Project

STIMARE - STrategie Innovative per il Monitoraggio ed Analisi del Rischio Erosione

Goal: Il Progetto di Ricerca STIMARE è finanziato dal Ministero dell’Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio e del Mare nell’ambito del Bando C per progetti di ricerca finalizzati alla previsione e alla prevenzione dei rischi geologici (art. 2 comma 2 della Legge 5/01/2017 n. 4, GU n. 16 del 20/01/2017).
La proposta prevede azioni di monitoraggio in situ e attività di modellazione numerica e sperimentale in alcuni siti pilota sul litorale adriatico, volte a sviluppare modelli previsionali di rischio costiero.

Date: 31 October 2018

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Project log

Fabio Addona
added a research item
Coastal monitoring is strategic for the correct assessment of nearshore morphodynamics, to verify the effects of anthropogenic interventions for the purpose of coastal protection and for the rapid assessment of flooding vulnerability due to severe events. Remote sensing and field surveys are among the main approaches that have been developed to meet these necessities. Key parameters in the assessment and prevision of coastal flooding extensions, beside meteomarine characteristics, are the topography and slope of beaches, which can be extremely dynamic. The use of continuous monitoring through orthorectified video images allows for the rapid detection of the intertidal bathymetry and flooding threshold during severe events. The aim of this work was to present a comparison of different monitoring strategies and methodologies that have been integrated into repeated surveys in order to evaluate the performance of a new camera system. We used a low-cost camera based on Raspberry Pi called VISTAE (Video monitoring Intelligent STAtion for Environmental applications) for long-term remote observations and GNSS-laser tools for field measurements. The case study was a coastal tract in Riccione, Italy (Northern Adriatic Sea), which is the seat of nourishment interventions and of different types of underwater protection structures to combat coastal erosion. We performed data acquisition and analysis of the emerged beach and of the swash zone in terms of the intertidal bathymetry and shoreline. The results show a generally good agreement between the field and remote measurements through image processing, with a small discrepancy of the order of ≈0.05 m in the vertical and ≈1.5 m in the horizontal in terms of the root mean square error (RMSE). These values are comparable with that of current video monitoring instruments, but the VISTAE has the advantages of its low-cost, programmability and automatized analyses. This result, together with the possibility of continuous monitoring during daylight hours, supports the advantages of a combined approach in coastal flooding vulnerability assessment through integrated and complementary techniques.
Giulia Motta Zanin
added a research item
Nowadays, erosion and flooding risks represent a serious threat to coastal areas and this trend will be worsened due to climate change. The increasing concentration of population in coastal areas has a negative impact on the coastal ecosystem due to change in land use and the exploitation of natural resources, which has also increased exposure to coastal hazards. Risk assessment is hence a primary topic in coastal areas and are often affected by mismanagement and competition of interest between stakeholders. This paper presents an integrated model for coastal risk assessment as well as its application on a test site in the Puglia Region (Southern Italy). An innovative approach has been developed combining a traditional index-based model, exploiting a Drivers-Pressures-State-Impact-Response framework (DPSIR), with stakeholder’s and policy makers’ engagement by using the Future Workshop method and complementary individual working sessions structured through the use of Fuzzy-Cognitive Maps. The study shows that stakeholders’ and policy makers’ risk perception play a key role in coastal risk management and that the integration of physical risk with social perception is relevant to develop more effective management following the basics of Integrated Coastal Zone Management.
Marco Pellegrini
added a research item
More than 90% of global trade is carried by waterborne transport, constituting by far the most important means of transport of goods. Therefore, global trade is critically dependent on adequate ports and waterways navigation status (navigability). Preservation of a good port navigability is a challenging issue, since port access and waterways are often hampered, as the vast majority of 10,000s of ports worldwide suffer from sedimentation. Traditionally, the sediment that causes the problem is excavated, removed and relocated through maintenance dredging. Nevertheless, dredging is not effective in keeping navigability over the time. This objective may be reached through a higher frequency of dredging operations, but would result in higher costs and complex authorization/permit procedures. Maintenance dredging also has considerable environmental impacts, since dredging operations can: i) destroy or greatly modify underwater habitats and resident flora and fauna, ii) resuspend sediments and contaminants already present in the seabed, thus increasing the Suspended Solid Concentration (SSC) in the water column with negative effects for the ecosystem, iii) impact locally on greenhouse gas (GHG), pollutants and noise emissions, iv) generate a waste to be disposed, i.e. the dredged material. There is an increasing expectation for infrastructure projects to add value beyond the economic dimension since sustainability issues are of growing importance. The “ejectors plant” technology has been developed as a sustainable alternative to maintenance dredging and has been tested by Trevi SpA and University of Bologna in the first demo application in the Marina of Cervia (Italy). The demo plant operated from June 2019 to September 2020 with the final aim of keeping water depth at the Marina entrance over 2.5 meters.
Giulia Motta Zanin
added a research item
Coastal areas, recognized as the preferred sites for urbanization, are facing huge challenges, such as tackling the issue of coastal risks exacerbated by climate change. Apulia Region (Southern Italy), with a coastline of 865 km, is one of the severest Italian areas affected by coastal erosion and flooding with huge related economic impacts on traditional maritime activities as well as other sectors, namely tourism and agriculture. The complexity of these socioeconomic and environmental problems requires articulated answers (technical, normative, economic, social, cultural, management). In order to improve protection, management and planning of coastal zones, Apulia Region approved some policy tools. On the one hand, the Law for the protection and use of the coast and the Regional Coastal Plan (RCP) are first efforts to regulate the use of coastal areas in relation to coastal erosion and flooding. They introduce Municipal Coastal Plans, which should carry out detailed studies and enforce rules for protection and use of the maritime domain. But the gap between the rules introduced by the law and the RCP and reality makes it difficult to approve these plans. On the other hand, the Regional Landscape-Territory Plan adopts an approach that emphasizes the integrated protection and improvement of coastal landscapes. It aims to give the coast more depth by creating synergy with inland areas, halt land take, and assure the general public enjoyment of coastal areas. Basing on a case study in Margherita di Savoia (Apulia Region), the paper highlights the necessity to shift from the regulatory approach to planning to a strategic approach that integrates different complementary policy tools, as well as different expert and experiential knowledge. This approach should focus on rising collective awareness of problems and needs and defining lines of actions to pursue a more sustainable and fair coastal management.
Giulia Motta Zanin
added a research item
Across Italy, water-related risks have affected communities, environmental systems, urban areas, and economic activities, due to the hydro-geomorphological characteristics of the country. Around 16.6% of the Italian territory is classified as being vulnerable to such risks, and the approximately 8,300 km length of the Italian coastline further increases the complexity of this system. Evidence demonstrates that it is not easy to determine the effectiveness of a risk-management policy to reduce water-related risks. The unsuccessful results of such policies, based on the traditional paradigm of operation research, led practitioners and policy-makers to consider stakeholders’ risk perception, such as socioeconomic dynamics, interaction, previous experience, values, and cultural factors, facilitating bottom-up approaches. The literature highlights that the effectiveness of risks related to water management policies heavily depends on human behaviors, decisions, actions, and interactions that depend on the perspectives and frames of stakeholders involved. The perceived risk influences stakeholders’ decisions and actions. Therefore, differences in risk perception could have a twofold implication. On the one hand, they could lead to conflicting situations. On the other hand, they can offer opportunities for the development of innovative solutions hampering the effectiveness of the risk-management policies. In order to understand the role of stakeholders’ risk perception about natural hazards in urban contexts, a multistep methodology has been applied to two case studies in the Apulia region (Southern Italy). Specifically, analyses of flood risk in the city of Brindisi and the coastal erosion in the town of Margherita di Savoia have been conducted. This work is subdivided into two steps. The first part gives an overview on the traditional risk-management tools and the factors influencing stakeholders’ risk perception. The second part tries to elicit stakeholders’ risk perception through problem structuring methods. Finally, a comparison is carried out between the two case studies. It is aimed at highlighting the common points and the differences regarding the role of stakeholders’ risk perceptions about water-related risks in management policies.
Marco Pellegrini
added a research item
The need to remove deposited material from water basins is common and has been shared by many ports and channels since the earliest settlements along coasts and rivers. Dredging, the most widely used method to remove sediment deposits, is a reliable and wide-spread technology. Nevertheless, dredging is only able to restore the desired water depth but without any kind of impact on the causes of sedimentation and so it cannot guarantee navigability over time. Moreover, dredging operations have relevant environmental and economic issues. Therefore, there is a growing market demand for alternatives to sustainable technologies to dredging able to preserve navigability. This paper aims to evaluate the effectiveness of guaranteeing a minimum water depth over time at the port entrance at Marina of Cervia (Italy), wherein the first industrial scale ejector demo plant has been installed and operated from June 2019. The demo plant was designed to continuously remove the sediment that naturally settles in a certain area through the operation of the ejectors, which are submersible jet pumps. This paper focuses on a three-year analysis of bathymetries realized at the port inlet before and after ejector demo plant installation and correlates the bathymetric data with metocean data (waves and sea water level) collected in the same period. In particular, this paper analyses the relation between sea depth and sediment volume variation at the port inlet with ejector demo plant operation regimes. Results show that in the period from January to April 2020, which was also the period of full load operation of the demo plant, the water depth in the area of influence of the ejectors increased by 0.72 mm/day, while in the whole port inlet area a decrease of 0.95 mm/day was observed. Furthermore, in the same period of operation, the ejector demo plant’s impact on volume variation was estimated in a range of 245–750 m3.
Alessandra Saponieri
added a research item
In the present paper, the coastal risk is assessed, at a regional scale, to produce a risk map that will help to prioritize policies and economic resources in coastal management and planning activities. The DPSIR method is here used taking into account processes and cause/effect relationship between Drivers and Pressures, which induce an alteration of actual State and, hence, Impacts on the environment, society and economy. The study area is located in South Italy (Apulia region), where the Risk Index is calculated and mapped for all municipalities facing the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. Both coastal Vulnerability and Exposure Indexes are firstly calculated according to the procedure suggested in the EUrosion project (EU model) as the product of specific indicators describing the state of coastal zones, their natural characteristics and both natural and anthropic pressures. Based on both EU model results and knowledge of states and pressures of the study area, a new modified model is then proposed (Mod.E.M.) and final risk maps compared. The comparison shows that new Vulnerability and Exposure indexes better describe the ongoing coastal processes and pressures and allow us to identify hot-spot sites where more detailed analyses could be further focused on. The Mod.E.M. has more than just a local significance since the case study includes coastal areas with so different characteristics, that it can be easily applied to other coastal regions. Moreover, to take into account climate change effects, Risk Index is evaluated under Representative Concentration Pathways RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, mainly affecting the sea level rise and the storm surge level.
Renata Archetti
added an update
Giulia Motta Zanin
added 2 research items
Coastal areas are among the landscapes facing the greatest challenges. Traditional coastal management approaches to face with risks, based on hard approaches, have proved unsuccessful and inefficacious. They need to be combined with soft approaches, based on nature-based solutions, and on management strategies that include experiential knowledge. Focusing on an Italian coastal landscape, risk perception was investigated using the method Scenario Workshop to understand the level of awareness that different actors have on coastal erosion and associated risks. The study highlighted the necessity to create a diverse, interdisciplinary and scientific knowledge base, combined with an interface improvement between knowledge creation and decision-making, in which local actors can interact and participate into the management processes. In this sense, the production of shared knowledge on phenomena, processes and related risks would help to define appropriate forms of landscape management.
Marco Pellegrini
added a research item
To mitigate coastal erosion and harbors siltation, new strategies are required in the immediate term. In fact, even if many traditional solutions are available, their application is usually limited due to economic, environmental and social reasons. This situation is particularly evident in the case of small marinas or in those areas where the local economy is strongly affected by harbor operation such as in the case of the port of the municipality of Cervia (Italy). To solve the problem occurred in this specific case, an innovative device, called the "ejector", is proposed and implemented in a dedicated experimental plant characterized by low operative costs and no environmental impact. Starting from the description of the technology, the paper aims to show the ejector's potentials with respect to siltation and erosion problems. For the purpose the first results derived from the application in the case study at the municipality of Cervia are reported.
Marco Pellegrini
added 2 research items
Although the importance, sediment siltation represents a very critical barrier for the operability of the harbor of Rodi Garganico (Italy). Due to negative economic impact, in fact, traditional dredging results an unviable solution. For this purpose, an innovative solution, called the “ejector”, is proposed for the specific case. Based on several positive applications in Italy, in fact, many positive benefits are expected in addition to the maintenance of the basin depth. Therefore, after a brief outlook of the current conditions in the harbor of Rodi Garaganico, the paper gives some technical specifications regarding the technology and the preliminary considerations that were following for the plant design.
To mitigate coastal erosion and harbors siltation several selective strategies are currently available. Among the traditional solutions, an innovative device, i.e. the “ejector”, characterized by low operative costs, no environmental impact and able to simultaneously counteract both phenomena, was designed and experimentally tested in laboratory and in field by the University of Bologna starting from 2002. Based on the Venturi’s effect, in fact, the device moves sediments from their original position into the basin to another desired position ensuring many advantages such as, but not limited to i) a continuous 24/7 operation, ii) no environmental impact, iii) low operating costs, and iv) benefits to local economies maintaining harbors able to be sailed for all the year. After the technical description of the technology, the demo plant designed and built in the harbor of Cervia (Italy) is completely analyzed.
Fabio Addona
added a research item
In recent years, the use of video-monitoring techniques for the evaluation of coastal erosion in maritime areas is significantly increased, due to the diffusion of high-resolution cameras at relatively-low cost (Archetti et al., 2016). The capability of performing several analyses makes video monitoring suitable for applications in coastal research fields and for practical purposes, such as the identification and quantification of the shoreline dynamics, the assessment of the coastal vulnerability and the basic input to engineering design in the coastal zone (Davidson et al., 2007; Archetti and Romagnoli, 2011). Beach evolution and wave run up are important coastal-state indicators to be monitored and predicted for the evaluation of the coastal dynamics, which can be prominent in coastal vulnerability studies. Image analysis, and their results offer significant data for the shoreline modeling calibration. In this work, we present a study of the coastal vulnerability of a beach in Riccione (RN), Italy, through a low-cost video-monitoring system, where some unconventional prototypes for the coastal protection have been installed.
Maria Gabriella Gaeta
added an update
First results of STIMARE project will be presented during a dedicated session at SCACR19, that will be held in Bari, on 9-11 September 2019.
More details can be found at
 
Maria Gabriella Gaeta
added a project goal
Il Progetto di Ricerca STIMARE è finanziato dal Ministero dell’Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio e del Mare nell’ambito del Bando C per progetti di ricerca finalizzati alla previsione e alla prevenzione dei rischi geologici (art. 2 comma 2 della Legge 5/01/2017 n. 4, GU n. 16 del 20/01/2017).
La proposta prevede azioni di monitoraggio in situ e attività di modellazione numerica e sperimentale in alcuni siti pilota sul litorale adriatico, volte a sviluppare modelli previsionali di rischio costiero.