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Tennis

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Alvaro Lopez-Samanes
added a research item
To date, there is a lack of information about the optimal conditions of the warm-up to lead to a better performance in elite tennis players. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two different warm-up protocols (dynamic vs. self-myofascial release with foam rolling) on neuromuscular variables associated with physical determinants of tennis performance. Using a crossover randomised experimental design, eleven professional men tennis players (20.6 ± 3.5 years) performed either a dynamic warm-up (DWU) or a selfmyofascial release with foam rolling (SMFR) protocol. DWU consisted of 8 min of dynamic exercises at increasing intensity and SMFR consisted of 8 min of rolling on each lower extremity unilaterally. Just before (baseline) and after completing warm-up protocols, players performed a countermovement jump (CMJ), the 5-0-5 agility test, a 10-m sprint test and the Straight Leg Raise and Thomas tests to assess range of motion. Compared to baseline, the DWU was more effective to reduce the time in the 5-0-5 test than SMFR (-2.23 vs. 0.44%, respectively, (p = 0.042, ηp2 = 0.19). However, both warm-up protocols similarly affected CMJ (2.32 vs. 0.61%, p = 0.373, ηp2 = 0.04) and 10-m sprint time changes (-1.26 vs. 1.03%, p = 0.124, ηp2 = 0.11). Changes in range of motion tests were also similar with both protocols (p = 0.448–1.000, ηp2 = 0.00–0.02). Overall, both DWU and SMFR were effective to prepare well-trained tennis players for highly demanding neuromuscular actions. However, DWU offered a better preparation for performing change of direction and sprint actions, and hence, in high-performance tennis players, the warm-up should include dynamic exercises.
Alvaro Lopez-Samanes
added a research item
Shoulder pain has been associated with glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) and a reduction in external rotation (ER) strength; however, in tennis players, there is scarce evidence regarding the impact of a single match on shoulder range of motion (ROM), strength and serve speed. The aim of this study was to determine the acute effect of a single tennis match on shoulder rotation ROM, isometric strength and serve speed. Twenty-six professional tennis players participated in the study (20.4±4.4 years; 10.5±3.2 years tennis expertise; 20.5±5.4 h/week training). Passive shoulder external (ER-ROM) and internal rotation ROM (IR-ROM), ER and IR isometric strength were measured before and after a single tennis match (80.3±21.3 min) in both shoulder´s. Moreover, the total arc of motion (TAM) and ER/IR strength ratio were calculated. Video analysis was used to assess the number of serves and groundstrokes, while a radar gun was utilized to measure maximal ball speed. In the dominant shoulder, compared to pre-match levels, IR-ROM was significantly reduced (-1.3%; p = 0.042), while ER-ROM (5.3%; p = 0.037) and TAM (3.1%; p = 0.050) were significantly increased. In the non-dominant shoulder, ER-ROM (3.7%; p = 0.006) was increased. Furthermore, in the dominant shoulder, the isometric ER strength was significantly reduced after the match (-4.8%; p = 0.012), whereas serve speed was not significantly reduced after match (-1.16%; p = 0.197). A single tennis match leads to significant reductions in shoulder ROM (e.g., IR of the dominant shoulder) and isometric strength (e.g., ER of the dominant shoulder). This study reveals the importance of recovery strategies prescription aiming at minimize post-match alteration in the shoulders.
Alvaro Lopez-Samanes
added 2 research items
We sought to measure the response of cortisol concentrations around a professional tennis match and its association with hydration status and neuromuscular performance. Nine professional male tennis players were tested in a rest day, and 2-week after, during the first match of a professional tournament played in a clay-court. Salivary concentrations of cortisol (SalCC) were measured in a resting day (9:00 am and 8:00 pm), at the match day (9:00 am and 8:00 pm) and immediately before and after the match. Hydration status was assessed before the match (urine specific gravity; USG) while fluid turnover was tracked during the match. Finally, counter movement jump (CMJ) and handgrip isometric strength (HS) were measured before and after the match. SalCC, either in the morning (P = 0.161) and afternoon (P = 0.683) was similar in rest and match days. However, SalCC increased after the match (P = 0.033). Participants started the match hypohydrated (USG = 1.026±0.002) and during the match lost 1.0±0.3% of body weight despite 1.035±0.124 L/h of fluid ingested. CMJ and HS did not change post-match (P = 0.210 and P = 0.881, respectively). Correlations between the elevations in SalCC and dehydration (% BW loss) during the match were significant (r = -0.632; P = 0.034). Professional male tennis players did not show an anticipatory increase in SalCC the day of the match and neither signs of neuromuscular fatigue after it. During the match, the mild dehydration (i.e., <1.5%) was associated with the increases in cortisol levels which suggests that dehydration may be an added stress to be considered.
IN RECENT YEARS, THE INTEREST OF ERGOGENIC AIDS HAS GROWN IN THE COMPETITIVE SPORTS ARENA. AS A RESULT, SUPPLEMENTATION COMPANIES HAVE FOUND A NEW MARKET AND HAVE CREATED AN ARRAY OF PRODUCTS TARGETING COMPETITIVE ATHLETES. HOWEVER, ONLY A FEW LEGAL SUPPLEMENTS HAVE BEEN RECOGNIZED BY SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE AS BEING ABLE TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE. THESE COMPOUNDS ARE CAFFEINE, CREATINE, AND BICARBONATE. MORE RECENTLY, OTHER SUBSTANCES SUCH AS β-ALANINE AND NITRIC OXIDE PRECURSORS HAVE SHOWN ERGOGENIC EFFECTS, BUT MORE RESEARCH IS NEEDED. THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS REVIEW IS TO PROVIDE TENNIS COACHES AND SPORTS SCIENCE RESEARCHERS THE LATEST INFORMATION.
Victor Moreno Perez
added 2 research items
The aim of this study was to review both the characteristics of the tests used to assess core stability and the most important features of trunk stabilization exercise programs. The results of this review suggest that biomechanical methods such as sudden and controlled trunk loading and unloading, unstable sitting paradigm and mathematical modeling, have allowed us to analyze the effect of several factors on spine stability. In addition, field tests commonly used to assess core stability (muscle condition tests, single leg stance balance tests, postural control of lumbar spine and pelvis tests, etc.) have important limitations, mainly due to the absence of studies on the validity of these measurements. Finally, there is a lot of information regarding the effectiveness and safety of the stabilization exercises, but we lack enough information on other training load characteristics.
Background: Injuries are a major adverse event in a tennis player's career. Reducing injury requires a thorough knowledge of the epidemiology of tennis injuries. The aim of this study was to report the incidence and conditions of musculoskeletal injuries in elite tennis players. Methods: The medical staff of 162 tennis players recorded the type and conditions of musculoskeletal injuries for one season in accordance with a consensus statement. Other information such a training hours and competitive games played was also recorded. Results: A total of 199 injuries were recorded, equivalent to an overall incidence of 1.03 injuries per 1000 played games and 1.25 per 1000 h of training. Lower limbs were the most common injury location in male players (38.3%) and the trunk in females (41.3%) although muscle/tendon injuries were the most common type in both groups. There was a higher percentage of gradual-onset injuries (61.4%) than acute injuries (38.6%). The injury incidence on clay courts was 1.53±2.85 and 1.11±1.29 injuries per 1000 played games in males and females, respectively. The majority of the gradual- onset injuries were reported in the upper limbs (45.9%) while acute injuries were mostly located in the lower limbs (68.8%). During match exposure, the trunk was the most common location of injury (36.8%) while the lower limbs were the most common location of injury during training (41.7%). Conclusions: In elite tennis, a high percentage of musculoskeletal injuries were located in the lower limbs in males and in the trunk in females, occurred during matches and affected muscles or tendon structures. However, the type of the injury is influenced by different conditions such as the type of exposure (match vs. training) or the mechanism of injury (acute vs. gradual-onset). This information suggests that an early focus should be placed on the monitoring of the workload and changes in court surface during a season.
Alvaro Lopez-Samanes
added 2 research items
Introduction: Nutritional supplements and ergogenic aids (NS&EA) are used between training/matches with the goal of enhancing tennis performance. Scientific literature about prevalence and use of NS&EA in professional tennis players is scarce. Objective: The aim of the study was to describe the NS&EA used by professional tennis players during a season. Methods: Using a validated self-administered questionnaire, 62 professional male and 9 professional female tennis players (11% in their gender specific top 100 tennis world ranking (i.e.,ATP/WTA)) registered all the used NS&EA. Results: Eighty-one percent of the participants declared taking at least one NS&EA. Strength and conditioning trainers (S&C) and tennis coaches were the professionals who recommended most of the NS&EA in the players outside the TOP-100 (OT100; 50.7% and 39.1%, respectively). However, sports nutritionist were the principal advisors in the top-100 tennis players (T100; 62.5%). Sports drinks were the NS&EA most commonly used by all participants (81.7%). T100 participants used caffeine (p = 0.042), creatine (p = 0.001), iron (p = 0.013) and CHO-protein mix (p = 0.033) significantly more frequently that OT100 players. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of NS&EA use among professional tennis players independently of their tennis ranking position. However, T100 tennis player have an increased use of certain substances such us caffeine, creatine, iron and CHO-Protein mix. For the rest of the studied NS&EA the use was similar between T100 and OT100 players. It is possible that the differences in NS&EA use between groups could be related to the different professionals on charge of nutritional advice in T100 vs OT100.
To determine the effect of circadian rhythm on neuromuscular responses and kinematics related to physical tennis performance, after a standardised warm-up, 13 highly competitive male tennis players were tested twice for serve velocity/accuracy (SVA), countermovement vertical jump (CMJ), isometric handgrip strength (IS), agility T-test (AGIL) and a 10-m sprint (10-m RUN). In a randomised, counter-balance order, tennis players underwent the test battery twice, either in the morning (i.e., AM; 9:00 h) and in the afternoon (i.e., PM; 16:30 h). Paired t-tests were used to analyse differences due to time-of-day in performance variables. Comparison of morning versus afternoon testing revealed that SVA (168.5 ± 6.5 vs. 175.2 ± 6.1 km · h⁻¹; P = 0.003; effect size [ES] = 1.07), CMJ (32.2 ± 0.9 vs. 33.7 ± 1.1 cm; P = 0.018; ES = 1.46), AGIL (10.14 ± 0.1 vs. 9.91 ± 0.2 s; P = 0.007; ES = 1.23) and 10-m RUN time (1.74 ± 0.1 vs. 1.69 ± 0.1 s; P = 0.021; ES = 0.67) were significantly blunted during the morning testing. However, IS was not affected by time-of-day (P = 0.891). Thus, tennis performance may be reduced when competing in the morning in comparison to early evening. Therefore, coaches and tennis players should focus on schedule the SVA, power, speed and agility training sessions in the afternoon.
Alvaro Lopez-Samanes
added a research item
Introduction: Nutritional supplements and ergogenic aids (NS&EA) are used between training/matches with the goal of enhancing tennis performance. Scientific literature about prevalence and use of NS&EA in professional tennis players is scarce. Objective: The aim of the study was to describe the NS&EA used by professional tennis players during a season. Methods: Using a validated self-administered questionnaire, 62 professional male and 9 professional female tennis players (11% in their gender specific top 100 tennis world ranking (i.e., ATP/WTA)) registered all the used NS&EA. Results: Eighty-one percent of the participants declared taking at least one NS&EA. Strength and conditioning trainers (S&C) and tennis coaches were the professionals who recommended most of the NS&EA in the players outside the TOP-100 (OT100; 50.7% and 39.1%, respectively). However, sports nutritionist were the principal advisors in the top-100 tennis players (T100; 62.5%). Sports drinks were the NS&EA most commonly used by all participants (81.7%). T100 participants used caffeine (P=0.042), creatine (P=0.001), iron (P=0.013) and CHO-protein mix (P=0.033) significantly more frequently that OT100 players. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of NS&EA use among professional tennis players independently of their tennis ranking position. However, T100 tennis player have an increased use of certain substances such us caffeine, creatine, iron and CHO-Protein mix. For the rest of the studied NS&EA the use was similar between T100 and OT100 players. It is possible that the differences in NS&EA use between groups could be related to the different professionals on charge of nutritional advice in T100 vs OT100