added 2 research items
Studie Auswirkungen von Feuerwerken auf Vögel
Stickroth, H. (2015): Effects of fireworks on birds – a critical overview. Ber. Vogelschutz 52: 115–149. A critical overview of the effects of fireworks is provided based on observations of 133 fireworks with 272 documented species reactions, divided among 88 taxa (mostly waterbirds and large wading birds, but also birds of prey, crows, etc). The data were compiled using internet and database research as well as surveys among birdwatchers, and subjected to critical evaluation. Lighting fireworks in a wildlife environment represents an anthropogenic disturbance stimulus, which – depending on the type of firework, exposure, distance, and time of year as well as the species-specific and individual sensitivities of the exposed species – can have varying disturbance effects. The birds show physiological reactions (e.g. increased heart rate, stress hormone release, and other metabolic reactions, even if there is no visible reaction), increased vigilance, signs of anxiety and fear (changes in body posture, alarm calls, running around, ducking, intentional movements, etc). The most documented reaction was flight by flying, running or swimming. In extreme cases, young birds jumped or fell out of the nest (e.g. storks, heron). Flight also includes the danger of aftereffects: birds hurt or exhaust themselves; in particular, eggs and young birds become easy prey for predators, have accidents or get lost completely. The mortality risk for young birds also increases when contact with the parental flock is lost during flight (waterbirds, cranes). Flocking bird tends to flee in panic, which comprises a third of all documented flights. In panic, the birds can become disoriented, fly into obstacles and injure themselves; 9 of the 10 documented fatalities were attributable to panics (up to 5,000 individuals). After panic fewer birds returned to their resting place, the length of the absence and anxiety was longer; displaced birds were found at distances of up to 15 km away. Independent of these short-term effects, flight reduces the fitness of individual birds, thus weakening them and making them more susceptible to illness or parasites. Direct hits on birds by firework materials have only been documented at rare occasions. In individual cases they caused the bird's death or injury (mostly burnings). The incidence of hearing damage as a result seems unlikely due to the special anatomy of birds' ears. Birds react to the visual stimuli (flash and light " storm ") as well as to the acoustic stimuli (muffled to loud bangs, shrill whistling sounds) of fireworks. The latter often produced strong reactions and even panic. Waterbirds apparently react more sensitively than birds of prey and mammals. Strengthened reactions were also observed during the hunting season. The manner in which birds are disturbed by pulsating bass, sonic booms and deterrents using pulse detonation technology makes it very likely that birds perceive even the pressure waves from firework explosions as a disturbance stimulus. This perception may occur via the paratympanic organ in the inner ear or via the air sacs. Habituation to the pulse detonation technology apparently does not occur. The simultaneous appearance of various types of stimulus from one and the same source of disturbance (summation) or of identical types of stimulus from different sources (cumulation) has an increased negative effect according to other authors. A series of similar disturbance stimuli and an increase in the rate of disturbances results in sensitizing and, thus, stronger disturbing effects. New Year's Eve fireworks are an exception since they occur over a large area. In the Netherlands during such fireworks, weather radar calculates thousands of birds fleeing up to great heights (up to 500 meters). Conclusions and possible consequences for the handling of fireworks in Germany are briefly outlined.
Stickroth, H. (2015): Effects of fireworks on birds – a critical overview. Appendix to the article in Ber. Vogelschutz 52: 115–149. A critical overview of the effects of fireworks is provided based on observations of 133 fireworks with 272 documented species reactions, divided among 88 taxa (mostly waterbirds and large wading birds, but also birds of prey, crows, etc). The data were compiled using internet and database research as well as surveys among birdwatchers, and subjected to critical evaluation. Table 10 contains the compilation of the cases in this overview.