Stability and bifurcation theory of impulsive functional differential equations
We prove that under fairly natural conditions on the state space and nonlinearities, it is typical for an impulsive differential equation with state-dependent delay to exhibit non-uniqueness of solutions. On a constructive note, we show that uniqueness of solutions can be recovered using a Winston-type condition on the state-dependent delay. Irrespective of uniqueness of solutions, we prove a result on linearized stability. As a specific application, we consider a scalar equation on the positive half-line with continuous-time negative feedback, non-negative state-dependent delayed nonlinearity and impulse effect functional satisfying affine bounds.
We prove that under fairly natural conditions on the state space and nonlinearities, it is typical for an impulsive differential equation with state-dependent delay to exhibit non-uniqueness of solutions. On a constructive note, we show that uniqueness of solutions can be recovered using a Winston-type condition on the state-dependent delay. Irrespective of uniqueness of solutions, we prove a result on linearized stability. As a specific application, we consider a scalar equation on the positive half-line with continuous-time negative feedback, non-negative state-dependent delayed nonlinearity and impulse effect functional satisfying affine bounds
This monograph presents the most recent progress in bifurcation theory of impulsive dynamical systems with time delays and other functional dependence. It covers not only smooth local bifurcations, but also some non-smooth bifurcation phenomena that are unique to impulsive dynamical systems. The monograph is split into four distinct parts, independently addressing both finite and infinite-dimensional dynamical systems before discussing their applications. The primary contributions are a rigorous nonautonomous dynamical systems framework and analysis of nonlinear systems, stability, and invariant manifold theory. Special attention is paid to the centre manifold and associated reduction principle, as these are essential to the local bifurcation theory. Specifying to periodic systems, the Floquet theory is extended to impulsive functional differential equations, and this permits an exploration of the impulsive analogues of saddle-node, transcritical, pitchfork and Hopf bifurcations. Readers will learn how techniques of classical bifurcation theory extend to impulsive functional differential equations and, as a special case, impulsive differential equations without delays. They will learn about stability for fixed points, periodic orbits and complete bounded trajectories, and how the linearization of the dynamical system allows for a suitable definition of hyperbolicity. They will see how to complete a centre manifold reduction and analyze a bifurcation at a nonhyperbolic steady state.
We develop validated numerical methods for the computation of Floquet multipliers of equilibria and periodic solutions of delay differential equations, as well as impulsive delay differential equations. Using our methods, one can rigorously count the number of Floquet multipliers outside a closed disc centered at zero or the number of multipliers contained in a compact set bounded away from zero. We consider systems with a single delay where the period is at most equal to the delay, and the latter two are commensurate. We first represent the monodromy operator (period map) as an operator acting on a product of sequence spaces that represent the Chebyshev coefficients of the state-space vectors. Truncation of the number of modes yields the numerical method, and by carefully bounding the truncation error in addition to some other technical operator norms, this leads to the method being suitable to computer-assisted proofs of Floquet multiplier location. We demonstrate the computer-assisted proofs on two example problems. We also test our discretization scheme in floating point arithmetic on a gamut of randomly-generated high-dimensional examples with both periodic and constant coefficients to inspect the precision of the spectral radius estimation of the monodromy operator (i.e. stability/instability check for periodic systems) for increasing numbers of Chebyshev modes.
A time-delayed SIR model with general nonlinear incidence rate, pulse vaccination and temporary immunity is developed. The basic reproduction number is derived and it is shown that the disease-free periodic solution generically undergoes a transcritical bifurcation to an endemic periodic solution as the vaccination coverage drops below a critical level. Using numerical continuation and a monodromy operator discretization scheme, we track the bifurcating endemic periodic solution as the vaccination coverage is decreased and a Hopf point is detected. This leads to a bifurcation to an attracting, invariant cylinder. As the vaccination coverage is further decreased, the geometry of the cylinder contracts along its length until it finally collapses to a periodic orbit when the vaccination coverage goes to zero. In the intermediate regime, phase locking on the cylinder is observed.
Based on the centre manifold theorem for impulsive delay differential equations, we derive impulsive evolution equations and boundary conditions associated to a concrete representation of the centre manifold in Euclidean space, as well as finite-dimensional impulsive differential equations associated to the evolution on these manifolds. Though the centre manifolds are not unique, their Taylor expansions agree up to prescribed order, and we present an implicit formula for the quadratic term using a variation of the method of characteristics. We use our centre manifold reduction to derive analogues of the saddle-node and Hopf bifurcation for impulsive delay differential equations, and the latter leads to a novel bifurcation pattern to an invariant cylinder. Examples are provided to illustrate the correctness of the bifurcation theorems and to visualize the geometry of centre manifolds in the presence of impulse effects.
In this article, we present a systematic approach to bifurcation analysis of impulsive systems with autonomous or periodic right-hand sides that may exhibit delayed impulse terms. Methods include Lyapunov–Schmidt reduction and center manifold reduction. Both methods are presented abstractly in the context of the stroboscopic map associated to a given impulsive system, and are illustrated by way of two in-depth examples: the analysis of a SIR model of disease transmission with seasonality and unevenly distributed moments of treatment, and a scalar logistic differential equation with a delayed census impulsive harvesting effort. It is proven that in some special cases, the logistic equation can exhibit a codimension two bifurcation at a 1:1 resonance point.
The existence and smoothness of centre manifolds and a reduction principle are proven for impulsive delay differential equations. Several intermediate results of theoretical interest are developed, including a variation of constants formula for linear equations in the phase space of right-continuous regulated functions, linear variational equation and smoothness of the nonautonomous process, and a Floquet theorem for periodic systems. Three examples are provided to illustrate the results.