Study and theoretical as well as empirical research of the state of water exposed to hydrophylic surfaces
In an experimental study, significantly higher conductivity values than those of freshly prepared chemically analogous solutions were found in aged (~one year old) aqueous solutions, except for those stored frozen. The results surprisingly resemble a previously noticed phenomenon in liquid water, which develops when water is stored in closed vessels. This was observed as a disturbing phenomenon in gravimetric measurements and in luminescence spectroscopy measurements. The phenomenon was termed "autothixotropy of water" due to the weak gel-like behavior which develops spontaneously over time, in which ions seem to play an important role. Here, according to experimental results we propose that contact with hydrophilic surfaces also plays an important role. The role of the "autothixotropy of water" in proton transfer is also discussed.
In our extended experimental work with aqueous solutions of NaHCO3 we noticed higher electrical conductivity in aged solutions in comparison to the conductivity of chemically analogous fresh (one day old) solutions. The phenomenon was found in solutions left undisturbed for longer time (similar to 1 year). Most probably the dissolved ions as well as the contact with hydrophilic surfaces play the essential role. We found that higher conductivity is proportional to higher surface vs. volume ratio.
The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of mechanical and electrical treatment on the electrical conductivity of aqueous solutions. Solutions were treated mechanically by iteration of two steps: 1:100 dilution and vigorous shaking. These two processes were repeated until extremely dilute solutions were obtained. For electrical treatment the solutions were exposed to strong electrical impulses. Effects of mechanical (as well as electrical) treatment could not be demonstrated using electrical conductivity measurements. However, significantly higher conductivity than those of the freshly prepared chemically analogous solutions was found in all aged solutions except for those samples stored frozen. The results surprisingly resemble a previously observed weak gel-like behavior in water stored in closed flasks. We suggest that ions and contact with hydrophilic glass surfaces could be the determinative conditions for the occurrence of this phenomenon.