added 2 research items
Spiritual Care Education and Practice Development – SEP
Aims and objectives: To develop and psychometrically test a self-assessment tool that measures undergraduate nursing and midwifery students' perceptions of spiritual care competence in health care practice. Background: Spiritual care is part of nurses/midwives' responsibility. There is a need to better benchmark students' competency development in spiritual care through their education. The EPICC Spiritual Care Education Standard served as groundwork for the development of the EPICC Spiritual Care Competency Self-Assessment Tool. Design: Cross sectional, mixed methods design. A STROBE checklist was used. Methods: The Tool (available in English, Dutch and Norwegian) was developed by an international group. It was tested between July-October 2020 with a convenience sample of 323 nursing/midwifery students at eight universities in five countries. The Tool was tested for validity using Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, one-way ANOVA and independent samples t test. The reliability was tested by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results: The KMO test for sampling adequacy was 0.90. All, but two, items were related to the same factor. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the Tool was 0.91. Students found the Tool easy to use, and they gained new insights by completing it. However, students felt that some questions were repetitive and took time to complete. Conclusions: The Tool has construct and discriminant validity, and high internal consistency (is reliable). In addition, students found the Tool useful, especially in early stages of education. Relevance to clinical practice: The Tool affords student nurses and midwives the opportunity to self-evaluate their knowledge, skills and attitudes about spirituality and spiritual care. The Tool offers students, educators and preceptors in clinical practice a tangible way of discussing and evaluating spiritual care competency.
Nursing home professionals have reported that spiritual care is an unclear concept, and research suggests that healthcare professionals have a limited understanding of this dimension of care. The provision of spiritual care is well-investigated internationally, but research is sparse within Norway’s secularized society. This study investigated healthcare professionals’ understanding of spiritual care in one nursing home. Methods: Data were collected from individual interviews (N = 8) and one focus group (N = 5) of nursing home personnel; the study used qualitative content analysis and a hermeneutic methodology. Results: One central question emerged during the data analysis: what is spiritual care versus good care? This starting point resulted in four themes (1) caring for the whole person, (2) having a personal touch, (3) seeing the person behind the diagnosis, and (4) more than religiousness. Some healthcare professionals had not heard of spiritual care, and many were not aware of this in their daily work with older patients. Nevertheless, they facilitated and cared for the patient’s spiritual needs, but they did not address it as spiritual care. Other participants were familiar with the concept and understood spiritual care as an essential part of daily care. Conclusion: healthcare professionals’ understanding of spiritual care is broad and varied, including practical and non-verbal aspects. The results indicated a need for an open dialogue about spiritual needs and resources in clinical practice and the teaching of personnel about how to facilitate older people’s spirituality. Moreover, there is a need for more research into spiritual care and how it differs from the concept of good fundamental care.
Spirituality and spiritual care have long been kept separate from patient care in mental health, primarily because it has been associated with psycho-pathology. Nursing has provided limited spiritual care competency training for staff in mental health due to fears that psychoses may be activated or exacerbated if religion and spirituality are addressed. However, spirituality is more broad than religion, including such things as providing non-judgmental presence, attentive listening, respect, and kindness. Unfortunately, healthcare personnel working in mental health institutions are not well prepared to address spiritual concerns or resources of their patients. Therefore, a mixed-method pilot study was conducted using a self-assessment survey tool to examine spiritual care competencies of mental health staff in Norway and to understand the perspectives of mental health staff in the Scandinavian context. Five questions and comments related to survey items provided rich qualitative data. While only a small pilot with 24 participants, this study revealed a need for spiritual care educational materials targeted specifically for those who work in mental health, materials that address the approach of improving attitudes, enhancing skills, and increasing knowledge related to spirituality and spiritual care of patients
Aims and objectives: To map existing evidence about educational interventions or strategies in nursing and allied healthcare concerning students' and staffs' spiritual care provision. Background: Spiritual care is an important part of whole person care, but healthcare staff lack competence and awareness of spiritual issues in practice. To rectify this, it is important to identify what educational approaches are most helpful in supporting them to provide spiritual care. Design: A scoping review using the PRISMA-ScR checklist. Method: Searches in the databases CINAHL, MEDLINE, ATLA and ERIC were conducted for papers spanning January 2009-May 2020. Search terms were related to spirituality, spiritual care, education and clinical teaching. Appraisal tools were used. Results: From the 2128 potentially relevant papers, 36 were included. The studies were from 15 different countries and involved nurses, physicians and other health-related professions, and both quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods were used. The results are presented in three themes: Understanding of spirituality, Strategies in educational settings, and Strategies in practice settings. The review points to great diversity in the content, lengths and setting of the educational interventions or strategies. Conclusions: Courses in spiritual care should be implemented in curricula in both undergraduate and postgraduate education, and several studies suggest it should be mandatory. Courses should also be available for healthcare staff to raise awareness and to encourage the integration of spiritual care into their everyday practice. There is a need for greater consensus about how spirituality and spiritual care are described in healthcare settings. Relevance to clinical practice: Spiritual care must be included both in monodisciplinary and multidisciplinary educational settings. The main result of spiritual care courses is in building awareness of spiritual issues and self-awareness. To ensure the provision of spiritual care for patients in healthcare practices, continuing and multidisciplinary education is recommended.