Project

Terrorism and the end of hospitality

Goal: I am working now in a project book which will be published in 2017 in Palgrave Macmillan, this book discusses not only the effects of terrorism, which were widely approached by different sources, but also to what extent terrorism is eroding the basis of hospitality. Though the definitive title is underway negotiations, below you will find a short description of chapters.
Introduction
Chapter 1: The other in Western Imaginary
This chapter explores how the otherness was imagined by Europeanness, as well as the stereotypes, prejudices and idealized image around the non-western other. This section not only discusses to what extent Europe launched to colonize the world but the socio-cultural background for the European proclamation of supremacy over the rest of the world. The perverse core of European ethnocentrism rests in its paternalism to understand the cultural difference, adjoined to the rise and consolidation of Science, which paradoxically accelerated what David Riesman dubbed “the other-oriented” gaze. This is the moment of great technological breakthrough and the flourishing of romantic novels, literature and anthropology which engaged with a peripheral wonderland to be domesticated. In this stage, the material asymmetries of center and its periphery were crystalized while Europe adopted capitalism as its main socio-economic project.

Chapter 2: The concept of Civility and Law.
From Hobbes on, the concept of law-making was strongly associated to the needs of creating a third-object (dialectics) which is in charge of monopolizing force and violence. The same conception of law and violence which was historically accompanying Occident, paved the pathways for the creation of borderlands. Based not only on the legacy of Foucault and R. Castel but in the contribution of sociological thinking, we will dissect in this section the roots of national being and the evolution of security. While industrialism emancipated medieval peasants from the attachment of soil, a great process of urbanization produced slums and ghettos in urban areas. As this back drop, no less true was that a new concept of civility erected a barrier between the city and external world.
Chapter 3: The rise of Nation State and Free Transit
With focus on Anthony Pagden, this section delves into the Conquest of Americas, and explains how the manipulation of the concept of Hospitality legitimated the subsequent dispossession to aboriginal lands. In part, because Spain colonized this continent as Rome did in Europe, but and most important, what is important to discuss is to what extent hospitality plays a vital role subordinating indigenous to European archetype, at the time it endorsed legitimacy to Spain over this new world. In so doing, hospitality not only accompanied the ideological discourse of nation-hood, but free transit became in the touchstone of West.

Chapter 4: The problem of Terrorism (industrialism)
Through XIXth century, many migrants ethnicities coming from central Europe arrived to the United States. This happened because of two main reasons. The passage of Medieval age to industrialism, and the pauperization of European peasants who were pressed to migrate to new promising destinations. Within this cohort of migrants, many anarchists exerted a radical violence against capital owners. While they were fought and exiled from US, a new emergent unions asked Nation States for further working enhancements. At the time, Nation State endorsed to these unions better conditions of work, which facilitated the rise and expansion of modern tourism, terrorism was mitigated, though accepting its ideological core. This suggests that terrorism and tourism are two side of the same coin.

Chapter 5: the industry of Travels and Tourism
The earlier chapter focused on the intersection of terrorism and tourism, but this depends on how terrorism changed their tactics to instill terror in society. Some decades ago, terrorists select celebrities, important persons, or Chief police officers as main target of their attacks, but now this role was fulfilled by tourists and global travelers. This worsened the situation when Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi declared the jihad against “tourism and modern hot-spots of consumption”. The concept of mobilities was historically manipulated by Western powers to impose a one-way discourse which aims to discipline the other as inferior to European lords.

Chapter 6: The Globalization of Fear
In this chapter, we combine the advances of other disciplines to expand our understanding of terrorism and the fields of emotions. In this respect, as L. Howie puts it, the media industry engendered a culture of witnessing which not only is conducive to terrorism, but enlarged fear to other continents. The globalization of fear operates in a new field which is based on what Baudrillard named “the spectacle of disaster”. Though this vicious circle between the spectatorship of disaster and terrorism not to be broken, the problem is far from being solved. Terrorism and 9/11 as founding event ignited a new stage of capitalism which Korstanje called “Thana-capitalism”. Unlike modern sociologist imagined risk-society, Thana Capitalism characterizes by commoditizing others` suffering as a form of entertainment for a global audience.


Chapter 7: The End of Hospitality
The consolidation of Thana Capitalism doubtless affected tourism industry, but changed the ways the other is conceived. Needless to say, anthropology should play a leading role in providing new theories to understand “cosmopolitanism”, and the position of this global dangerous other in Europe. Discussing directly with Derrida as well as other scholars, this section focuses on how hospitality is dying. The end of hospitality represents a serious challenge of Europe simply because it was “the alma matter” of its rationality and social trust. At time terrorism targets “the exemplary center of consumption” to extortionate the developed nation-states, the surveillance at borderlands is strengthened. In the years to come, the philosophical discourse will not be given by the dichotomy between conditioned or unconditioned hospitality, but rather, this raises a pungent question, what to do with strangers?
The main thesis held here is that Western civilization erected by means of medical gaze metaphor, which consists in extirpating the affected part, to save the body. If this is applied on the case of terrorism, Muslim Community runs serious risk to be demonized and martyrized in the name of security.
Conclusion

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Maximiliano E. Korstanje
added a research item
This special issue was an effort of many authors and friends. We have successfully gathered almost 15 good works which primarily focus on the impact of terrorism in daily life, but what is most important in leisure hot spots and tourist destinations. In the same way, we interrogated on the sociological reasons why terrorists often target tourists, and the problems it represents for Western Hospitality. This is a gift (in our own native language), we Spanish Speaking Researchers make for the world. This is published in the leading journal Estudios and Perspectivas en Turismo conducted by Regina Schluter and Juana Norrild. God bless you all. Max and Ericka.-
Maximiliano E. Korstanje
added an update
Maximiliano E. Korstanje
added a research item
De Isis a Wannacry: el efecto del terrorismo en el mundo moderno MAXIMILIANO E KORSTANJE Resumen El presente ensayo se centra en los dos últimos virus de tipo ransomeware, Wannacry y Petya, que han conmocionado a la opinión pública mundial. En los últimos años, algunos especialistas han alertado sobre la manipulación de virus por parte de grupos terroristas. Desde una perspectiva nueva, sugerimos que tanto terrorismo como virus informáticos de tipo ransomeware son fenómenos que se derivan del mismo fenómeno, una crisis de sentido en la hospitalidad occidental. Nuestra tesis apela a ese asentimiento voluntario de aceptación que todo virus necesita, y que analogía con el extranjero, los especialistas rechazan. En occidente la hospitalidad, la cual necesita de una aceptación consentida – como el virus-no solo tiene sus días contados sino que filosóficamente hablando, yace junto al cadáver de la democracia. La repetida y expandida obsesión por la seguridad produce nuevas paradojas y riesgos, que llevan al agotamiento de las instituciones. Palabras claves: Terrorismo, Ransomware, Wannacry, Petya, Miedo, hospitalidad. How to cite this paper, Korstanje M (2017) " De ISIS a Wannacry: el efecto del terrorismo en el mundo moderno ". Reflexiones Marginales, NRO 40. Available at http://reflexionesmarginales.com/3.0/de-isis-a-wannacry-el-efecto-del-terrorismo-en-el-mundo-moderno/.
Maximiliano E. Korstanje
added 2 research items
This book centers not only on the “scourge of terrorism”, a problem which concerns policy-makers, officials and governments worldwide, but dissects the reasons and effects it has on people’s daily lives. Focusing on 9/11 as the founding event, terrorism and the attention given by the media and news containing violence-related content paved the way for the rise of a new stage of capitalism. Authors invited to this project discuss with accuracy to what extent terrorism is changing day-to-day behaviours, social institutions and democracy. Basically, the rise and expansion of globalization, which crystalized into a more mobile world, alluded to a culture of instantaneity where news on terror produces a double-edge effect. On one hand, terrorist cells are prone to develop crueler and further violent tactics to perpetrate their attacks since the constant media coverage produces a process of desensitization in audiences. On another hand, the “war on terror” is discursively manipulated to impose some restrictive economic policies that would otherwise be neglected. Lastly, not only does terrorism seem to affect the tenets of democracy, but it also accelerates the rise of populist leaders in the decades to come. Since terrorism is subtly changing our lives, this book offers an all-encompassing model to expand the current understanding of students, scholars and policy makers in order to prioritize republicanism over “the concept of security”. In this vein, Latin America has much to say to shed light on how terrorism effaces democracy. In view of the American sentiment of exemplarity adjoined to the commoditization of death in capitalist societies, the discourse of fear may very well lead to pathological reactions that prevent “hospitality”, which was historically the touchstone of the Western world.
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Maximiliano E. Korstanje
added a research item
Artículos Korstanje M. Movilidad, Violencia y la Esencia de la Hospitalidad: radriografia del estado nacional. El Periplo Sustentable. Nùmero 32. Febrero 2017. Disponible en Resumen La literatura especializada en turismo y hospitalidad apela a la construcción de una industria que proteja los intereses de la comunidad, la cual apoyada por el patrimonio puede reconvertir una situación histórica desfavorable en un beneficio tangible. El turismo cultural y la patrimonialización han jugado un rol importante dentro del mantenimiento de ciertos destinos. No obstante, no menos cierto es que la idea misma de patrimonio y hospitalidad se encuentra asociada a una violencia silenciosa que permitió al estado nacional
Maximiliano E. Korstanje
added 2 research items
Purpose – After almost a decade, the re-appearance of dengue fever in Argentina caused panic and fears. Unlike Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay, where prevention policies have been followed, the future of dengue is uncertain in Argentina; the present paper does not have political affiliation but the purpose of this paper is to emphasizes the role that mass media plays in the coverage of epidemics. Design/methodology/approach – In moments of disorder, uncertainness or disaster, societies experience a shift in the ways they perceive their reality. Findings – In the times, media plays a dominant role in constructing the reality that the authors get to consume. Such reality is reflective of media’s own biases and those of the vested interests that control the media. Originality/value – This essay draws from social psychology and allied literature to highlight how the recent reemergence of dengue in Argentina was employed as a lever for achieving a range of ulterior objectives.
Maximiliano E. Korstanje
added a research item
Problems to understand social phenomenon associates to our misconceptions, stereotypes and prejudices imposed during our early socialization. This happens not only with tourism which is valorized as a right of all citizens in modern societies, but also with terrorism, judged as the main threat of West. However, what would happen if both would be different sides of the same coin? This essay review explores the roots of tourism and terrorism during the process of unionization in US. What on one hand resulted in a hyper-mobile process that shore up tourism, on another was a desesperate attempt to struggle against terrorism. In this vein, it is safe to say that tourism is terrorism by other means.
Maximiliano E. Korstanje
added a project goal
I am working now in a project book which will be published in 2017 in Palgrave Macmillan, this book discusses not only the effects of terrorism, which were widely approached by different sources, but also to what extent terrorism is eroding the basis of hospitality. Though the definitive title is underway negotiations, below you will find a short description of chapters.
Introduction
Chapter 1: The other in Western Imaginary
This chapter explores how the otherness was imagined by Europeanness, as well as the stereotypes, prejudices and idealized image around the non-western other. This section not only discusses to what extent Europe launched to colonize the world but the socio-cultural background for the European proclamation of supremacy over the rest of the world. The perverse core of European ethnocentrism rests in its paternalism to understand the cultural difference, adjoined to the rise and consolidation of Science, which paradoxically accelerated what David Riesman dubbed “the other-oriented” gaze. This is the moment of great technological breakthrough and the flourishing of romantic novels, literature and anthropology which engaged with a peripheral wonderland to be domesticated. In this stage, the material asymmetries of center and its periphery were crystalized while Europe adopted capitalism as its main socio-economic project.
Chapter 2: The concept of Civility and Law.
From Hobbes on, the concept of law-making was strongly associated to the needs of creating a third-object (dialectics) which is in charge of monopolizing force and violence. The same conception of law and violence which was historically accompanying Occident, paved the pathways for the creation of borderlands. Based not only on the legacy of Foucault and R. Castel but in the contribution of sociological thinking, we will dissect in this section the roots of national being and the evolution of security. While industrialism emancipated medieval peasants from the attachment of soil, a great process of urbanization produced slums and ghettos in urban areas. As this back drop, no less true was that a new concept of civility erected a barrier between the city and external world.
Chapter 3: The rise of Nation State and Free Transit
With focus on Anthony Pagden, this section delves into the Conquest of Americas, and explains how the manipulation of the concept of Hospitality legitimated the subsequent dispossession to aboriginal lands. In part, because Spain colonized this continent as Rome did in Europe, but and most important, what is important to discuss is to what extent hospitality plays a vital role subordinating indigenous to European archetype, at the time it endorsed legitimacy to Spain over this new world. In so doing, hospitality not only accompanied the ideological discourse of nation-hood, but free transit became in the touchstone of West.
Chapter 4: The problem of Terrorism (industrialism)
Through XIXth century, many migrants ethnicities coming from central Europe arrived to the United States. This happened because of two main reasons. The passage of Medieval age to industrialism, and the pauperization of European peasants who were pressed to migrate to new promising destinations. Within this cohort of migrants, many anarchists exerted a radical violence against capital owners. While they were fought and exiled from US, a new emergent unions asked Nation States for further working enhancements. At the time, Nation State endorsed to these unions better conditions of work, which facilitated the rise and expansion of modern tourism, terrorism was mitigated, though accepting its ideological core. This suggests that terrorism and tourism are two side of the same coin.
Chapter 5: the industry of Travels and Tourism
The earlier chapter focused on the intersection of terrorism and tourism, but this depends on how terrorism changed their tactics to instill terror in society. Some decades ago, terrorists select celebrities, important persons, or Chief police officers as main target of their attacks, but now this role was fulfilled by tourists and global travelers. This worsened the situation when Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi declared the jihad against “tourism and modern hot-spots of consumption”. The concept of mobilities was historically manipulated by Western powers to impose a one-way discourse which aims to discipline the other as inferior to European lords.
Chapter 6: The Globalization of Fear
In this chapter, we combine the advances of other disciplines to expand our understanding of terrorism and the fields of emotions. In this respect, as L. Howie puts it, the media industry engendered a culture of witnessing which not only is conducive to terrorism, but enlarged fear to other continents. The globalization of fear operates in a new field which is based on what Baudrillard named “the spectacle of disaster”. Though this vicious circle between the spectatorship of disaster and terrorism not to be broken, the problem is far from being solved. Terrorism and 9/11 as founding event ignited a new stage of capitalism which Korstanje called “Thana-capitalism”. Unlike modern sociologist imagined risk-society, Thana Capitalism characterizes by commoditizing others` suffering as a form of entertainment for a global audience.
Chapter 7: The End of Hospitality
The consolidation of Thana Capitalism doubtless affected tourism industry, but changed the ways the other is conceived. Needless to say, anthropology should play a leading role in providing new theories to understand “cosmopolitanism”, and the position of this global dangerous other in Europe. Discussing directly with Derrida as well as other scholars, this section focuses on how hospitality is dying. The end of hospitality represents a serious challenge of Europe simply because it was “the alma matter” of its rationality and social trust. At time terrorism targets “the exemplary center of consumption” to extortionate the developed nation-states, the surveillance at borderlands is strengthened. In the years to come, the philosophical discourse will not be given by the dichotomy between conditioned or unconditioned hospitality, but rather, this raises a pungent question, what to do with strangers?
The main thesis held here is that Western civilization erected by means of medical gaze metaphor, which consists in extirpating the affected part, to save the body. If this is applied on the case of terrorism, Muslim Community runs serious risk to be demonized and martyrized in the name of security.
Conclusion