added 3 research items
Genus Psalis comprise four species viz., P. africana, P. kanshireiensis, P. pennatula and P. punctuligera which are almost identical (Kiriakoff, 1956). • Of these, Psalis pennatula is the only documented species as pest on rice in India (Nair, 1975). Methodology • Adult moths of Psalis sp. were collected from different rice growing regions of Tamil Nadu. • The specimens were examined for morphological features and genitalia. • DNA barcoding and phylogenetic analysis were carried out. Results • Sexual dimorphism not prominent. Large anal papillae and ostial funnel longer than wider in female genitalia (Fig. 1-5). • The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Madurai (Tamil Nadu, India) population was slightly evolved from that of Kenya population and distinct from that of Australian population (Fig. 6). Conclusion • It was observed that the moths collected were Psalis pennatula. • Amidst the invasiveness of insects owing to the adaptability from global climate change constant check of pest species would pave way in preventive measures rather than management measures of pest incidence.
In the wake of invasive species and climate change, sub-family Lymantriinae a neglected group was chosen to evaluate and consider as bio-indicator of the disturbed ecosystem with anthropogenic activities. In the present study, moth collections were carried out through a light trap in the plains at the foot hills of the Nilgiris and hilly regions of lower Pulney hills. The hilly region was more abundant with 260 individuals of 18 species from 12 genera under 5 tribes than the plains with 87 individuals of 14 species from 10 genera under 4 tribes. The dominant Lymantriid fauna were distinctly different for both regions. Plains were dominated by Aroa simplex attributed to prevalence of Lantana camera and hilly regions dominated by Perina nuda on Artocarpus heterophyllus intercropped in coffee plantations. The alpha diversity analysis also indicated that the hilly region was species-rich than the plains with more anthropogenic activities through Shannon Weiner Diversity index, Simpson’s Diversity index, Margalef Index of Species Richness, Equitability J Evenness Index, Jaccard and Sorensen Indices of Similarity.
The larvae of Pareuchaetes pseudoinsulata (Arctiinae: Erebidae: Lepidoptera) was introduced from Trinidad in Thrissur, Kerala in 1984 and in various parts of Karnataka in 1978 (Singh, 1994) and during 1984-1987 against Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae). Elsewhere, the establishment of P. pseudoinsulata was hindered by feeding of ants viz., Myrmicaria brunnea and Oecophylla smaragdina (Cock and Holloway, 1981). However, in India, C. odorata was managed upto 75 per cent by the larvae of P. pseudoinsulata during 1990 in a study conducted at a private estate in Karnataka. As the larvae fed on leaves there was setback in flowering of the weed (Singh, 2004). As a part of the study of the moth fauna in Pulney Hills, Tamil Nadu, adults of P. pseudoinsulata was collected in abundance (approximately 100 numbers) in light traps during January and October, 2018. The identity of the adult was confirmed based on morphological and genitalia study, and referring to Holloway (1988). Further the identity was also confirmed by Vladimir V Dubatolov, Leading Scientific Researcher, Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals, Novosibirsk, Russia.