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Special Issue-Plants Journal: "The Systematics, Morphological, and Molecular Characterization of Economically Important Plant–Parasitic Nematodes"
This is a compilation of articles published in the Special Issue Systematics, Morphological, and Molecular Characterization of Economically Important Plant–Parasitic Nematodes: A Themed Issue in Honor of Dr. Gary Bauchan in Plants. It includes a series of original research (seven) and review articles (four) focused on plant-parasitic nematodes including two new species description, Pratylenchus dakotaensis n.sp. and Xiphinema malaka n. sp. Nematodes are one of the most important pests globally and can cause up to 14% loss of food crops. In total, nematodes cause over $100 billion in global crop damage annually. To date, only a few thousand PPN species have been described. Nematode identification has traditionally relied on morphological and anatomical characters using light microscopy and, in some cases, scanning electron microscopy (SCN). Lately, integrative studies combining molecular diagnosis with morphology and taxonomy are used to accurately identify and describe nematode species. Detailed analyses of morphological and molecular data have both significantly contributed to our overall understanding of the dynamic and complex nature of plant–nematode interactions. We are grateful to all the authors who submitted their work to be included in this special issue.
Root-lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.) of the genus Pratylenchus Filipjev, 1936, are among the most important nematode pests on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), along with soybean cyst and root-knot nematodes. In May 2015 and 2016, a total of six soil samples were collected from a soybean field inWalcott, Richland County, ND and submitted to the Mycology and Nematology Genetic Diversity and Biology Laboratory (MNGDBL), USDA, ARS, MD for analysis. Later, in 2019, additional nematodes recovered from a greenhouse culture on soybean originally from the same field were submitted for further analysis. Males, females, and juveniles of Pratylenchus sp. were recovered from soil and root samples and were examined morphologically and molecularly. DNA from single nematodes were extracted, and the nucleotides feature of three genomic regions targeting on the D2–D3 region of 28S rDNA and ITS rDNA and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COX1) gene were characterized. Phylogeny trees were constructed to ascertain the relationships with other Pratylenchus spp., and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was performed to provide a rapid and reliable differentiation from other common Pratylenchus spp. Molecular features indicated that it is a new, unnamed Pratylenchus sp. that is different from morphologically closely related Pratylenchus spp., including P. convallariae, P. pratensis, P. fallax, and P. flakkensis. In conclusion, both morphological and molecular observations indicate that the North Dakota isolate on soybean represents a new root-lesion nematode species which is named and described herein as Pratylenchus dakotaensis n. sp.
Nematodes are Earth's most numerous multicellular animals and include species that feed on bacteria, fungi, plants, insects, and animals. Foliar nematodes are mostly pathogens of ornamental crops in greenhouses, nurseries, forest trees, and field crops. Nematode identification has traditionally relied on morphological and anatomical characters using light microscopy and, in some cases, scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This review focuses on morphometrical and brief molecular details and key characteristics of some of the most widely distributed and economically important foliar nematodes that can aid in their identification. Aphelenchoides genus includes some of the most widely distributed nematodes that can cause crop damages and losses to agricultural, horticultural, and forestry crops. Morphological details of the most common species of Aphelenchoides (A. besseyi, A. bicaudatus, A. fragariae, A. ritzemabosi) are given with brief molecular details, including distribution, identification, conclusion, and future directions, as well as an updated list of the nominal species with its synonyms. Litylenchus is a relatively new genus described in 2011 and includes two species and one subspecies. Species included in the Litylenchus are important emerging foliar pathogens parasitizing trees and bushes, especially beech trees in the United States of America. Brief morphological details of all Litylenchus species are provided.