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Simulation of Solar Water Heaters

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Joseph Nowarski
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Calculations of solar water collector hourly thermal energy output as part of central solar water heating system with individual 150 liters storage tanks for each apartment in high rise multi-apartment residential building in Tel Aviv. The energy output at noon is 758 kcal/hr in January and 1,221 kcal/hr in April. Solar collectors supply 2,647 kWh/year of thermal energy to each apartment, minimum 5.41 kWh/day on an average day in December, maximum 8.53 kWh/day in August. Hot water supply equivalent at 40°C is 30 liter/hr in December.
This work demonstrates calculations of solar collector hourly efficiency based on the efficiency curve unique for each collector type. Collector efficiency depends on solar radiation, collector temperature and ambient temperature. Three iterations of calculations were applied, showing relatively small differences between the iterations. The calculated yearly efficiency is almost equal to the efficiency determined according to the national standard. Monthly efficiency is in the range of-5.2% to +3.4% difference from the efficiency determined according to the national standard. Higher efficiency is in winter. The maximum hourly efficiency is at 8 o'clock in July, 75.2%. 1. Glossary E energy [kcal] (not kcal/hr) kcal kilo-calorie, energy unit Q energy in time [kcal/hr] (not kcal) SE Solar Energy