Project

SPP 1921 - Intentional Forgetting in Organisationen

Goal: Es werden in 8 verschiedenen Projekten...

...Mechanismen des menschlichen Vergessens für einen technischen und organisationalen Kontext nutzbar gemacht.

...existierende Organisationstheorien weiterentwickelt im Hinblick auf die Frage, wie eine Passung zwischen den Prozessen, MitarbeiterInnen, Technologien und Strukturen der Organisation und der Informationsmenge, die intern und extern der Organisation generiert wird, hergestellt werden kann, in dem die Informationssysteme in Organisationen befähigt werden zu vergessen.

...interdisziplinär neue Methoden und Übertragungswege für Organisationen entwickelt, um die Balance zwischen stetig wachsenden Mengen an gespeicherten Informationen und einer Informationsreduktion durch Vergessen zu finden.

Beteiligte Forschung:
https://www.researchgate.net/project/Intentionales-Vergessen-von-arbeitsteiligen-geschaeftsprozessbezogenen-Aktivitaeten-in-der-Fertigung
https://www.researchgate.net/project/AdaptPRO-Adaptive-Process-and-Role-Design-in-Organizations
https://www.researchgate.net/project/Cyber-physical-forgetting-in-socio-digital-systems
https://www.researchgate.net/project/Intentional-Forgetting-of-Everyday-Work-Behavior
https://www.researchgate.net/project/EVOWIPE-Explizites-Vergessen-ontologiebasierten-Wissens-in-der-Produktentwicklung
https://www.researchgate.net/project/Intentional-Forgetting-within-Organizations
https://www.researchgate.net/project/Getrost-vergessen
https://www.researchgate.net/project/Intentional-Forgetting

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Project log

Annette Kluge
added a research item
Im Zentrum der Aufmerksamkeit des Change-Managements - wie es bisher verstanden und praktiziert wird - steht der "Blick nach vorne". Implizite (vereinfachte) Annahme ist: Ist das Ziel nur attraktiv genug und das Commitment des Managements überzeugend hoch, dann engagieren sich die Mitarbeiter*innen auch, um das Ziel zu erreichen, sofern sie hinsichtlich der neuen zielbezogenen Verhaltensweisen qualifiziert und befähigt werden. Intentionales Vergessen erleichtert organisationale Veränderungen, insbesondere wenn dieses Wissen und Verhaltens als Hindernis und Konkurrenz für neues Wissen und Verhalten auftritt. In etwa vergleichbar - aber nicht identisch - ist das Konzept der Lernpsychologie des negativen Transfers. Dieser beschreibt die Beobachtung, dass etwas, was zuvor gelernt wurde, das Erlernen einer neuen Aufgabe anschließend erschwert. Für Organisationen bedeutet das: Die für den Wandel zuständigen Manager*innen sollten den Blick nicht nur nach vorne richten, sondern auch nach hinten.
Annette Kluge
added a research item
Kurzfassung: Damit ein Veränderungsprozess erfolgreich gelingt, muss Verhalten angepasst werden. Veraltete Handlungen dürfen nicht mehr aus-geführt, sondern müssen vergessen werden. Die vorliegende Studie unter-sucht mithilfe eines Laborexperiments, wie sich Zeitdruck auf den Erfolg ei-ner Verhaltensveränderung auswirkt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass unter Zeitdruck signifikant mehr Fehler gemacht werden. Veraltetes Verhalten wird unter Zeitdruck häufiger unverändert ausgeführt. Widersprüchliche An-forderungen, wie sie durch Zeitdruck in Veränderungssituationen hervorge-rufen werden, scheinen das notwendige Vergessen des Alten und damit das Gelingen einer Veränderung zu verhindern.
Kai Sauerwald
added 2 research items
Descriptor revision by Hansson is a framework for addressing the problem of belief change. In descriptor revision, different kinds of change processes are dealt with in a joint framework. Individual change requirements are qualified by specific success conditions expressed by a belief descriptor, and belief descriptors can be combined by logical connectives. This is in contrast to the currently dominating AGM paradigm shaped by Alchourrón, Gärdenfors, and Makinson, where different kinds of changes, like a revision or a contraction, are dealt with separately. In this article, we investigate the realisation of descriptor revision for a conditional logic while restricting descriptors to the conjunction of literal descriptors. We apply the principle of conditional preservation developed by Kern-Isberner to descriptor revision for conditionals, show how descriptor revision for conditionals under these restrictions can be characterised by a constraint satisfaction problem, and implement it using constraint logic programming. Since our conditional logic subsumes propositional logic, our approach also realises descriptor revision for propositional logic.
According to Boutillier, Darwiche and Pearl and others, principles for iterated revision can be characterised in terms of changing beliefs about conditionals. For iterated contraction, a similar formulation is not known. In particular, the characterisation for revision does not immediately yield a characterisation for contraction, because in the setting of iterated belief change, revision and contraction are not easily interdefinable. In this article, we develop two axiomatisations of iterated contraction, the first one in terms of changing conditional beliefs, and the second one by employing a new notion of equivalence. We prove that each of these new sets of postulates conforms semantically to the class of operators like the ones given by Konieczny and Pino Pérez for iterated contraction.
Dennis M. Riehle
added a research item
Organizations provide their employees with decision support systems (DSS) to facilitate successful decision making. However, the mere provision of a DSS may not be sufficient to facilitate beneficial work outcomes because employees often do not rely on a DSS. Therefore, we examined whether users' trust in a DSS increases positive effects of DSS provision on several core work outcomes (i.e., performance, well-being, and release of cognitive capacities). Moreover, we examined whether trust effects on these work outcomes depend on specific context conditions (i.e., user accountability, distraction, and market dynamics). We tested our hypotheses in a laboratory experiment with N = 201 participants who received assistance by a DSS in a simulated sales planning scenario. In line with our assumptions, trust in the DSS was positively related to users' performance and well-being. Moreover, the link between trust and strain as well as release of cognitive capacities were qualified by distraction, so that higher distraction diminished these links. No such moderation occurred for user accountability and market dynamics.
Patricia Kügler
added 3 research items
Digitalization and Industry 4.0 are currently trend words in companies and research, which express the striving for digitalized manufacturing environments and autonomous manufacturing processes enabled by cyber-physical production systems. But where do we stand in product development? Modern virtual product development tools and processes allow the definition of product geometry and shape in fully three-dimensional computer-aided design environments. Additionally, even semantic information, for instance about the subsequent manufacturing, can be included employing feature-technology. Moreover, virtual testing of these three-dimensional product models can be performed using sophisticated computer-aided engineering and simulation tools leading to digitally supplied output data. However, CAD and simulation tools mainly support later design activities, while there is a lack of computer support in early design stages. This lack of digitalization in such early design stages eliminates the possibility of retracing the customer requirements in the product at late design activities. In consequence, the decisions made during the design process are hardly comprehensible and therefore existing product knowledge is difficult to reuse. This contribution shows the needs for a consistent digitalization of engineering design with focus on the early stages. This consistent digitalization refers to a representation and linkage of work results in design processes, which allows inference and reasoning between them. Thus, reusing of product knowledge becomes more comprehensible. Moreover, this contribution presents an ontology-based approach for this consistent digitalization, which particularly enables product developers to link early design stages to late design stages and to establish relations between customer requirements and the finished product. The approach thus supports the efficient reuse of relevant design knowledge employing an ontology. Besides this, the paper discusses the general advantages of ontologies for transparently storing and efficiently providing product knowledge. With the novel ontology-based approach proposed in this contribution, the reuse of finished product development processes becomes more efficient and transparent.
Vast amounts of information and knowledge is produced and stored within product design projects. Especially for reuse and adaptation there exists no suitable method for product designers to handle this information overload. Due to this, the selection of relevant information in a specific development situation is time-consuming and inefficient. To tackle this issue, the novel approach Intentional Forgetting (IF) is applied for product design, which aims to support reuse and adaptation by reducing the vast amount of information to the relevant. Within this contribution an IF-operator called Cascading Forgetting is introduced and evaluated, which was implemented for forgetting related information elements in ontology knowledge bases. For the evaluation the development process of a test-rig for studying friction and wear behaviour of the cam/tappet contact in combustion engines is analysed. Due to the interdisciplinary task of the evaluation and the characteristics of semantic model, challenges are discussed. In conclusion, the focus of the evaluation is to consider how reliable the Cascading Forgetting works and how intuitive ontology-based representations appear to engineers.
Dennis M. Riehle
added a research item
Initial results suggest that decision support systems (DSSs) can trigger ‘directed forgetting’ in business settings if users trust in the DSS (Hertel et al., 2019). In the present study, we further examined this trust effect on DSS-cued forgetting and related positive effects on users’ cognitive resources, performance, and well-being. Moreover, we investigated how trust translates into behavioral intentions to use a DSS, and into actual usage of the DSS. Finally, we examined if risk-related framing of decision outcomes (loss vs. gain framing) moderates trust effects on directed forgetting and behavioral intentions. In line with our expectations, results of an experiment with N = 200 participants confirmed that trust significantly enhances directed forgetting, performance, and well-being. Behavioral intentions fully mediated the trust effect on DSS use. Framing of decision outcomes showed no moderation but a main effect on directed forgetting, with loss framing reducing the directed forgetting effect. Practitioner summary: This experimental study demonstrates the importance of trust in information systems to leverage positive effects of these systems on users’ cognitive resources, performance, and well-being in a simulated complex business setting.
Ute Schmid
added 7 project references
Kai Sauerwald
added 6 research items
Intentional forgetting means to deliberately give up information and is a crucial part of change or consolidation processes, or to make knowledge more compact. Two well-known forgetting operations are contraction in the AGM theory of belief change, and various types of variable elimination in logic programming. While previous work dealt with postulates being inspired from logic programming, in this paper we focus on evaluating forgetting in epistemic states according to postulates coming from AGM belief change theory. We consider different forms of contraction, marginalization, and conditionalization as major representatives of forgetting operators to be evaluated. We use Spohn’s ranking functions as a common semantic base to show that all operations can be realized in one logical framework, thereby exploring the richness of forgetting operations in a comparable way.
While humans have developed extremely effective ways of forgetting outdated or currently irrelevant information, freeing them to process ever-increasing amounts of information, there seems to be a gap between the technically defined notions of forgetting in knowledge representation and the common-sense understanding of forgetting. In order to bring different notions of forgetting closer together, we elaborate and identify kinds and contexts of forgetting from a common sense perspective. We present abstract formalizations of operations involving forgetting in a generic axiomatic style. We instantiate and refine this abstract framework with conditional beliefs and ordinal conditional functions as a high-level semantics. Using a general concept of change employing the principle of conditional preservation, we also introduce OCF-based realizations of forgetting operations inspired by cognitive psychology. Thereby, our work may be used to further develop a general view on forgetting in artificial intelligence and to initiate and enhance the interaction and exchange among research lines dealing with forgetting.
Jan Ole Berndt
added 11 research items
Today’s digital workplaces are characterized by an increase in the amount of required knowledge as well as available information for teams of co-workers. Hence, the question arises: Which knowledge is necessary for team members to effectively and efficiently conduct their tasks in a given work context? To support the design and management of flexible teamwork, this paper integrates perspectives from psychology and business informatics into a multiagent-based simulation model for analyzing and optimizing knowledge practices. It uses the well-known job-shop-scheduling problem as a foundation to simulate the effects of generalist and specialist knowledge structures in teams. The results of the evaluation show that this approach is suitable for reproducing psychological findings about the effects of these structures on a team’s work performance. This motivates a discussion of the capabilities and current shortcomings of that simulation model. From that discussion, the paper derives a research agenda for extending the presented approach to a method for designing, analyzing, and optimizing real-world knowledge management strategies of human teams.
The modern workplace is driven by a high amount of available information which can be observed in various domains, e.g., in Industry 4.0. Hence, the question arises: Which competences do actors need to build and efficient work environment? This paper proposes an simulation-based optimization approach to adapt role configurations for team work scenarios. The approach was tested using a multiagent-based job-shop-scheduling model to simulate the effects of various role configurations.
Heiko Maus
added 9 research items
Existing Semantic Desktops are still reproached for being too complicated to use or not scaling well. Besides, a real "killer app" is still missing. In this paper, we present a new prototype inspired by NEPOMUK and its successors having a semantic graph and ontologies as its basis. In addition, we introduce the idea of context spaces that users can directly interact with and work on. To make them available in all applications without further ado, the system is transparently integrated using mostly standard protocols complemented by a sidebar for advanced features. By exploiting collected context information and applying Managed Forgetting features (like hiding, condensation or deletion), the system is able to dynamically reorganize itself, which also includes a kind of tidy-up-itself functionality. We therefore expect it to be more scalable while providing new levels of user support. An early prototype has been implemented and is presented in this demo. https://arxiv.org/abs/1805.02181
Trends like digital transformation even intensify the already overwhelming mass of information knowledge workers face in their daily life. To counter this, we have been investigating knowledge work and information management support measures inspired by human forgetting. In this paper, we give an overview of solutions we have found during the last 5 years as well as challenges that still need to be tackled. Additionally, we share experiences gained with the prototype of a first forgetful information system used 24/7 in our daily work for the last 3 years. We also address the untapped potential of more explicated user context as well as features inspired by memory inhibition, which is our current focus of research.
Trends like digital transformation even intensify the already overwhelming mass of information knowledge workers face in their daily life. To counter this, we have been investigating knowledge work and information management support measures inspired by human forgetting. In this paper, we give an overview of solutions we have found during the last five years as well as challenges that still need to be tackled. Additionally, we share experiences gained with the prototype of a first forgetful information system used 24/7 in our daily work for the last three years. We also address the untapped potential of more explicated user context as well as features inspired by Memory Inhibition, which is our current focus of research. https://arxiv.org/abs/1811.12155
Sarah Meeßen
added a research item
Digitalization, enhanced storage capacities, and the Internet of Things increase the volume of data in modern organizations. To process and make use of these data and to avoid information overload, management information systems (MIS) are introduced that collect, process, and analyze relevant data. However, a precondition for the application of MIS is that users trust them. Extending accounts of trust in automation and trust in technology, we introduce a new model of trust in MIS that addresses the conceptual ambiguities of existing conceptualizations of trust and integrates initial empirical work in this field. In doing so, we differentiate between perceived trustworthiness of an MIS, experienced trust in an MIS, intentions to use an MIS, and actual use of an MIS. Moreover, we consider users' perceived risks and contextual factors (e. g., autonomy at work) as moderators. The introduced model offers guidelines for future research and initial suggestions to foster trust-based MIS use. Keywords: trust in technology, management information systems, MIS, knowledge management, information overload
Meinald Thielsch
added a research item
Digitalization of work processes is advancing, and this is increasingly supported by complex information systems (IS). However, whether such systems are used by employees largely depends on users’ trust in these IS. Because there are few systematic studies on this topic, this research provides an initial exploration and validation of preconditions for trust in work-related IS. In Study 1, N = 30 professionals were asked to describe occupational incidents in which they had highly trusted or distrusted an IS. Content analysis of 111 critical incidents described in the in-depth interviews led to 12 predictors of trust and distrust in IS, which partly correspond to the structure of the established IS success model (Delone & McLean, 2003) but also exceed this structure. The resulting integrative model of trust in IS at work was validated in Study 2 using an online questionnaire with N = 179 professionals. Based on regression analyses, reliability (system quality) and credibility (information quality) of IS were identified as the most important predictors for both trust and distrust in IS at work. Contrasting analyses revealed diverging qualities of trust and distrust in IS : whereas well-being and performance were rated higher in trust events, experienced strain was rated higher in distrust events. Together, this study offers a first comprehensive model of trust in IS at work based on systematic empirical research. In addition to implications for theory advancement, we suggest practical implications for how to support trust and to avoid distrust in IS at work.
Dennis M. Riehle
added 4 research items
Design science research is a common research method in the field of information systems (IS), as it bridges the gap between IS research and practice. The outcome of design science research are artifacts, which-besides others-can be prototypical applications, so-called IT artifacts. When such IT artifacts are evaluated as part of a design science research cycle, questionnaires and interviews are a commonly used method. We have integrated the demonstration and evaluation phase of a web-based IT artifact, by developing a web-based information system which integrates both a web-based prototype with a questionnaire system. Our information system supports multiple studies, different versions of the IT artifact and several question-specific and participant-specific configuration options.
Having the right information at hand is crucial for decision-makers. To support decision-makers with adequate IT systems, it is necessary to know which type of information decision-makers need at their workplace. Therefore, our research goal is providing a framework that structures the information needs for decision-makers in large organizations. In this paper, we conduct a structured literature review to find different classifications of information needs. We combine and integrate three well-known frameworks. Our resulting framework consisting of the dimensions scope, time-orientation, abstraction and presentation is evaluated in eleven interviews conducted with managers. This shows that the information categories found in literature can be mapped to the actual information need found in practice.
The focus of the Information Systems (IS) research on trust has been on the perception of trust and explaining the concept in terms of its antecedents. The merits of this descriptive and explanatory knowledge notwithstanding, the usefulness and applicability of this knowledge for organizations that aim at actively influencing their trust position is limited. In light of recent public scandals in areas such as social media, car manufacturing or financial services, organizations require an understanding of how customer trust can be managed using contemporary information systems solutions. In this paper we propose trust management as an IS theme of increasing relevance and draw upon extant research in IS, psychology, and marketing to bridge the gap between topics such as risk management, compliance management and governance on the one hand and trust management on the other. We utilize Botsman's concept of uncertainty as a proxy for customer trust to bring together organizational approaches that can objectively reduce uncertainty linked to an organization, its processes, products, and services with the customer's perception of this uncertainty. We contribute to the further maturity of trust management by providing new foundations and providing explicit advice on how to improve trust in organizations.
Arnulf Sebastian Schüffler
added 9 research items
Structured Abstract Purpose-The purpose of the paper is to present research designs that are suitable for investigating organisational forgetting. The overall and long-term objective is to encourage researchers to use non-experimental, quasi-experimental and experimental designs as well as computer simulations to test the idea of the benefits of forgetting for adaptation and change with high construct, internal and external validity. Design/methodology/approach-We review the state of the art in management and organisational research and show options in how to use non-experimental, quasi-experimental and experimental designs for testing causes and effects of organisational forgetting by giving concrete examples. We emphasise experimental designs because they are declared the gold standard in management research. In that respect, we introduce the distinction between special-purpose and non-special-purpose settings. In particular, "learning factories" as a prototype of a special-purpose setting will be described, in which internal and external validity can be increased simultaneously. Originality/value-Learning factories have emerged in the last 5 years to test new ways of manufacturing, for example, cyber-physical production systems and human-robot interaction "live", and to mirror a real production setting with a high physical and psychological fidelity. We suggest using learning factories as special-purpose settings to observe and investigate processes of organisational forgetting, e.g. for investigating the impact of forgetting routines, as routines are declared an important storage bin as part of the organisational memory. Practical implications-We show how a learning factory can be used as an experimental "theatre" for investigating the impact of eliminating retrieval cues that impede forgetting of a routine that has become invalid and been replaced by a new routine in order to adapt to a changing organisational environment. This example can be used as a model by which to design experimental procedures to put organisational forgetting to an empirical test on a group level, and implies the advantage of making temporal aspects of forgetting visible.
The establishment of new working routines as an adaptation to changing working conditions requires not just the learning of the new content but also the forgetting of the old knowledge. To further understand exactly how old working routines are put behind, four experiments within a realistic working environment are designed. All experiments are based on group work of three participants, thus individual learning and forgetting can be measured, as well as the group performance all together. The experimental design and the implementation of measuring forgetting is explained in detail.
Flavio Schröder
added a project goal
Es werden in 8 verschiedenen Projekten...
...Mechanismen des menschlichen Vergessens für einen technischen und organisationalen Kontext nutzbar gemacht.
...existierende Organisationstheorien weiterentwickelt im Hinblick auf die Frage, wie eine Passung zwischen den Prozessen, MitarbeiterInnen, Technologien und Strukturen der Organisation und der Informationsmenge, die intern und extern der Organisation generiert wird, hergestellt werden kann, in dem die Informationssysteme in Organisationen befähigt werden zu vergessen.
...interdisziplinär neue Methoden und Übertragungswege für Organisationen entwickelt, um die Balance zwischen stetig wachsenden Mengen an gespeicherten Informationen und einer Informationsreduktion durch Vergessen zu finden.
Beteiligte Forschung: