking in criminology, this book explores a mix of key intractable problems of the Anthropocene, including climate change and overexploitation of natural resources that cause environmental insecurities; crime and corruption; related human insecurity and fortressed spaces; and the rise of new risks and social harms. Of interest to scholars in the fields of criminology, sociology and environmental studies, this book provides readers with a basis for analysing the challenges of, and possible approaches to, the Anthropocene at all levels (local, national, regional and international) and discusses the future(s) of criminology for improving social policies and practices. See: https://www.routledge.com/Criminology-and-the-Anthropocene/Holley-Shearing/p/book/9781138688230