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Talk in interaction and educational quality

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Juan Manuel Fernández-Cárdenas
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Partindo das ideias seminais de Bakhtin e Volochinov, neste artigo descrevemos a construção de uma postura dialógica para pesquisar práticas educativas, como também a possibilidade de criar um modelo pedagógico que privilegie quatro aspectos chave que fazem parte do dialogismo: sequencialidade, posicionamento, pluralidade e historicidade. Sequencialidade: o significado é produto da negociação sequencial do que projeta cada turno de fala em interação. Posicionamento: toda participação social constrói uma posição própria e em relação com a dos demais participantes de uma conversa. Pluralidade: o diálogo envolve reconhecer outras lógicas, outras vozes. Historicidade: o currículo escolar invoca uma história de desenvolvimento de uma conversa disciplinar. Para cada caso, explicamos, com exemplos, a maneira pela qual os conceitos descritos são utilizados para pesquisa e análise das práticas educativas. Finalmente, argumentamos que é necessário considerar estes quatro aspectos na construção de qualquer modelo pedagógico que invoque o dialogismo como fundamento epistemológico de sua proposta.
Juan Manuel Fernández-Cárdenas
added a research item
Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths education (STEM Education) is presented as a way to reduce marginalisation and promote inclusion in developing countries. This qualitative study aims to identify ways of reducing marginality and promoting inclusion through dialogic and transformative learning by high school teachers of the New Harvest School (NHS), particularly in STEM Education. Method: The study was carried out within the framework of the critical social approach identifying four characteristics of dialogism. The data comprised ethnographic observations of classes, and interviews with the selected teachers, the vice-chancellor and the administrator of the institution. Results: The dialogic characteristics of sequentiality, positioning, historicity and plurality were found in the science classes taught by the institution. Teachers have curricular knowledge capabilities regarding STEM education; however, recommendations were presented regarding the dialogic training that teachers should have, which made this study particularly relevant for improving teachers’ skills in this field. This article suggests options to create spaces for the use of educational dialogue and a liberating practice of education.
Juan Manuel Fernández-Cárdenas
added 2 research items
La investigación en educación, en México, es relativamente reciente si se le compara con la que se lleva haciendo en otras latitudes y tiene, todavía, un importante potencial de desarrollo. A pesar de esta aparente juventud, la diversidad y riqueza del panorama investigativo actual dan cuenta de su ánimo: las distintas aproximaciones teóricas y conceptuales, las variadas metodologías empleadas, el uso de múltiples técnicas de recolección de información, y la reflexión sistemática y análisis detallado de distintos escenarios, son testimonio de su empuje y vigencia. La complejidad del sistema educativo mexicano, con sus numerosos niveles y modalidades, y las exigencias sociales para que la educación formal dé respuesta a los retos contemporáneos, nos señalan los múltiples aspectos sobre los que es necesario seguir indagando. Los efectos de las presiones económicas y sus altibajos, los distintos actores involucrados, cada uno con sus intereses y agendas propias, el desafío de la evaluación del desempeño escolar, la introducción de nuevas tecnologías, los retos de la multiculturalidad, son sólo algunas de las temáticas actuales sobre las que se requieren estudios sistemáticos y rigurosos, abordados desde distintos ángulos, métodos y perspectivas teóricas. Los trabajos aquí presentados son una muestra de la variedad de temáticas, aproximaciones y enfoques de la investigación educativa en el noreste de México. Las distintas aproximaciones teóricas y conceptuales, la variedad de técnicas de recolección de información y los temas y líneas seguidos, nos proporcionan un panorama de la complejidad, diversidad y riqueza del campo de la investigación educativa desde esta región.
En este capítulo se presenta un estudio realizado con el interés de evaluar la manera en que los recursos electrónicos organizados en la Enciclomedia, y presentados a través del pizarrón electrónico interactivo (PEI), son utilizados en el aula por los docentes para construir conocimiento de manera compartida. De manera más específica, nos interesó calificar la calidad de la práctica educativa mediada por el uso del PEI, en comparación con el uso del pizarrón tradicional (PT). En el ámbito educativo se ha debatido en torno a la implementación de la Enciclomedia y al equipamiento masivo de los salones del país con los PEI, como factor contribuyente en la generación de la calidad educativa. Este debate aún no está resuelto; todavía falta demostrar las virtudes de esta nueva tecnología en cuanto a su eficiencia académica, y aclarar sus potencialidades en la reducción de la gran brecha existente en el nivel de logro académico entre los niños mexicanos. Sin duda, la inserción de cualquier instrumento nuevo en el aula requiere capacitar a los maestros para que sean competentes en su uso frente a una clase. Con los PEI, además, se necesita una re-estructuración en la planeación y uso de recursos electrónicos, para poder lograr los objetivos establecidos dentro del currículum escolar.
Juan Manuel Fernández-Cárdenas
added a research item
En este capítulo se presenta un estudio realizado con el interés de evaluar la manera en que los recursos electrónicos organizados en la Enciclomedia, y presentados a través del pizarrón electrónico interactivo (PEI), son utilizados en el aula por los docentes para construir conocimiento de manera compartida. De manera más específica, nos interesó calificar la calidad de la práctica educativa mediada por el uso del PEI, en comparación con el uso del pizarrón tradicional (PT)
Juan Manuel Fernández-Cárdenas
added a research item
In this chapter we present a Systematic Mapping Review of the Ibero-American approaches to educational dialogue, providing a deep examination of the following aspects: a) research methodologies, b) dynamics of dialogue, c) learning trajectories, and d) positioning and ideologies. In particular, we present an analysis of contemporary academic production concerning educational dialogue in the Iberian Peninsula and countries in the Americas whose official languages are Spanish or Portuguese, as reported in Web of Science and Scopus, the two most prominent global research databases, during the previous 5 years (2013-2018). As a result, we outline the main implications of this bibliographic examination for the development of an innovative educational agenda informed by current trends emerging from this region and drawing on the seminal ideas of Freire in conjunction with the Bakhtinian conceptualisation of dialogue.
Juan Manuel Fernández-Cárdenas
added a research item
El presente estudio forma parte de una linea más amplia que se lleva a cabo de manera paralela entre México e Inglaterra, y se enmarca dentro de una perspectiva sociocultural. De manera general, la linea persigue la comprensión y promoción de interacciones entre diversos procesos sociales, comunicativos y cognoscitivos en niños de edad primaria, dentro del contexto educativo. Al mismo tiempo, desde el punto de vista aplicado se persigue ayudar a desarrollar en los educandos mejores capacidades para usar el lenguaje como herramienta para estimular el pensamiento colectivo e individual. Similarmente, se busca promover en los educandos mejores herramientas de comunicación, razonamiento, solución de problemas y aprendizaje, que puedan utilizar dentro y fuera del contexto escolar. Nuestra investigación descansa en una serie de supuestos emanados de la teoría sociocultural. Entre ellos están: a) el lenguaje representa una herramienta muy poderosa para facilitar el razonamiento conjunto; b) los niños en edad primaria no necesariamente han desarrollado aún las habilidades para usar esta herramienta de manera efectiva; c) la educación debería brindar las oportunidades para permitir a los educandos el desarrollo de esta herramienta y d) este desarrollo no necesariamente sucede de manera óptima en la escuela, pero puede potencialmente lograrse con procedimientos adecuados.
Juan Manuel Fernández-Cárdenas
added a research item
Dos de los rasgos que más distinguen a los seres humanos como especie son su capacidad para acumular herramientas culturales y para cooperar socialmente. En este capítulo reviso la manera en la que dichas herramientas configuran sistemas situados de actividad, y la manera en la que los agentes involucrados en dichos sistemas interactúan socialmente a través del habla (y otros medios semióticos como los gestos y el manejo del cuerpo) en diferentes trayectorias de participación. El capítulo concluye con la presentación de una metodología de análisis para la identificación del diálogo en sistemas situados de actividad.
Norma Patricia Salinas Martínez
added a research item
En este capítulo se analiza el software dinámico digital SimCalc MathWorlds y su potencial para promover el diálogo en un primer curso de Cálculo para estudiantes de ingeniería en el Tecnológico de Monterrey, México. Sesenta estudiantes participaron en una secuencia pedagógica con actividades diseñadas para la apropiación de relaciones entre una función y su correspondiente función derivada. El software fue usado por pares en el aula y con él se propuso un escenario visual para la interacción dinámica con las gráficas de velocidad y posición. En la interacción se incluyó la simulación de un personaje moviéndose sobre una línea recta horizontal, y de este modo se asoció un significado real a la gráfica de una función y su derivada. Una percepción visual activa y exploratoria permite la interpretación de las relaciones matemáticas como "affordances" que el software provee. La co-acción posible a través del empleo del software promueve el diálogo entre los estudiantes acerca del conocimiento matemático incluido, lo cual permite identificar dichas relaciones como invariantes. Aplicamos un método cualitativo, predominantemente etnográfico durante las dos semanas en las que la experiencia tuvo lugar. Los resultados revelaron la apropiación de los estudiantes usando el lenguaje matemático. Con esta experiencia, proponemos el término “ecosistema dialógico” como una manera de enfatizar el diseño e implementación de la secuencia pedagógica, donde el profesor, los estudiantes y el software, cohabitan en un ambiente detonador del diálogo, lo que destacamos como una importante componente para el aprendizaje del conocimiento matemático con significado.
Juan Manuel Fernández-Cárdenas
added an update
Muy orgulloso de compartir que ya está a la venta en https://goo.gl/k8t8AE el libro "El Dialogismo: Su impacto en la construcción ética de conocimiento en diferentes escenarios educativos". El libro está editado por un servidor y cuenta con las colaboraciones de Sandra Gudino , Sergio Reyes-Angona , Roy Terrazas , Heidy Robles , Norma Patricia Salinas Martínez , Eliud Quintero , Katiuska Fernández Morales y José-Antonio Yañez-Figueroa
 
Juan Manuel Fernández-Cárdenas
added a research item
Teacher education can benefit directly from experiences in non-formal settings. This article presents a research study with elementary teachers who were teaching in public schools in the state of Nuevo León, México, and participated in a STEM Continuous Professional Development (CPD) workshop. The workshop provided a platform for teachers to interact with scientists and disseminators of science, allowing the appropriation of scientific knowledge applied to everyday activities and settings. Participants improved the quality of their teaching practices in classrooms and gained a new understanding of STEM subjects, enabling them to promote inspiring learning experiences with their students, where dialogue, experimentation and elucidation became an important part of their lessons. The study was carried out using ethnographic tools for analysing recorded videos, 15 sets of field notes, and 49 questionnaires. The sequential analysis of talk and gestures in their participation in the CPD workshop demonstrated high levels of involvement, creativity, and collaborative solution of STEM problems.
Juan Manuel Fernández-Cárdenas
added a research item
The linked concepts of 'scaffolding ' and the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) were originally applied to the context of asymmetrical teaching and learning with a teacher or adult explicitly supporting a learner, usually a child, to achieve tasks beyond their ability when working alone. In this paper we investigate how these concepts need to be reconceptualized if they are to be applied to the different context of symmetrical learning amongst groups of peers. We present two separate studies. In the first one we analyze the type of talk used by a group of children from Mexico solving the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM) test together both before and after an intervention program teaching 'exploratory talk'. Our analysis demonstrates a ZPD created by the way in which they talk together. In the second study we present the comparison of the talk of two groups of children, one from Mexico and the other from the UK, solving together a single matrix from the RSPM test. Our analysis shows how the concept of 'scaffolding' can be applied to understand how these groups of children use language to support shared thinking and learning. In both studies we found that applying ideas of 'scaffolding ' and the ZPD to symmetrical learning required the re-conceptualization of these concepts as characterizations of dynamic processes within dialogues.
Rupert Wegerif
added a research item
This paper reports on a project to explore the impact of promoting exploratory talk as the medium of teaching across the curriculum for 6- and 7-year-old pupils in three primary schools in the UK. We found that this focus on teaching through exploratory talk (which we call the Thinking Together approach) enabled the children to work together more inclusively and more effectively, improving their social skills and, at the same time, their use of language for reasoning and learning.
Juan Manuel Fernández-Cárdenas
added 9 research items
This article describes the outcomes of recent research on children's talk while engaged in joint literacy activities in primary school (Year 5). The research is based on a conception of talk as a tool for ‘thinking together’, with computer software being treated as a resource for organising and focusing children's involvement in collaborative activities. The results are used to discuss the value of classroom talk and computer-based activities for promoting children's literacy development.
The present study is part of a research program carried out collaboratively by The Open University in the United Kingdom and the National Autonomous University of Mexico for over six years. In this program we aim to understand and promote diverse cultural, interactive, discursive and cognitive processes involved in the social construction of knowledge, in various educational settings in both countries. In this report, our focus is on the development of exploratory talk among Mexican primary school children, based on previous similar studies carried out by our colleagues on British children of the same school level. In particular, in the Mexican study we attempted to understand and promote the use of exploratory talk as a discursive tool to facilitate collective reasoning in children when they solved problems jointly. According to Mercer (1995), exploratory talk refers to a style of interaction characterised by the active participation of all those involved, where the participants jointly engage in explicit reasoning through talk, displaying identifiable hypothesis, challenges, arguments and eventual consensus within a collaborative frame. Exploratory talk is essential to achieve effective and sound communication, grounded in accountable and visible reasoning. Therefore, its understanding and promotion become particularly relevant in diverse educational contexts inside and outside of school. Our program follows a sociocultural perspective.
This paper describes research that explored the question of whether or not it is possible to characterise and teach a single type of educationally productive talk. We analysed and compared the quality of children's interactional strategies when jointly working on a reasoning task and a psycholinguistic task. The latter involved writing an integrated summary of three related texts. Sixth grade primary school children (11–12 years old) solved these two tasks as pre- and post-tests before and after training in the use of ‘Exploratory Talk’ (ET) to think together and argue as well as in strategies for producing summaries. After training, children improved substantially in the use of ET when solving the reasoning but not the psycholinguistic task. However, using ethnography of communication methods to analyse the talk further around the latter task revealed that both the number and quality of communicative events and acts increased importantly. These changes were accompanied by a significant improvement in the quality of the summaries produced. These findings suggest that the requirement for explicit reasoning in the definition and analysis of ET may be task dependent. To account for the common features of the educationally productive talk in the two settings, we propose the more inclusive concept of co-constructive talk to characterise the inter-subjective orientation, social ground rules and communicative actions that support effective collaboration, co-ordination and creativity.
Juan Manuel Fernández-Cárdenas
added 14 research items
1. Objectives This paper presents a study looking at five factors related to educational quality in primary schools in Nuevo León, México. There were two research questions investigated in this study: 1. Which characteristics have schools to be considered " high achievement " schools, in relation to a variety of associated factors such as: a) classroom pedagogic strategies, b) teachers " skills in literacy and numeracy, c) school management, d) infrastructure, and e) parents " involvement? 2. What is the gradient of educational quality for schools in relation to the mentioned associated factors? a. What differences and similarities can be identified amongst schools? b. To what extent this gradient informs the transformation of educational practice in relation to the students " obtained scores of academic achievement? These questions were answered following a sociohistorical perspective. 2. Perspectives The research field in Mexico and internationally has usually identified the different factors associated to educational quality through the use of surveys applied to different members of the school community, such as students, teachers, and parents (Valdés,). These surveys, however, have not been able to define in depth the way in which these factors impact in the quality of education, and how they are constructed socially and institutionally (Gipps, 1999). In order to understand the nature of these factors in depth we have carried out a mixed study with quantitative and qualitative methods. We followed a sociohistorical perspective towards assessment and education, characterized by the following aspects: Socialization: Education is a process of socialization of participants in disciplinary knowledge. We take socialization to be the covert or overt display that an expert makes about his/her knowledge in action towards a novice who expects to become part of a social group or community. Learners are active in this socialization process as they themselves display their interpretation of what is going on moment by moment in interaction. In this way, participants strive to legitimate their actions and membership as they progress in the appropriation and mastery of cultural tools that are valued by their more experienced peers.
The sociohistorical perspective of human activity is particularly productive for defining educational quality in a certain sense. This article presents two studies to illustrate the use of this perspective in education. The first study describes the joint construction of websites on historical topics by elementary school children in the United Kingdom. The second study details the negotiation of the concept of consecutive numbers in a mathematics lesson that uses an Interactive Electronic Blackboard in Mexico. The statement is made that the participants attempt to construct knowledge through socialization in settings mediated by digital technology, and that their efforts can be reflected on and evaluated through methodological tools of the analysis of conversation and linguistic anthropology.