To deal with the decarbonization challenge in an efficient way in terms of cost-effectiveness, reliability and feasibility for newbuilding and retrofit solutions in maritime industry, Seatech H2020 project develops a flapping-foil thruster propulsion innovation, together with a dual-fuel engine innovation to increase fuel efficiency and reduce emissions. The focus of this study is on the foil thruster, which is arranged at the bow and slightly in front of the ship, and it utilises the energy from wave-induced motions by converting it into thrust. For such innovations, a clear picture of its economic impacts facilitates their adoption. Thus, to deal with the economic aspects, from a life cycle perspective, the paper introduces a life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) framework, which includes all four phases of the system's life cycle; construction, operation, maintenance and end-of-life. In the context of the developed framework, the initial challenge for the LCCA exercise is to fully define the design details of the system, which will facilitate the cost approximation, mainly for construction, maintenance and end-of-life phases. The results from the materialisation of the LCCA provide significant insight with respect to the lifecycle costs and may support the decision-making process for newbuilding and retrofitting investments.
The propulsion innovation of a flapping-foil thruster, arranged at the bow and below the hull of the ship, shows significant reduction in fuel consumption and emission reduction. The development of this innovation, together with a dual-fuel engine innovation, are the objectives of the SeaTech H2020 project which deals with the decarbonisation challenge in maritime industry. This paper examines the performance of the foil thruster innovation followed by an assessment of its economic impacts, through a life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) framework, focusing mainly on the foil’s operation. The initial challenge focuses on the performance of the flapping-foil thruster, namely its combined performance in waves with the ship engine. The second challenge is to have a first approximation of the economic benefits of the foil thruster performance. The LCCA results will provide useful insight with respect to life-cycle operation costs and should support the decisionmaking during the development of the full scale of the foil thruster innovation.
Stricter regulations and ambitious targets regarding air emissions from ships have led the shipping industry to a tipping point necessitating disruptive technologies for green and ecological operation. This study introduces a dual fuel engine innovation with ultra-high energy conversion efficiency, thereby reducing exhaust gas emissions. However, the total cost performance of such an innovation throughout its long lifespan can be a matter of concern for decision makers (i.e. ship owners) if they decide to retrofit their existing fleet. The purpose of this study is to provide insights into the economic performance of such an innovative dual fuel engine when it is utilized as the main propulsion system. From a cradle-to-grave perspective ranging from construction, operation, maintenance to end-of-life, the life-cycle costing (LCC) framework is proposed to evaluate the long-term cost performance of the dual fuel engine with that of a conventional diesel engine. By using the net present cost (NPC) as an evaluation indicator, the research results reveal that the dual-fuel engine is considered as a cost-effective option except for the high fuel price differential scenario, meaning that fuel prices are the most critical factor for ship owners. In addition, the environmental impact of these engines is included in the evaluation to show that 33% reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) can be achieved when running the dual-fuel engine, compared to the diesel engine. The proposed framework could conceivably be beneficial in selecting marine engine innovation that takes not only the environmental impact but also the economic performance into consideration.
The fuel type selection according to optimal pathway from extraction of a raw material (feedstock) to its processing to transportation and finally its use in marine engines (well to wheel) based on the cost and emission criteria is the main motivation factor to conduct the current investigation. The undertaken procedure has been customized based on the available data (ship/bunker route and mileage, the ship powertrain system, etc.) of the shipping industry under the SeaTech H2020 project (seatech2020.eu). The selected modeling platform is utilized for the life cycle assessment of three potential fuels of diesel, methanol, and liquefied natural gas (LNG). Different fuel production pathways and powertrain dual-fuel technologies have been taken into account as the main variables, while the subsidiary factors such as transportation parameters (fuel economy and Avg. speed) are included in the calculations. The economic aspect and emission reduction trade-off for various scenarios are conducted to introduce the optimal solution based on the stakeholder interest in the shipping industry. The study also considers the fuel transport to the respective ports for a selected vessel from diverse fuel export locations and travelled routes according to datasets available for the same project. The results provide a guideline to the shipping industry on selecting possible conventional/renewable fuel resources to use in marine engines with emission content during each adopted pathway, where the respective subsequent expenditure per 1 MJ of each fuel sample as the functional unit has been evaluated.
Due to the growing rate of energy consumption and its consequent emissions, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has devised strict rules for an extensive reduction in Greenhouse Emissions (GHG), which forces the shipping industry to search for more energy-efficient solutions. Therefore, alongside with the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI), improving the energy efficiency of existing ships under the Energy Efficiency Existing Ship Index (EEXI) is of considerable importance. This paper address this issue by proposing a digital twin framework supported by big data analytics for ship performance monitoring. The proposed framework is developed by the respective data sets from a selected vessel. For this purpose, a cluster analysis is implemented using the Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs) with the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm. By this approach, the most frequent operating regions of the engine is detected, the shapes of these frequent operating regions are captured, and the relationships between different navigation and performance parameters of the engine are determined. That will make the basis for a digital twin application in shipping. The main objective of this research study is to develop a digital twin of a marine engine by considering the engine operational conditions that can be utilized toward green ship operations. The contribution of this paper and the outcomes can facilitate the shipping industry to meet the IMO requirements enforced by its regulations.
Ship owners should comply with the forthcoming IMO legislations that mandates a reduction of ship emissions of at least 40% by 2030 compared with the 2008 baseline. However, it is unlikely that the shipping industry will be able to achieve its 2030 and 2050 emission reduction targets relying only on existing vessel technologies. Hence, the required green ship technologies that relate to industrial digitalization and AI applications should be utilized onboard vessels to achieve these emission reduction targets. This study proposes to analyze a hybrid engine-propeller combinator diagram from both theoretical calculations, i.e. from the vessel hull design, as well as data driven calculations, i.e. from ship performance and navigation data sets, to compare their performance in a single model framework. That would consist of various machine learning applications to create AI. It is expected that such combinations will support to understand the variations among system-model uncertainties in vessels and ship systems as a system of systems and that can also support industrial digitalization in shipping. Furthermore, the hybrid engine-propeller combinator diagram can be utilized to establish the basis for advanced data analytics that will be used to identify optimal vessel navigation and ship system operational conditions
Flapping-foil thrusters arranged at the bow of the ship are examined for the exploitation of energy from wave motions by direct conversion to useful propulsive power, offering at the same time dynamic stability and reduction of added wave resistance. In the framework of Seatech H2020 project "Next generation short-sea ship dual-fuel engine and propulsion retrofit technologies" (https://seatech2020.eu/) a concept of symbiotic ship engine and propulsion innovations is studied, that when combined, are expected to lead to significant increase in fuel efficiency and emission reductions. The innovations will be characterized by high retrofitability, maintainability and will offer ship owners a return-on-investment due to fuel and operational cost savings. In this work, the development of tank-scale model of the biomimetic thruster with active control is used for laboratory testing at the towing tank of National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) with ship hull models of specific type. Results are presented demonstrating the performace of the examined system.
Flapping-foil thrusters arranged at the bow of the ship are examined for the exploitation of energy from wave motions by direct conversion to useful propulsive power, offering at the same time dynamic stability and reduction of added wave resistance. In the present work, the system consisting of the ship and an actively controlled wing located in front of its bow is examined in irregular waves. Frequency-domain seakeeping analysis is used for the estimation of ship-foil responses and compared against experimental measurements of a ferry model in head waves tested at the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) towing tank. Next, to exploit the information concerning the responses from the veriﬁed seakeeping model, a detailed time-domain analysis of the loads acting on the foil, both in head and quartering seas, is presented, as obtained by means of a cost-effective time-domain boundary element method (BEM) solver validated by a higher ﬁdelity RANSE ﬁnite volume solver. The results demonstrate the good performance of the examined system and will further support the development of the system at a larger model scale and the optimal design at full scale for speciﬁc ship types.
Biomimetic flapping-foil thrusters are able to operate efficiently while offering desirable levels of thrust required for the propulsion of a small vessel or an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). Extended review of hydrodynamic scaling laws in aquatic locomotion and fishlike swimming can be found in Triantafyllou et al (2005). Flapping-foil configurations have been investigated both as main propulsion devices and for augmenting ship propulsion in waves; see also the review by Wu et al (2020). In this work biomimetic systems are studied with application to small vessel or AUV propulsion and their comparative performance with standard marine propellers concerning the reduction of noise. A three-dimensional model of the lifting flow around the dynamic foil is presented and its application is discussed as regards the prediction of the hydrodynamically generated noise, in conjunction with methods allowing for the calculation of acoustic propagation and spatial evolution of the spectrum, based on data concerning the noise sources on the dynamic foil, coupled with the solution of the hydroacoustic problem.
The shipping industry is striving to reduce its negative environmental footprint and become more energy-efficient. In order to achieve this, undergoing the transition towards innovative engine and propulsion systems is attracting considerable attention. However, the economic aspect is of paramount importance for decision-makers (e.g. ship owners) when it comes to investing in innovative technologies. For this reason, it is required to have a comprehensive and holistic view on the economic impacts of such technologies at an early stage. This paper proposes a life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) framework to be implemented for innovative emission reduction marine engines. The proposed framework will be able to serve as a decision support tool that is beneficial for ship owners during the decision-making process for retrofitting investments.
Flapping-foil thrusters arranged below the hull of the ship are examined for the exploitation of energy from wave induced motions by direct conversion to useful propulsive power. In the framework of Seatech H2020 project (https://seatech2020.eu/) flapping-foil thruster propulsion innovation is examined, in combination with standard propulsion system based on optimally controlled Dual Fuel engine, aiming at an increase in fuel efficiency and radical emission reductions of NOx, SOx, CO₂ and particulate matter. In this paper the combined performance of the above systems is examined for a short-sea shipping scenario in the North Sea and two ship types. The analysis is based on a simplified approximation using data from systematic series. The results show that: (i) flapping-foil thrusters can directly convert kinetic energy from the ship motions into thrust to augment the overall propulsion in waves, (ii) additional thrust generated by the foils will enable the engine to operate in part-load without compromising vessel speed, resulting in an additional positive effect on its emission profile, and (iii) the foils can improve the dynamic stability of the ship.
An overview of integrating two energy efficient and emission reduction technologies to improve ship energy efficiency under advanced data analytics is presented in this study. The proposed technologies consist of developing engine and propulsion innovations that will be experimented under laboratory conditions and large-model-scale sea trials, respectively. These experiments will collect large amount of data sets that will be used to quantify the performance of both innovations under the advanced data analytics framework (ADAF). Hence, extensive details on the ADAF along with preliminary data sets collected from a case study vessel are presented in this study.
This document consists of the data management plan (DMP) that has developed for the SeaTech project. This DMP describes all the data sets that will be generated and collected under this project and explains how it will be exploited or if it will be shared for verification and re-use. The SeaTech project has proposed to develop two symbiotic ship engine and propulsion innovations, which when combined, lead to an increase in fuel efficiency and radical emission reduction. Both innovations will collect a considerable amount of data sets that will be combined and analysed under the advanced data analytics framework (ADAF). However, the selected sets of these innovations will be shared, as open access to research data, as illustrated in the initial project proposal, with the consent of the data protection officer. Furthermore, this document describes the data, what are the data sources, how it will be stored and backed-up, how and where to download, who owns it and who is responsible for the different data. One should note that this DMP is developed accordance with this Horizon 2020 DMP template guidelines. In general terms, the research data sets should be supported with the 'FAIR' principle, that is findable, accessible, interoperable and re-usable, accordance with the same guidelines. This document will be updated as the project progresses.