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Swinger transcription and replication
Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) provide an imprint of cellular RNA diversity irrespectively of sequence homology with template genomes. NCBI databases include many unknown RNAs from various normal and cancer cells. These are usually ignored assuming sequencing artefacts or contamination due to their lack of sequence homology with template DNA. Here, we report genomic origins of 347 ESTs previously assumed artefacts/unknown, from the FAPESP/LICR Human Cancer Genome Project. EST template detection uses systematic nucleotide exchange analyses called swinger transformations. Systematic nucleotide exchanges replace systematically particular nucleotides with different nucleotides. Among 347 unknown ESTs, 51 ESTs match mitogenome transcription, 17 and 2 ESTs are from nuclear chromosome non-coding regions, and uncharacterized nuclear genes. Identified ESTs mapped on 205 protein-coding genes, 10 genes had swinger RNAs in several biosamples. Whole cell transcriptome searches for 17 ESTs mapping on non-coding regions confirmed their transcription. The 10 swinger-transcribed genes identified more than once associate with cancer induction and progression, suggesting swinger transformation occurs mainly in highly transcribed genes. Swinger transformation is a unique method to identify noncanonical RNAs obtained from NGS, which identifies putative ncRNA transcribed regions. Results suggest that swinger transcription occurs in highly active genes in normal and genetically unstable cancer cells.
Noncanonical transcriptions include transcriptions that systematically exchange nucleotides, also called bijective transformations or swinger transformations. Swinger transformation A4T+C4G recovers identities of 8 among 9 unknown RNAs differentially expressed in centroblastic lymphoma, a human immunodeﬁciency virus (HIV)-associated non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The identiﬁed RNAs align with human genes with known anti-HIV1 or oncogenic activities. Function disruption through swinger-transformed transcription potentially enables avoiding antiviral responses and contributes to cancer induction.
The C^3 self-complementary circular code X identified in genes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes is a set of 20 trinucleotides enabling reading frame retrieval and maintenance, i.e. a framing code (Arquès and Michel, 1996; Michel, 2012, 2013). Some mitochondrial RNAs correspond to DNA sequences when RNA transcription systematically exchanges between nucleotides (Seligmann, 2013a,b). We study here the 23 bijective transformation codes Π(X) of X which may code nucleotide exchanging RNA transcription as suggested by this mitochondrial observation. The 23 bijective transformation codes Π(X) are C^3 trinucleotide circular codes, seven of them are also self-complementary. Furthermore, several correlations are observed between the Reading Frame Retrieval (RFR) probability of bijective transformation codes Π(X) and the different biological properties of Π(X) related to their numbers of RNAs in GenBank’s EST database, their polymerization rate, their number of amino acids and the chirality of amino acids they code. Results suggest that the circular code X with the functions of reading frame retrieval and maintenance in regular RNA transcription, may also have, through its bijective transformation codes Π(X), the same functions in nucleotide exchanging RNA transcription. Associations with properties such as amino acid chirality suggest that the RFR of X and its bijective transformations molded the origins of the genetic code’s machinery.
Protein sequences have higher linguistic complexities than human languages. This indicates undeciphered multilayered, overprinted information/genetic codes. Some superimposed genetic information is revealed by detections of transcripts systematically (a) exchanging nucleotides (nine symmetric, e.g. A<->C, fourteen asymmetric, e.g. A->C->G->A, swinger RNAs) translated according to tri-, tetra- and pentacodons, and (b) deleting mono-, dinucleotides after each trinucleotide (delRNAs). Here analyses of two independent proteomic datasets considering natural proteolysis confirm independently translation of these non-canonical RNAs, also along tetra- and pentacodons, increasing coverage of putative, cryptically encoded proteins. Analyses assume endoproteinase GluC and elastase digestions (cleavages after residues D, E, and A, L, I, V, respectively) detect additional peptides colocalizing with detected non-canonical RNAs. Analyses detect fewer peptides matching GluC-, elastase- than trypsin-digestions: artificial trypsin-digestion outweighs natural proteolysis. Results suggest occurrences of complete proteins entirely matching non-canonical, superimposed encoding(s). Protein-coding after bijective transformations could explain genetic code symmetries, such as along Rumer’s transformation.