In this paper we survey different teaching traditions in Swedish Science Education. The purpose is to map and investigate patterns in teachers' views of what constitutes “good” Science education in the middle years of compulsory school in Sweden. This is done with the background of a new curriculum with national testing and grading being introduced, which could potentially alter teachers' views of what is relevant content. A web-based questionnaire to teachers all throughout Sweden (response rate 43%, N=796) was used. The results show that groups can be formed with teachers emphasizing different teaching objectives including emphasis on; scientific facts and concept, laboratory work, everyday knowledge, and political and moral questions, even though the groups had a lot of similarities. The teachers indicate that they changed their instruction to a considerable extent after the three parallel reforms carried out 2011-13. © 2019 University of Oslo, Norwegian Centre for Science Education. All rights reserved.
Une lecture de l'enseignement des sciences physiques dans le Plan d'études romand à la lumière d'une comparaison avec les programmes français. Dans cet article, nous nous proposons d'analyser quelques dimensions de la transposition didactique externe à propos de l'étude des phénomènes physiques, telle qu'elle est configurée au sein du domaine des Sciences de la nature dans le Plan d'études romand (PER). Nous interrogeons tout particulièrement les ruptures et continuités dans les attentes institutionnelles qui pèsent sur les savoirs de l'école primaire d'une part et ceux du secondaire inférieur d'autre part. Ces attentes institutionnelles reflètent des partis-pris liés à des arrière-plans épis-témologiques, des résultats de recherche issus des sciences psychologiques, cognitives et didactiques et des orientations politiques, auxquels nous essaie-rons de remonter. Sans entrer dans une présentation symétrique, nous prendrons appui sur des éléments d'une enquête similaire menée à partir des programmes français. Cette analyse croisée montre des nuances significatives entre les orien-tations du Plan d'études romand et celles des programmes français, au niveau des configurations disciplinaires, de la démarche scientifique, de la démarche d'investigation et de la modélisation. Cet exercice de problématisation des in-jonctions institutionnelles s'avère essentiel pour comprendre la diversité des pratiques d'enseignement dans des contextes éducatifs distincts, et travailler à leur enrichissement mutuel.
Social studies have often been explored as dis-embodied which results in a limited view of what happens in the classroom. Based in Dewey’s transactional view of embodied relationality, Todd’s discussion on the liminality of pedagogical relationships and recent theoretical contributions into embodied learning and body pedagogics, the purpose is to explore students’ embodied engagement as an important but often overlooked aspect of social studies in school. The focus is on pedagogical encounters in terms of how students’ actions acquire a certain function in the classroom. Three embodied engagements— (i) disengaged encounters, (ii) screened encounters, and (iii) educative encounters—are identified and discussed in terms of the liminality of pedagogical encounters.
The paper highlights the possibilities and pitfalls of the implementation of the competence based curriculum reform in the Republic of Benin. The case study describes the ways a physical education (PE) teacher involved as a mentor in the implementation of the new PE curriculum, teaches hurdles in grade 8th. The analysis of videotaped extracts of didactical transactions from an ecological standpoint puts into light some didactic transposition phenomena related to the curriculum reconfiguration. It points out unintended effects of the reform related to the studying of highly embodied knowledge that demonstrate the interest of a didactical approach of the enacted curriculum to understand the dynamics of the introduced changes.
Teachers’ manner of teaching may have different consequences for meaning making in different educational settings. This is a comparative study with the aim to clarify and discuss how educational content is constituted in two different discourse practices. The approach used is inspired by pragmatism and the later works of Wittgenstein. In order to analyze how teachers and children/students constitute meaning, we use the epistemological move analysis. The epistemological moves delivered by teachers in conversations with children/students are analysed in order to understand how teaching activities interplay with the “how” and “what” preschool/students learn. The empirical material is gathered in a Swedish compulsory school (school years 7-9) and in a preschool for children of aged 1-5. The analyses demonstrate important similarities and differences between the two discourse practices. Finally, we discuss how these results can be used in order to understand teaching and learning processes in different settings.
This special issue of the European Educational Research Journal presents a series of research papers reflecting the trends and evolutions in conceptual frameworks that took place within the EERA 27 ‘Didactics – Learning and Teaching’ network during its first ten years of existence. Most conceptual tools used in this field were elaborated in different socio-historical contexts for education and schooling delineated by nations and/or linguistic regions in Europe. This issue suggests possible integrative paths between certain frameworks debated in the Network 27 through co-authored papers. Crossed perspectives on the papers highlight certain important foci in the study of learning and teaching processes: (i) ‘Bildung’ discussed within didactics as a European research field; (ii) Educational goals, content and teaching methods expressed in curricula; (iii) Curriculum making processes; (iv) Teaching qualities, teaching (joint) actions and classroom discourses; and (v) Collaborative practices in teacher professional development. Finally, two strands of comparative research in didactics are sketched for increasing synergies in the field.
Classroom actions rely, among other things, on teaching habits and traditions. Previous research has clarified three different teaching traditions in science education: the academic tradition builds on the idea that simply the products and methods of science are worth teaching; the applied tradition focuses on students’ ability to use scientific knowledge and skills in their everyday life; and the moral tradition opens up a relationship between science and society, focusing on students’ decision making concerning socio scientific issues. The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss similarities and differences between the science curricula in Sweden, France and Western Switzerland in terms of teaching traditions. The study considers the following dimensions in the analysis: (1) the goals of science education as presented in the initial recommendations of the curricula; (2) the organization and division of the core contents; and (3) the learning outcomes expected from the students in terms of concepts, skills and/or scientific literacy requirements. Although the three traditions are taken into account within the various initial recommendations, the place they occupy in the content to be taught is different in each case. In the Swedish curriculum, our analyses show that the three traditions are embedded in the initial recommendations and in the expected outcomes. On the other hand, in the Western-Swiss and French curricula, the three traditions are embedded in the initial recommendations but only academic tradition can be found in the expected outcomes. Therefore, the Swedish curriculum seems to be more consistent regarding teaching traditions. This may have some consequences on teaching and learning practices, which will be discussed in the article. Moreover, our analyses enable us to put forward definitions of teaching tradition.
One strand of comparative didactics aims at discussing the relationships between the theoretical constructions developed within subject didactics and how these can contribute to research about teaching and learning. This article explores the relationships between categories for analysing joint actions of teacher and students (didactic contract, milieu, mesogenesis, topogenesis, chronogenesis) and categories used in the pragmatist approach of classroom discourse analysis (practical epistemology and epistemological moves). We combine both frameworks to feature different types of breaches in the didactic contract and the building of continuity in teaching and learning actions for dealing with these breaches. Analyses are carried out through examples of classroom events in science education and physical education. We argue that these frameworks, when elaborated on and compared, enable us to characterise both generic and specific dimensions of teaching and learning in different subjects.
In this article we develop and use a comparative approach for studies of the role of the body in meaning making processes in science education (SE). In debates about learning, the discussion often centres on how to explore the relation between body and mind. For example, many studies either focus on changes of bodily behaviour or on changes of people’s conceptions and ideas. In a pragmatic perspective on learning it is not possible to envision an ontological distinction between body and mind. By comparing video recordings of physical education lessons, we have studied the role of the body in meaning making processes in SE. The results show that the body is used and constituted in different ways in the analysed situations and how the participants use artefacts in order to do things in a way that would not otherwise be possible. Furthermore, we argue that the comparative approach developed in the article, together with the results of the study, can be used by teachers in their discussions about teaching in relation to different educational objectives and content.