Project

Smart Energy Showcase - Digital Agenda for the Energy Transition (SINTEG)

Goal: SINTEG drives forward the development of a smart energy supply:
● to identify flexibility potentials and strengthen sector coupling
● to develop flexibility mechanisms for grids
● to utilise digitisation as enabler and for value-added services in a smart energy system
● to be pioneers of feasible energy transition solutions by using regulatory sandboxes in real-world testing environments, and
● to increase citizen participation by creating insight and awakening passion for an opportunity-oriented energy system transformation.

Project: www.sinteg.de/en/ for more details.
LinkedIn Group: bit.ly/SINTEG-LI
Who-is-Who: www.wirsinteg.de (also in EN)

Date: 1 November 2016 - 31 March 2021

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Project log

Johann Schütz
added a research item
Im Förderprogramm „Schaufenster intelligente Energie – Digitale Agenda für die Energiewende“ (SINTEG) wurden von 2016 bis 2021 in fünf großflächigen Modellregionen übertragbare Ansätze für eine sichere, wirtschaftliche und umweltverträgliche Energieversorgung bei zeitweise 100 % Stromerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energien entwickelt. Die in den Schaufenstern C/sells, DESIGNETZ, enera, NEW 4.0 und WindNODE erprobten Lösungen wurden vom Teilprojekt Ergebnissynthese im SINTEG-Begleitvorhaben unter der Leitung von Guidehouse zusammengeführt. Dabei entstanden Blaupausen in fünf Synthesefeldern, die Anwenderinnen und Anwender in Wirtschaft, Technik und Wissenschaft sowie politische Entscheidungsträgerinnen und -träger ansprechen. Dieser Synthesebericht zum Synthesefeld 3 „Digitalisierung“ stellt die zentralen SINTEG-Ergebnisse in diesem Bereich vor und beschreibt Blaupausen in Bezug auf die Digitalisierung als Enabler, modellbasierte Architekturentwicklung sowie auf die IKT-Systemqualität von Smart Grids.
Georg Vogt
added an update
Programme-wide results are to be presented on 19th of May in Berlin. Registration is free: https://www.sinteg.de/events/sinteg-fachkongress-2022
 
Babu Kumaran Nalini
added a research item
The possibilities to involve small-scale prosumers for ancillary services in the distribution grid through aggregators and local flexibility markets question whether it is profitable for prosumers to oversize proactively. In this analysis, a Python model is developed to identify the cost-optimal operation plan of the PV-battery system and to evaluate the device flexibility. An economic assessment is carried out to derive the cost-benefit of sizing based on the mean electricity price. A sensitivity analysis is performed with the above results to study the profitable sizing of PV-battery systems with flexibility services. The results show a promising advantage of oversizing although limitations prevail with the extent of flexibility services offered.
Marcus Voß
added 2 research items
The increased digitalisation and monitoring of the energy system opens up numerous opportunities to decarbonise the energy system. Applications on low voltage, local networks, such as community energy markets and smart storage will facilitate decarbonisation, but they will require advanced control and management. Reliable forecasting will be a necessary component of many of these systems to anticipate key features and uncertainties. Despite this urgent need, there has not yet been an extensive investigation into the current state-of-the-art of low voltage level forecasts, other than at the smart meter level. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the landscape, current approaches, core applications, challenges and recommendations. Another aim of this paper is to facilitate the continued improvement and advancement in this area. To this end, the paper also surveys some of the most relevant and promising trends. It establishes an open, community-driven list of the known low voltage level open datasets to encourage further research and development.
Katharina Umpfenbach
added a research item
In the "Smart Energy Showcase" programme (SINTEG), more than 300 research institutes and companies in five model regions developed solutions for a future energy system that will be entirely based on renewable energies. The participants not only developed new technologies, processes and market mechanisms, they also proposed changes to the legal framework that would allow those solutions to be scaled up. Commissioned by the Federal Ministry for Economics and Energy that initiated SINTEG, Ecologic Institute just published a systematic overview of the issues addressed in these proposals for regulatory change. Moreover, the report discusses the proposals in the context of the ongoing national energy policy debate. The report is based on a systematic evaluation of the publications by SINTEG participants. It is intended to serve as an orientation for the interested public. Since the proposals address a wide range of very complex individual topics and differ greatly in their level of detail, this report cannot be a surrogate for the individual publications of course. Rather, the aim is to make it easier for all interested parties to get an impression of the proposals' content and to enable quick identification of those publications that are most relevant for the reader’s area of interest. Thematic priorities of regulatory changes proposed in SINTEG The main issue addressed in the SINTEG publications is the provision of flexibility for the market and for the grid – focusing in particular on flexibility platforms as a market-based instrument in congestion management. In addition, the SINTEG participants also developed proposals on the framework for smart meters and control technologies, as well as on enabling digitization in electricity grid operation. In addition, there are individual suggestions for the further development of experimentation clauses, which build on the experience with the SINTEG ordinance – a temporary regulatory sandbox scheme that was put in place specifically for SINTEG participants. Finally, the researchers developed a set of proposals for local marketing of renewable electricity as a tool to increase acceptance of the energy transition. When comparing the SINTEG proposals with the national energy policy debate, it becomes clear that the publications take up many questions that are prominent in the general debate as they are central challenges of energy market regulation. This applies, for example, to options for reforming the grid fee system, to the demand for restructuring charges, levies and taxes that make up a large share of electricity prices in Germany, or to the rules governing how grid operators’ investment and operating costs are accounted for when regulators decide on grid fees. A great added value of the SINTEG results consists in the fact that the perspective of the distribution grids took centre stage in the research process and that grid operators were directly involved. Moreover, research focused on the potential of and the challenges facing decentralised energy plants that have to provide new system services in an energy system based entirely on renewable energies. First testing of market-based flexibility platforms In SINTEG, participants tested market-based flexibility mechanisms to address congestion in the power grid under real conditions and at large scale for the first time. This is a unique feature of the programme. The insights gained and the proposals for regulatory adjustments that build on these insights are an important contribution to the ongoing debate on how flexibility can be stimulated on the supply side and, more importantly, on the demand as well.
Moritz Vogel
added a research item
Die vorliegende Roadmap stellt die enera Lösung für das Stromsystem der Zukunft vor. Sie zeigt, dass die in der Modellregion erprobte Lösung bereits heute positive Effekte im praktischen Einsatz entfalten kann. Außerdem wirft sie einen Blick in die Zukunft und über die Modellregion hinaus. Basierend auf den im Projekt entwickelten enera Szenarien werden mit Hilfe verschiedener Modelle die Effekte der enera Lösung im deutschen Stromsystem der Zukunft betrachtet.
Georg Vogt
added an update
Bald ist es soweit: Im Rahmen der Ergebnissynthese starten die SINTEG-Fachgespräche. Ab 27. Oktober ist eine Reihe von Fachgesprächen geplant, bei der bestimmte Themen der Ergebnisse öffentlich präsentiert und offene Fragen angesprochen werden. Dabei setzt die Ergebnisarbeit vor allem auf Dialog und Transparenz: Alle Interessierten sind daher zur Teilnahme eingeladen.
Bei den Fachgesprächen handelt es sich um ca. 90-minütige Online-Termine. Sie richten sich vor allem an Expertinnen und Experten der Energie- und Digitalisierungsbranche. Ein Ziel ist es, vorliegende Ergebnisse und Blaupausen zu präsentieren und zu reflektieren.
Auf sinteg de findet sich eine aktuelle Übersicht der Termine mit Informationen zur Anmeldung. Los geht es am 27.10. mit den Fachgesprächen zu „Daten- und Serviceplattformen“ (Kategorie: Netzdienliche Flexibilitätsmechanismen) und „Technische und marktliche Partizipationsformen für Haushalte post-SINTEG“ (Kategorie: Partizipation und Akzeptanz)
Wir freuen uns auf Ihre Teilnahme.
 
Moritz Stüber
added a project reference
Dierk Bauknecht
added a research item
Im Arbeitspaket 2.5 wurde ein geeigneter Ordnungs- und Rechtsrahmen zur Umsetzung der C/sells-Leitidee definiert. Im Fokus standen dabei der regulatorische Rahmen sowie das Marktdesign. Im Rahmen des Arbeitspaketes wurden zunächst Anreizwirkungen verschiedener Rahmenbedingungen untersucht. Darauf aufbauend wurden Empfehlungen für die Weiterentwicklung des energiewirtschaftlichen und regulatorischen Rahmens erarbeitet und in Form eines Berichts mit Handlungsempfehlungen aufbereitet.
Christian Hachmann
added a research item
Long lasting black outs of the interconnected electric power system will have a severe impact on economy, private and public life as well as the infrastructure of the power system itself. Especially at very low temperatures, there is the risk of damage to plants and heat networks through freezing. Power system restoration of a domestic distribution grid using plants available at the time of a disturbance is a way to mitigate these risks. This paper describes a feasibility study conducted in cooperation with Städtische Werke Netz + Service GmbH, a municipal DSO operating the distribution (high-, medium-and low voltage) grid in the city of Kassel, Germany. The potential for local supply, the constraints of the current system and required preparations have been investigated. For this purpose, dynamic models of the relevant components were created, partly also validated with actual measurements, and simulations conducted.
Emil Kraft
added 3 research items
Quantity and price risks determine key uncertainties market participants face in electricity markets with increased volatility, for instance due to high shares of renewables. In the time from day-ahead until real-time, there lies a large variation in best available information, such as between forecasts and realizations of uncertain parameters like renewable feed-in and electricity prices. This uncertainty reflects on both the market outcomes and the quantity of renewable generation, making the determination of sound trading strategies across different market segments a complex task. The scope of the paper is to optimize day-ahead and intraday trading decisions jointly for a portfolio with controllable and volatile renewable generation under consideration of risk. We include a reserve market, a day-ahead market and an intraday market in stochastic modeling and develop a multi-stage stochastic Mixed Integer Linear Program. We assess the profitability as well as the risk exposure, quantified by the conditional value at risk metric, of trading strategies following different risk preferences. We conclude that a risk-neutral trader mainly relies on the opportunity of higher expected profits in intraday trading, whereas risk can be hedged effectively by trading on the day-ahead. Finally, we show that reserve market participation implies various rationales, including the relation of expected reserve prices among each other, the relation of expected reserve prices to spot market prices, as well as the relation of the spot market prices among each other.
Andreas Weigand
added a research item
Um die Integration einer großen Anzahl hinzukommender Anlagen, insbesondere elektrischer Mobilität und Wärmebereitstellung, perspektivisch zu bewältigen, müssen bereits heute die Rahmenbedingungen dafür geschaffen werden. Ohne eine frühzeitig angestoßene Integrationsmöglichkeit in eine partizipative Netzführung, ist eine effiziente Bewirtschaftung des volkswirtschaftlichen Guts "Stromnetz" nicht vorstellbar, wie das Verbundprojekt C/sells zeigt.
Andreas Corusa
added a research item
Wir unternehmen mit diesem Werk den Versuch einen Teil der Komplexität des Themas anhand des Knowhows der beitragenden Autoren aus verschiedenen Disziplinen zu vereinen, um nicht nur Neugier des Lesenden zu wecken, sondern auch und um über das Thema Digitalisierung aufzuklären. Dabei besteht das Kompendium aus vier Teilen, die verschieden Herausforderungen der Digitalisierung beleuchten und systematische Einschätzungen sowie mögliche Lösungskonzepte präsentieren, die es aus Unternehmensperspektive zu beachten gibt. Das gesamte Werk stellt nur einen kleinen Teil dieser Herausforderungen dar, thematisiert – unserer Meinung nach – aber besonders relevante: Beitrag 1: Im ersten Beitrag besprechen wir die allgemeine als auch die energiewirtschaftlich geprägte Definitionen von Digitalisierung und beschäftigen uns überdies mit energierelevante Daten, deren Beschaffung und Zugang sowie mögliche datenbasierte Mehrwerte. Beitrag 2: Im zweiten Beitrag wurde der Fokus auf IT‐Management in Energieversorgungsunternehmen gelegt. Es geht um die strukturierte Vorgehensweise digitaler Transformationsprozesse, um einerseits das bestehendes Geschäft adäquat mit IT unterstützen und andererseits durch IT gebotenen Möglichkeiten Potenziale für neue Geschäftsmodelle zu identifizieren und auszuschöpfen. Beitrag 3: Der dritte Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über die rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen von Betreibern kritischer Infrastruktur (KRITIS) und deren Auswirkungen auf die IT‐Sicherheit am Beispiel der Energiewirtschaft. Zum einen wird die derzeitige Sicherheitslage bewertet und zum anderen wird abschätzt, wie durchgängig das Sicherheitsniveau, im Rahmen der steigenden dezentralen Energieerzeugung und zunehmenden Digitalisierung mit intelligenten Technologien, ist. Beitrag 4: Der vierte Beitrag zeigt die praktische Anwendung von Gefährdungsszenarien in der Systementwicklung. Dafür wurde der Anwendungsfall virtuelles Kraftwerke im Rahmen einer Überlastsituation identifiziert und standardisiert erfasst. Auf dieser Basis wurden drei verschiedene Gefährdungsszenarien erfasst und analysiert, so dass systematisch verletzte Schutzziele und Sicherheitsanforderungen identifiziert werden konnten, die dann in einem zu implementierenden System als konkrete Sicherheitsmaßnahmen umgesetzt werden sollten.
Moritz Stüber
added a research item
In the context of smart grids, the need for forecasts of the power output of small-scale photovoltaic (PV) arrays increases as control processes such as the management of flexibilities in the distribution grid gain importance. However, there is often only very little knowledge about the PV systems installed: even fundamental system parameters such as panel orientation, the number of panels and their type, or time series data of past PV system performance are usually unknown to the grid operator. In the past, only forecasting models that attempted to account for cause-and-effect chains existed; nowadays, also data-driven methods that attempt to recognize patterns in past behavior are available. Choosing between physics-based or data-driven forecast methods requires knowledge about the typical forecast quality as well as the requirements that each approach entails. In this contribution, the achieved forecast quality for a typical scenario (day-ahead, based on numerical weather predictions [NWP]) is evaluated for one physics-based as well as five different data-driven forecast methods for a year at the same site in south-western Germany. Namely, feed-forward neural networks (FFNN), long short-term memory (LSTM) networks, random forest, bagging and boosting are investigated. Additionally, the forecast quality of the weather forecast is analyzed for key quantities. All evaluated PV forecast methods showed comparable performance; based on concise descriptions of the forecast approaches, advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. The approaches are viable even though the forecasts regularly differ significantly from the observed behavior; the residual analysis performed offers a qualitative insight into the achievable forecast quality in a typical real-world scenario.
Johann Schütz
added a research item
The usage of the IEC 62559-2 Use Case Template yields several benefits beyond the standardized and structured descriptions of Smart Grid-related Use Cases. Correctly applied and combined with complementary methodologies, it allows additional analysis of the Smart Grid Architecture in order to assess, compare and, consequentially, to improve architectural decisions.
Anna Halbig Dr.
added a research item
Mit der vorliegenden Studie werden die Neuerungen im europäischen und nationalen Rechtsrahmen bezüglich des Beschaffungsverfahrens von Blindleistung seit Erlass der Elektrizitätsbinnenmarkt-Richtlinie im Jahr 2019 dargestellt und bewertet. Änderungen ergaben sich insbesondere auf-grund der unionsrechtlich erstmals vorgeschriebenen Pflicht zur marktgestützten, transparenten und diskriminierungsfreien Beschaffung von Blindleistung.
Daniela Wohlschlager
added a research item
Im Rahmen des BMWi-geförderten SINTEG-Projektes „C/sells“ entwickelt die FfE gemeinsam mit dem Verteilnetzbetreiber Bayernwerk mit dem Altdorfer Flexmarkt (ALF) ein Konzept zur netzdienlichen Nutzung dezentraler Flexibilität. Für die praktische Erprobung werden dezentrale Anlagen von 20 „Flexumern“ mit intelligenten Messsystemen ausgestattet (iMSys). Als Bestandteil des Feldversuchs werden partizipative Ansätze und Aspekte zur Akzeptanzförderung integriert. In ihrer projektweiten Aufgabe der sog. „Partizipationsarbeit“ unterstützt und berät die Smart Grids-Plattform BadenWürttemberg bei der Ansprache und Gewinnung von Teilnehmer*innen. Partizipation wird als eines der Schlagworte genutzt, wenn es um akzeptanzfördernde Maßnahmen zur Umsetzung der Energiewende geht. Die Begriffe „Partizipation“ und „Akzeptanz“ werden häufig ohne genauere Betrachtung verwendet – so wird bspw. von „Akzeptanz“ gesprochen, wenn z.B. „Duldung“ gemeint ist oder Partizipationsmaßnahmen als Mechanismus zur „Akzeptanzbeschaffung“ gesehen. Eine systematische Analyse des Vorgehens und korrekte Nutzung der Begriffe „Partizipation“ und „Akzeptanz“ sind im Hinblick auf die den Begriffen inhärenten Erwartungen unumgänglich. Entsprechend sind bei der praktischen Anwendung partizipativer Ansätze die gewählte Form und das Ausmaß partizipativer Elemente ausschlaggebende Faktoren für eine erfolgreiche Umsetzung.
Hans Schäfers
added a research item
Recent EU legislation enforces the integration of European balancing markets. While the harmonization of products and the introduction of international platforms for the procurement and activation of reserves is proceeding, different power balancing strategies remain. The Netherlands and Belgium publish real-time information about demand and prices of balancing reserves. Market participants are encouraged to balance the control block supplementing balancing energy. This article refers to such concepts as Smart Balancing. Currently, Germany does not provide operational information about the control block in real-time. Instead it promotes good scheduling. Occurring imbalances are compensated by the activation of balancing energy only. The Smart Balancing model was developed in order to simulate the potential behavior of market participants for different balancing strategies in Germany. Results obtained from simulation runs indicate that Smart Balancing can significantly reduce the activation of balancing energy in Germany and support market participants to optimize their portfolios and generate profit from real-time balancing. In conclusion this article proposes a road map for Germany to introduce an adapted Smart Balancing approach, starting with a simple traffic light.
Daniela Wohlschlager
added a research item
Der von der deutschen Bundesregierung beschlossene Rollout intelligenter Messsysteme (iMSys) gilt als „Ermöglicher“ der Energiewende, da sie den Grundbaustein einer Koordination von zunehmend dezentraler Erzeugung und steigender Anzahl elektrischer Verbraucher darstellt. Zudem stellt die Digitalisierung ein Werkzeug zur aktiven Teilnahme bisher klassischer Letztverbraucher am Energiesystem dar. Zugleich bringt die Digitalisierung der Infrastruktur jedoch einen Ressourcen- und Energieverbrauch mit sich. Im Rahmen der Analyse erfolgt eine ökologische Bewertung der über den Lebenszyklus benötigten Infrastruktur am Beispiel von zwei ausgewählten „Use Cases“: neben dem Prosumer wird der Anwendungsfall eines sog. Flexumers jeweils im Vergleich zum konventionellen Letztverbraucher untersucht. Der Fokus liegt auf der Quantifizierung der im Laufe des Lebenszyklus verursachten Treibhausgase und weiteren Emissionen sowie dem Bedarf an fossilen Rohstoffen. Im Zuge der angewandten „ICT Enablement Methodology“ werden zudem sogenannte Enablement- und Rebound-Effekte qualitativ untersucht. Die vergleichende Analyse zeigt in beiden Anwendungsfällen sowohl eine Erhöhung der direkten Emissionen als auch der Ressourcenintensität. Identifizierte Enablement-Effekte zeigen ein maßgebliches Potenzial für einen Beitrag zur Energiewende, welches berechnete Umweltauswirklungen übersteigt. Dabei müssen jedoch Rebound-Effekte verhindert werden.
Birgit Haller
added a research item
Over three hundred people spent four years researching and implementing solutions for the digital energy revolution. This book reports on the discoveries made, as well as on the sometimes rocky, but always inspiring, journey to achieve them. This book is written by the researchers – the same people who are behind C/sells – so we, the authors, are not professional writers. Nevertheless – or perhaps precisely because of this – we hope that this book will inspire more people to embrace the energy revolution and turn them into climate protection entrepreneurs. This book is aimed at citizens, mayors, entrepreneurs, and politicians.
Georg Vogt
added an update
The set of short self-standing articles are grouped in sections for participation, smart grids , flexibility, digitisation & new business models.
Authors among many others: Simon Albrecht Dierk Bauknecht.
Do you search for energy transition experts also in business? Visit https://wirsinteg.de
 
Georg Vogt
added an update
#WindNODE publishes internal result summary on "Flexibility, Market and Regulation":
* Specific use of #flexibility in practice * Theoretical flexibility in the region * New market mechanisms for acquisition of flexibility * Analysis of regulatory framework and suggestions for development
Authors are among others: Severin Beucker Hendrik Kondziella
 
Severin Beucker
added 3 research items
Renewable electricity from wind and solar is on the rise and, consequently, flexible energy consumption and the conversion of electricity into heat or mobility are becoming valid options for integrating fluctuating energy production into the grid. This is a particular challenge for the building sector since it has a high energy demand but often steady and predictable consumption patterns. The authors present results from a case study in Germany in which flexible consumption of energy and the conversion of renewable electricity into heat were tested and evaluated in a smart residential neighborhood. A prerequisite for the study is an interoperable ICT infrastructure that connects smart buildings to flexible energy markets. The case study allows conclusions to be drawn about the technical applicability and economic viability of these solutions as well as about the CO2 emissions saved as a result of flexible energy consumption. Finally, a brief analysis of a large-scale application of flexibility in the building sector is included
Simon Voswinkel
added a research item
Strongly increasing costs of congestion management have provoked a discussion in Europe about new approaches to solve grid congestions in a more efficient way. One approach is to design flexibility markets. In this paper we focus on the effects of subsidies for renewable energy on the market outcome of a flexibility market. We show that subsidies can cause market distortions and lead to an inefficient selection of flexibility options to solve grid congestions. We propose the implementation of side payments together with price caps and uniform pricing to achieve an efficient market design. Ultimately choosing between flexibility markets with and without side payments involves a tradeoff between minimizing system costs and maximizing renewable infeed. Our analysis provides the framework for a conscious political choice on that subject.
Aljoscha Dietrich
added a research item
After over a decade of research into the privacy of smart meters, the sensitivity of an individual household’s fine-grained energy readings is undisputed. A plethora of research contributions aim at protecting the privacy of end users while at the same time providing the energy supplier (and others) with sufficient data for safe operation, billing, and also forecasting purposes. The transmission of fine-grained readings is generally considered acceptable as long as they cannot be linked to the households they originate from (i.e., anonymized readings). Mart ́ınez et al. just recently pointed out that the typical provision of aggregated readings at the end of a billing period could compromise this anonymity, as the individual readings must sum up to the respective aggregate. In this short paper, we complement their research by examining the privacy implications of published aggregates of previously anonymized energy readings: We simulate attacks on a real world data set (Smart*), particularly investigating the implications of different parameter combinations such as aggregation group sizes, considered time spans, and reading precision to gain insights into theoretic risks, e.g., from an incautious choice of parameters.
Gerd Wessolek
added a research item
Die Dimension des Gesamtvorhabens SuedLink stellt die Vorhabenträger TenneT und TransnetBW vor neue Herausforderungen. Sie betreffen vor allem die Länge der Stromverbindung und die Querung von unterschiedlichen Naturräumen und Infrastrukturen. Diese Räume unterscheiden sich durch verschiedene Ausprägungen in Geologie, Boden­, Nutzungs- und Wasserverhältnissen und berühren ganz unmittelbar die Interessen der Flächeneigentümer und -nutzer aus den Bereichen Landwirtschaft, Forstwirtschaft, Ökologie und Naturschutz sowie Verkehrs- und Wegebau. Die Vielzahl der örtlich bedingten Unterschiede und Interessenslagen beim Bau des SuedLinks hat zur Folge, dass allgemeingültige Aussagen basierend auf bisherigen Erfahrungen nur bedingt möglich sind. Dies führt zu breiter Kritik, vornehmlich von land- und forstwirtschaftlichen Behörden und Verbandsvertretern, die ihre ortsbezogenen Belange bzgl. Bodenschutz, Nutzungsauswirkungen und -einschränkungen nicht ausreichend berücksichtigt sehen. Aus diesen Gründen haben seit Beginn der Planung für das HGÜ-Erdkabelvorhaben SuedLink die TenneT TSO GmbH und die TransnetBW GmbH den Kontakt zu renommierten Wissenschaftlern gesucht, um den wissenschaftlichen Ansprüchen und Herausforderungen für den Bau des SuedLinks gerecht zu werden. In diesem Projekt werden verschiedene Studien vorgestellt, die sich hauptsächlich mit Bodenfunktionen und deren Auswirkungen auf den Wärmehaushalts des Bodens in Erdkabelumgebung beschäftigen. In der ersten Auflage wird zu Beginn ein technischer Überblick zum Einbau von erdverlegten HGÜ-Kabeln gegeben und in den weiteren Kapiteln hydraulische Einflüsse und der Einfluss bestimmter Nutzpflanzen thematisiert. Außerdem wird die Thermische Bodenclusterung vorgestellt, mit deren Hilfe physikalische Bodeneigenschaften und klimatische Bedingungen für das komplette Untersuchungsgebiet des Erdkabelvorhabens SuedLink georeferenziert betrachtet werden können. Damit können Ansätze und Antworten bezüglich verschiedener bodenkundlicher Fragestellungen zu den Interaktionen des Erdkabelsystems SuedLink mit der Kabelumgebung aufgezeigt werden. In den folgenden Auflagen dieser Studiensammlung sollen weitere in diesem Kontext durchgeführten Studien, vorgestellt werden, um so ein umfassenderen Einblick in das System Boden mit HGÜ-Erdkabel zu leisten.
Adrian Ostermann
added a research item
In course of the German energy transition, congestion management measures like redispatch, feed-in management and the dispatch of reserve power plants have increased both in frequency and in volume. In this paper, an empirical cause analysis is conducted to shed some light on the correlation between renewable energy generation, the transnational electricity markets and these measures. For this purpose, a methodology is developed to synthesize a single time series of curtailed energy from heterogeneous data published by German DSOs. The analysis shows a strong correlation between both wind generation in Germany as well as the scheduled trade with Austria. Furthermore, four distinctive systems states were identified using a k-means++ cluster algorithm and described in detail, allowing further insights into those coherences and their future development.
Parantapa Sawant
added a research item
Optimisation based economic despatch of real-world complex energy systems demands reduced order and continuously differentiable component models that can represent their part-load behaviour and dynamic responses. A literature study of existing modelling methods and the necessary characteristics the models should meet for their successful application in model predictive control of a polygeneration system are presented. Deriving from that, a rational modelling procedure using engineering principles and assumptions to develop simplified component models is applied. The models are quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated against experimental data and their efficacy for application in a building automation and control architecture is established.
Swantje Gährs
added a research item
The Designetz project demonstrates how to ensure greater flexibility in the demand for electricity and heat and how to integrate appropriate technical solutions into the energy system. However, not every technically possible potential can be realized in practice. It also depends on the players who adapt their energy consumption more closely to actual supply and thus "offer" flexibility. But which factors influence the acceptance of the necessary technical interventions, who finances them and who ultimately benefits from them? And what do promising value propositions look like? The project has investigated these questions for households, industry and agriculture - the non-energy suppliers of flexibility - in selected demonstration projects of Designetz. The project seeked to find out how such flexibility offers can be designed technically and economi-cally and how the actors can be involved in the process. To this end, the project team first identified influencing factors from the literature and through interviews with experts from the demonstration projects that could hamper or foster a flexibilization of the demand for electricity and heat. A central goal was to show which acceptance factors have the greatest influence and which needs and re-quirements in the user groups are linked to these factors. To this end, the team conducted interviews, focus groups, workshops and surveys in several demonstration projects of Designetz. What all user groups had in common was that they were able to experience directly in their demonstration projects how flexibilization is technically implemented and what effects this can have on their everyday life or work processes. It became clear: Develop-ing sustainable business models that promote flexibilization depends not only on the regulatory and economic framework conditions but also on the extent to which those who provide flexibility benefit from it.
Dierk Bauknecht
added 2 research items
Once transitions progress beyond the startup phase, niche technologies diffuse more widely to generate important knock-on effects in the focal sector. With this comes a need for moving beyond nurturing niches to embracing a 'whole system perspective'. In the case of the power sector, a whole systems view puts the role of electricity networks more central. This paper analyses how the governance of power networks is challenged by the pending renewable energy transitions. We integrate insights from network regulation studies and transition studies to propose a framework for understanding how energy transition challenges current regulatory thinking and practice. We use the framework for assessing recent attempts at regulatory innovation by the Norwegian network regulator. The paper shows how the established toolbox of network regulation can be amended to tackle innovation and transition. The Norwegian case shows that the network regulator does take up the challenges resulting from the energy transition. Yet it also shows the difficulties of making these new instruments effective. A key issue is the tension between a strong focus on cost-efficiency in the existing regulatory framework, on the one hand, and transformative change on the other.
This paper deals with regulatory experiments as a way to develop and test in practice new regulatory options as an important contribution to sustainability transitions. This is set against the background of the role of experiments in transition studies, in political science as well as a legal perspective of innovations in law. The paper presents a typology of four different types of experiments with different roles for regulation, including practical examples. A key issue is whether regulation only provides the background for technical pilots or whether regulation itself becomes the main object of an experiment. For this latter type, which is under-researched so far, the paper introduces the Regulatory Innovation Zone (RIZ) as a concept for experimenting with regulation. Originally developed in the context of Smart Grids, it can be applied to other fields. The concept is discussed with regard to the concrete design options and implementation challenges of regulatory experiments.
Julian Huber
added a research item
Battery electric vehicles do not emit CO 2 from an internal combustion engine but can cause emissions while charging electricity generated by remote fossil power plants. Smart charging offers the possibility to reduce carbon dioxide emissions (CO 2) by shifting the charging sessions to moments with lower emissions in power generation. However, this requires the battery electric vehicle user to accept postponed charging and a system to shift charging towards times with lower CO 2 emissions. This requires a forecast of the marginal emission factors of the energy system. While marginal emission factors are often used to evaluate CO 2 saving potentials of smart charging in long-term scenarios, there is little insight on the saving potentials of individual charging sessions in the short run. We derive marginal emission factors for Germany in 2017 using an established regression model and generate short-term predictions of marginal emission factors using a multilayer perception (MLP). The forecasts can provide feedback to drivers and allow scheduling for CO 2 efficient smart charging. Comparison between this approach and immediate charging throughout a year in the German power system allows calculating the CO 2 saving potentials of the system. The results show that marginal emission factors in Germany depend on the system's load with peak load levels having the smallest marginal emission factors. Using average instead of marginal emission factors, can result in misinformation and even increase emissions. We propose forecasts of marginal emission factors that rely on short-term load forecasts and are accurate enough to obtain substantial saving in CO 2 emissions from 1 % to 10 % depending on the charging parameters. While using this approach as a smart charging algorithm would result in increasing peak loads, the methodology might be a way to provide BEV users with real-time feedback of their charging behaviour and increase their willingness to postpone charging.
Erik Heilmann
added a research item
With the growing role of distributed energy resources, the electricity network is challenged by numerous technical problems, such as capacity congestion and over-or under-voltage. An often-discussed response, especially in the European zonal electricity system, is to implement regional flexibility markets. We contribute to this discussion by providing a comprehensive classification framework for the design of flexibility products by combining technical requirements with classical auction theory. The framework structures 23 product parameters in four stages of abstraction. By applying the framework to five market approaches used in current German research projects, we demonstrate its usefulness for consistent comparison of flexibility products at a high level of detail. This framework can empower national and international policymakers and practitioners in assessing flexibility markets holistically, thereby facilitating the implementation of sound solutions.
Georg Vogt
added a research item
Das einzigartige Netzwerk von SINTEG erhalten An SINTEG wirkten rund 2,000 Expertinnen und Experten mit. In diesem Rahmen haben viele Personen miteinander gesprochen und gearbeitet, die sich sonst nicht kennengelernt hätten. Das Who-is-Who bietet Ihnen eine Bühne und macht Sie international auffindbar: wirSINTEG.de. Ihre aktuellen Kontaktdetails verbleiben auf den verlinkten Seiten, somit bleibt der Aufwand minimal. Auf ResearchGate sammeln wir alle Veröffentlichungen (aktuell >460): bit.ly/SINTEG-RG. Fehlen Sie oder eine Publikation? Leiten Sie den Link/Datei formlos an die Kontakte und empirica macht den Rest. Auf LinkedIn steht ein nachhaltiger Kommunikationskanal bereit: bit.ly/SINTEG-LI. Kommunizieren Sie über Schaufenstergrenzen hinweg und werben geeignete Partner für Projektideen. Mehr Details finden Sie im Poster (A4, für Druck geeignet), welches auf der Infostand Seite anwählbar ist. Bei Interesse einfach die Kontaktpersonen ansprechen, auf den Plattformen oder sinteg@empirica.com anschreiben.
Andreas Zeiselmair
added a research item
The evolving granularity and structural decentralization of the energy system leads to a need for new tools for the efficient operation of electricity grids. Local Flexibility Markets (or "Smart Markets") provide platform concepts for market based congestion management. In this context there is a distinct need for a secure, reliable and tamper-resistant market design which requires transparent and independent monitoring of platform operation. Within the following paper different concepts for blockchain-based documentation of relevant processes on the proposed market platform are described. On this basis potential technical realizations are discussed. Finally, the implementation of one setup using Merkle tree operations is presented by using open source libraries.
Georg Vogt
added an update
Link to your RG-profile on a central resource - find colleagues and partners from all showcases for new projects: www.wirsinteg.de
 
Farzad Sarfarazi
added 2 research items
In decentralized energy systems, electricity generated and flexibility offered by households can be organized in the form of community energy systems. Business models, which enable this aggregation at the community level, will impact on the involved actors and the electricity market. For the case of Germany, in this paper different aggregation scenarios are analyzed from the perspective of actors and the market. The main components in these scenarios are the Community Energy Storage (CES) technology, the electricity tariff structure, and the aggregation goal. For this evaluation, a bottom-up community energy system model is presented, in which the households and retailer are the key actors. In our model, we distinguish between the households with inflexible electricity load and the flexible households that own a heat pump or Photovoltaic (PV) storage systems. By using a game-theoretic approach and modeling the interaction between the retailer and households as a Stackelberg game, a community real-time pricing structure is derived. To find the solution of the modeled Stackelberg game, a genetic algorithm is implemented. To analyze the impact of the aggregation scenarios on the electricity market, a "Market Alignment Indicator" is proposed. The results show that under the considered regulatory framework, the deployment of a CES can increase the retailer's operational profits while improving the alignment of the community energy system with the signals from the electricity market. Depending on the aggregation goal of the retailer, the implementation of community real-time pricing could lead to a similar impact. Moreover, such a tariff structure can lead to financial benefits for flexible households.
Distributed generation is one of the pillars of the energy transition in Germany, Europe, and around the world. Recent studies have underpinned several technical, social, and economic benefits of using Community Energy Storage systems (CES) for the aggregation of the rising number of so-called prosumers. Looking at the German electricity market and using an agent-based approach, we investigate how the deployment of CES impacts the electricity market prices and the integration of renewable energies in the market. The agent-based-model AMIRIS is used to simulate the profit and autarky maximizing operation of CES business models. The results show that the usage of CES reduces the need for curtailment of renewable energies in the market. The positive impacts are less significant if the CES is merely used to increase the autarky of energy communities.
Michel Zade
added a research item
The adoption of electric vehicles is incentivized by governments around the world to decarbonize the mobility sector. Simultaneously, the continuously increasing amount of renewable energy sources and electric devices such as heat pumps and electric vehicles leads to congested grids. To meet this challenge, several forms of flexibility markets are currently being researched. So far, no analysis has calculated the actual flexibility potential of electric vehicles with different operating strategies, electricity tariffs and charging power levels while taking into account realistic user behavior. Therefore, this paper presents a detailed case study of the flexibility potential of electric vehicles for fixed and dynamic prices, for three charging power levels in consideration of Californian and German user behavior. The model developed uses vehicle and mobility data that is publicly available from field trials in the USA and Germany, cost-optimizes the charging process of the vehicles, and then calculates the flexibility of each electric vehicle for every 15 min. The results show that positive flexibility is mostly available during either the evening or early morning hours. Negative flexibility follows the periodic vehicle availability at home if the user chooses to charge the vehicle as late as possible. Increased charging power levels lead to increased amounts of flexibility. Future research will focus on the integration of stochastic forecasts for vehicle availability and electricity tariffs.
Georg Vogt
added a research item
Der vorliegende Bericht bietet mit Stand Juli 2020 eine aktuelle Übersicht über die bisher in den SINTEG-Schaufenstern , sowie in der AG „Energieberufe“ (2017 – 2018) erzielten Ergebnisse zu Bildungs-/Weiterbildungsangeboten, Angebots- und Bedarfsanalysen, Online-Lernplattformen sowie Ausführungen zu der Evaluation und Qualitätssicherung von Bildungsangeboten; zusätzlich erhält er einem Ausblick auf mögliche weitere Aktivitäten und mögliche Umsetzungsprojekte.
Anna Halbig Dr.
added a research item
Die Studie Sie erörtert zunächst, unter welchen Voraussetzungen die Netzausbaupflicht nicht mehr nur physische Maßnahmen, sondern auch digitale Lösungen verlangt und geht dann darauf ein, wie Digitalisierungskosten bei den Netzentgelten berücksichtigt werden können, ob der dafür geltende Rechtsrahmen die materiellen Anforderungen des EEG an die Kapazitätserweiterung unterstützt oder eher behindert und welche Änderungen insoweit ggf. erforderlich sind bzw. diskutiert werden.
Elisabeth Dütschke
added a research item
The present study investigates motives, barriers, and expectations of investors in photovoltaic systems (PV), and households that justifiably de¬cided against investing (non-investors). The Photovoltaic Systems Acceptance Model (PVSAM), with its investment motives Benefits (Financial, Economic, Social, Environmental, Autar¬chy) and Overall Costs, served as theoretical basis. It was expanded based on literature by specific costs and technological interest. A qualitative inter¬view study (N = 22), explores if the expansions help explain investment decisions in PV. Except for the Social and Economic Benefit, all PVSAM motives prove to contribute to the investment decision. Study participants have a more nu¬anced view of the Financial Benefit: Investors perceive the Benefit of Investment, the possibility to make money with PV, as high. Non-investors perceive the Benefit of Subventions, that is receiv¬ing subventions, as low but important for the investment decision. Investors and non-inves¬tors differ most along Specific Costs (Operation, Information, Installation, Expenses), and technologi¬cal interest: Investors find these costs low, non-in¬vestors high, and investors have more techno¬logical interest. For all variables, their subjective importance and their perception, that is their per¬ceived characteristic values, are distinguished. For example, all participants deem autarchy through PV important, while it is perceived to be low. Based on the results, an expanded PVSAM is proposed. To promote PV, efficient storage systems could enable autarchy, indepen¬dent information centres could to reduce infor¬mation costs, and feedback-apps could empha¬sise the contribution of PV to environmental conservation. Die vorliegende Studie untersucht Motive, Barrieren und Erwartungen im Kontext von Investitionsentscheidungen für Photovoltaik-Anlagen (PV). Betrachtet werden Haushalte mit PV (InvestorInnen) und Haushalte, die sich begründet gegen PV entschieden haben (Nicht-InvestorInnen). Theoriegrundlage bildet das Photovoltaic Systems Acceptance Model (PVSAM) mit den Motiven Benefits (Financial, Economic, Social, Environmental, Autarchy) und Overall Costs. Dieses wird literaturbasiert um Specific Costs und Technological Interest erweitert. Eine qualitative Interviewstudie (N=22) exploriert den Beitrag der Erweiterungen zur Erklärung der Investitionsentscheidung, Empfehlungen für Theorieentwicklung und Förderung von PV. Außer dem Social und Economic Benefit erweisen sich alle Motive des PVSAM als wichtig für die Investitionsentscheidung. Teilnehmende betrachten den Financial Benefit nuancierter: InvestorInnen sehen einen hoch ausgeprägten Benefit of Investment, die Erzielung von Einnahmen mit PV. Nicht-InvestorInnen finden den Benefit of Subventions, den Erhalt von Subvention, niedrig ausgeprägt, jedoch wichtig für die Investitionsentscheidung. InvestorInnen und Nicht-InvestorInnen unterscheiden sich besonders bezüglich Specific Costs (Operation, Information, Installation, Expenses) und Technological Interest: InvestorInnen finden diese Kosten eher gering, Nicht-InvestorInnen hoch und InvestorInnen sind technisch interessierter. Alle Variablen werden unterschieden in ihre subjektive Wichtigkeit (Importance) und wahrgenommene Ausprägung (Perception). So ist allen Teilnehmenden Autarkie durch PV wichtig, deren wahrgenommene Ausprägung ist jedoch niedrig. Auf Grundlage der Ergebnisse wird ein erweitertes PVSAM vorgeschlagen. Um PV zu fördern, könnten leistungsfähige Speicher Autarkie ermöglichen, unabhängige Beratungsstellen Informationskosten verringern und Feedback-Apps den Umweltschutzbeitrag von PV hervorheben.
Georg Vogt
added an update
To reach out to the vast range of industry partners including those experienced and able to run SINTEG and future demo-sites, join the SINTEG LinkedIn group: http://bit.ly/SINTEG-LI - as of now >130 members.
 
Anke Weidlich
added a research item
Energy autonomy, the desire to become independent from a centralised supply system, is a core motivation for the development of decentralised energy systems, even if it does not have tangible economic or ecological benefits. For the case of electricity, we introduce a regional system model which optimises the capacity expansion and operation of photovoltaics and battery storage. We quantify cost-efficient regional degrees of electricity autonomy for 166 regions in Southern Germany and assess how increasing the degree of autonomy beyond the optimal level affects the economic viability of a decentralised electricity system. We find that the average optimal degree of autonomy reached is 44%. Thus, our results show that a substantial increase of photovoltaic capacity is economically beneficial in all the regions examined. However, achieving a predefined degree of autonomy causes additional costs for the region and results in a large overcapacity, while all regions still rely on the superordinate electricity system to some extent.
Georg Vogt
added a project reference
Gerd Wessolek
added a research item
The development of new underground cables have to be designed to withstand high volatile current loads and they should be designed in an ecological acceptable way. Thus we used i) experimental lab data, ii) complex monitoring data of the new 110 kV Oderland route, and iii) calibrated numerical models for predicting soil temperature, soil moisture, crop yield and nitrogen cycle. The results enable real time monitoring of the cable temperature for an efficient operational management and optimal use of the transfer capacity of grids as well as an assessment with regard to ecological factors.
Babu Kumaran Nalini
added 2 research items
With the increasing share of renewable energy, alternative methods are ought to provide power system ancillary services to ensure the stable operation of the electricity grids. Recent research have inclined their interests towards the aggregation of the small-scale system flexibility potentials to accommodate the grid variations. Literature has shown the advancements for local flexibility markets (LFMs) that allow prosumers participation. In order to allow prosumers to interact with the LFMs and submit their bids, a flexibility estimation is required. This research proposes an open-source flexibility estimation model that quantifies all possible flexibilities from the available prosumer devices.
Marian Süße
added a research item
The current challenges for enterprises are heavily linked to resource and energy efficiency, a result of political guidelines and the overall consciousness for environmental issues in society. Thus, the impact of energy efficiency on factory planning and production planning is of undeniable importance. Adequate consumption information utilising various depiction methods has become a necessity in this respect. Yet, only few works provide information on the efficiency of energy data acquisition methods. This paper proposes a methodological framework for defining an efficient procedure for energy data acquisition in accordance with the depiction or prognosis method. A preliminary literature review indicates the variety of methods for energy data depiction and prognosis. The classification of these methods regarding planning state and planning levels leads to the estimation of relevant input data. Based on the fundamental investigation of necessary input data the decision approach is developed with a general heuristic decision model and incorporates the Analytic Hierarchy Process for quantification and solution of the overall decision problem. Therefore the integration of multiple decision criteria enables the consideration of different quantitative and qualitative influences. As a result the whole approach supports the collaborative identification of means for energy data acquisition and is applicable in several circumstances where energy data needs to be gathered efficiently. The decision procedures exemplary application has shown the general proficiency of the approach and that excessive data acquisition which contradicts efficiency is avoidable.
Babu Kumaran Nalini
added 2 research items
Increasing integration of renewables can cause congestion and power grid instability. Recent congestion management studies have shown the possibilities to offer flexibility with distributed energy resources (DERs) and the need for flexibility market platforms. This paper presents a flexibility model for a combination of photovoltaics and battery storage system. This model takes different forecast data as inputs and performs an optimization to obtain a cost optimal operational plan. Any deviation that a DER could offer from this optimal plan is considered as its flexibility potential. The model outputs a list of flexibility offers. In addition, this paper details the different possibilities of offering positive and negative flexibility with a novel offer pricing strategy. The model re-optimizes itself to a new optimal operation plan once a desired flexibility bid is chosen. Two case studies are discussed in this paper to substantiate the successful implementation.
Aljoscha Dietrich
added a research item
Der deutsche Gesetzgeber hat in kurzer Zeit gleich zwei Artikelgesetze verabschiedet, wel- che auf die Verbesserung der IT-Sicherheit und den Schutz kritischer Infrastrukturen (KRITIS) abzielen. Zur selben Zeit findet ein großer Wandel im Energiesektor (Teil von KRITIS) statt. Die Einführung intelligenter Stromnetze und -zähler ist beschlossen; die Umsetzung wird be- reits erprobt. Der Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über neue gesetzliche Anforderungen (u.a. IT- Sicherheitsgesetz und NIS-Richtlinie) im Kontext intelligenter Netze/Zähler sowie technische Lösungen für damit verbundene Datenschutzprobleme.
Georg Vogt
added a project reference
Jan-Philipp Exner
added a research item
In the light of the German national energy system transformation, the so-called “Energiewende”, the requirements for a sustainable energy supply based on renewables are very complex. To address this topic, the project Designetz develops approaches to test how decentralized renewable energy sources and the need for electrical energy can affect the respective network infrastructure levels and how an intelligent information communication technology (ICT) infrastructure can look like, to meet the demands of the energy network of the future, also in the context of smart cities. First results indicate that a transformation towards an increasingly decentralized energy supply is necessary and, particularly in view of the volatility, demands corresponding requirements of the ICT infrastructure. It will be shown how the classic producer-consumer constellation is changed and a multitude of prosumers, i.e. actors, who are both producers and consumers of electricity, arise, and how they can be integrated into the grid structure. Core functionalities will be demonstrated with an integrated data and service platform which also allows the possible integration of supplementary services. In addition, the potential interdependencies from a more decentralized energy network towards regional and urban planning patterns will be assessed.
Claudia Caro-Ruiz
added a research item
Green smart factories will be one of the key elements of the future smart grids. They will play an active role in managing the volatility of power generated by renewable energy sources (RES). In order to do that, the green smart factories must set up energy management systems to control the production processes according to both the on-site power generation by RES and external signals sent by the system operators. The aim of the study is to size energy storage systems and production buffer stocks as the flexibility options, allowing the highest integration of power generated by volatile energy within a manufacturing system. The concept of the net zero energy factory is considered. Algorithms for coordinating the flexibility options optimally have been developed. These algorithms are based on mixed-integer linear programming and aim to maximize the matching between RES power generation and flexible demand. A case study is used to verify the framework results. Key performance indices, such as the system self-sufficiency index and the system self-consumption index have been considered for evaluating the solutions developed. Finally, sensitivity analysis has been performed to assess the robustness of the solutions found.
Georg Vogt
added a project reference
Anke Weidlich
added a research item
Flexible household devices, such as heat pumps combined with thermal energy storage or battery energy storage units, can provide flexibility to the electricity sector. However, to make flexibility available to the market, it has to be correctly quantified, and its cost has to be estimated. In this work, a methodology for generic flexibility quantification is proposed and developed in a Python environment using model predictive control. The chosen methodology allows to quantify the adjustable power, and also to determine the corresponding cost of the flexibility provision. It was observed that the available flexibility and its cost is influenced by many factors such as system components, human behavior, building thermal parameters, and price signals. Also, the inclusion of even a low share of households with batteries or electric vehicles smoothens the aggregated flexibility profile, and a considerable amount of flexibility is available at almost any point in time.
Georg Vogt
added an update
The initial set of references is in linked with the project. To all registered with ResearchGate we are currently pointing out which other reference could be added to complete the documentation of the SINTEG project. This is based on our prior research of various project materials and sources.
At the same time we ask you to help us in getting SINTEG researchers onto the platform to fully document what SINTEG has achieved.
 
Carlos Cateriano Yáñez
added a research item
In this study, an Optimized Swing Equation Control (OSEC) for supplying system inertia (SI) by Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS) is presented. It enables BESS that function as Virtual Synchronous Machines (VSM) to achieve the same dynamic frequency stability while their power output is significantly reduced. Due to its high penetration of wind turbines, the region of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein in Northern Germany serves as an example for the development of power systems towards low inertia conditions. A detailed grid model of the region is set up in DIgSILENT PowerFactory to develop an advanced concept for inertia support using BESS with OSEC.
Dierk Bauknecht
added 2 research items
This chapter starts off with the argument that customer stratification is strongly related to a decentralization of the power system. Decentralization has a range of different meanings, each with specific consequences for the role of consumers. Looking at the German case, the authors present different concepts of decentralization and what they imply, namely regional energy marketing and peer-to-peer trading, regional flexibility markets for network management, the “cell” concept as well as a demand-oriented distribution of renewables. The chapter focuses on how these concepts can contribute to “making the system work”, rather than new business models.
This chapter analyzes current developments behind and beyond the meter from a system perspective: How should these concepts be designed to benefit the power system in gen-eral and the integration of renewable energy in particular? The chapter provides a gen-eral overview and looks at two specific cases: Behind the meter self-consumption in com-bination with batteries and peer-to-peer trading of renewable electricity. The chapter’s main conclusions are that behind-and-beyond-the-meter concepts can support the ener-gy transition towards a renewable system. Yet, currently, the individual interests and in-centives are not necessarily in line with the needs of the overall energy system and politi-cal aims. This needs to be reflected in the regulatory framework.
Georg Vogt
added 16 project references
Marius Buchmann
added a research item
In der aktuellen Diskussion zum marktbasierten Engpassmanagement sind verschiedene Fra- gen aufgekommen, die noch unbeantwortet erscheinen. Das Thesenpapier dient zur Eingren- zung und Priorisierung relevanter Fragestellungen im Zusammenhang mit regionalen Flexibi- litätsmärkten, die in der restlichen Projektlaufzeit näher untersucht werden sollen. Damit soll das Thesenpapier die Grundlage für eine strukturierte, weiterführende Forschung darstellen
Julian Huber
added 9 research items
Uncontrolled charging of plug-in Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) represents a challenge for the energy system. As a solution, recent studies propose smart charging to avoid grid congestion and to integrate renewable energy. While financial benefits for smart charging schemes are currently quite low, there are other objectives for smart charging. However, it is unclear for which objectives smart charging can be used most effectively and which arguments are most likely to convince end users of BEVs to use smart charging schemes. To fill this gap, we conducted a literature review of the premises and the objectives of smart charging and how they fit the end-user’s motivation to use such smart charging systems. To evaluate the results, we present findings of 16 domain experts who evaluated various statements on smart charging according to their technical correctness and their persuasiveness towards end users. The results show that experts consider those smart charging objectives as most persuasive towards end users which they consider technically correct. Moreover, cost savings and integration of renewable energies are rated highest on both scales. On the contrary, experts do not expect a positive impact of smart charging systems on battery life and rate it as not very convincing.
Users charging the batteries of their electric vehicles in an uncoordinated manner can present energy systems with a challenge. One possible solution, smart charging, relies on the flexibility within each charging process and controls the charging process to optimize different objectives. Effective smart charging requires forecasts of energy requirements and parking duration at the charging station for each individual charging process. We use data from travel logs to create quantile forecasts of parking duration and energy requirements, approximated by upcoming trip distance. For this task, we apply quantile regression, multi-layer perceptrons with tilted loss function, and multivariate conditional kernel density estimators. The out-of-sample evaluation shows that the use of local information from the vehicle's travel data improves the forecasting accuracy by 13.7% for parking duration and 0.56% for trip distance compared to the data generated at the charging stations. In addition, the analysis of a case study shows that using probabilistic forecasts can control the interruption of charging processes more efficiently compared to point forecasts. Probabilistic forecasting leads up to 7.0% less interruptions, which can cause a restriction in drivers' mobility demand. The results show that charging station operators benefit from leveraging the driving patterns of electric vehicles. Thereby, smart charging and the application of the proposed models as benchmarks models for the related forecasting tasks is an improvement for the operators.