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Revitalization of Small Agricultural Farms through Energy Crops Cultivation and Biomass Production

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Vera Popovic
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Due to excellent quality of its grain, the soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is in the fourth place among grown cultivated plant species, after wheat, corn and rice. A small-plot field trial was conducted in order to investigate the effect of fertilization of pseudogley soil with CAN on the mass and nitrogen content of root nodules in soybean. Pseudogley is an acid, water holding soil of low fertility, and the trial was performed in a humid year. Seed of soybean cv. Bachka was routinely coated with micro-biological preparation NS Nitragin. The CAN (calcium-ammonium nitrate), a widely used nitro-limestone fertilizer, is suitable for acid soils due to its pH-buffering effect. CAN was applied in three doses: 1) 0 kg ha-1 , control; 2) 50 kg ha-1 ; 3) 100 kg ha-1 , and 4) 150 kg ha-1. Maximum mass of root nodules was in control variant from 7.48 mg per nodule while the variant with 100 kg ha-1 N fertilizer was the minimum weight of nodules, 4.89 mg per nodule. The highest nitrogen content in nodules was in the variant with the application of 100 kg ha-1 and amounted to 3.46%, while the lowest content of nitrogen in nodules was in variant 2. Variability in the average nitrogen content (CV) in nodules and mass of nodule ranged 3.47% < Cv < 17.65%. Insignificant negative correlation was achieved between the weight of nodules and nitrogen content in nodules (r = 0.24).
Vera Popovic
added 5 research items
The investigation was performed on organic field of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Bački Petrovac. The buckwheat variety Novosadska had a significantly higher yield of 171 kg ha-1 than the control in the variant with the foliar feeding treatment with the organic fertilizer „Bioplant flora”. No significant differences between the foliar nutrition variant and the control in content of starch, proteins and seed oil were obtained. Foliar feeding showed favourable effects upon increasing buckwheat seed yield in organic farming system.
Increased use of nitrogen fertilizers has led to increased losses from agro ecosystem and thay may have unfavorable influence on the environment and human health. In this paper are discussed the positive effects of increasing quantities of nitrogen fertilizer on the yield to find optimum doses of nitrogen that can give high yields with proper environmental care. A two year stationery trial was performed during 2003 and 2004 at the experimant field of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. The yields of all the cultivars responded positively to the increasing nitrogen quantities up to the rate of 100 kg/ha N. Any further increases had no significant effect. Due to the different responses of genotypes for yield and to different rates of nitrogen fertilizers, an individual approach is required in the case of each genotype. The contamination of soil and water by excessive nitrogen fertilization can be prevented by the optimal use of nitrogen fertilizers and if nitrogen rates are based on actual field conditions for each species and genotype.
Our environment is polluted by many organic and inorganic compounds, among which the most important are heavy metals. The aim of this paper is to determine the concentration of lead in soil and wheat. Eight samples of soil were used in the research, and the content of lead in the soil was measured after a two-hour acid digestion, using the AAS Varian Spectra 600. Analysis of the basic chemical characteristics has shown that they are not damaged. The soil reaction is within the limits from mildly acid to alkaline with calcium carbonate present. Concentration of humus is on the level of average supply as well as the concentration of nitrogen, except for the three localities as a result of inadequate application of nitrogen fertilizers. The examination of lead concentration in eight soil samples showed that it is above the limits of the Maximal Allowed Concentration. According to the results of the eight localities examined, there is a high concentration of lead in one of them, as a result of emission of lead from the traffic and Cement factory in Beočin. Concentrations of lead in plants are different from one locality to another and these plants are not contaminated with lead. This is caused by the important source of the exhaust emission such as traffic and Cement factory in Beočin. Examination of lead concentration is necessary in order to prevent further soil contamination. Efficient elimination of industrial and other waste is the crucial factor for healthy environment preservation.
Vera Popovic
added 2 research items
Miscantus giganteus je višegodišnja visokoproduktivna trava koja se gaji kao agroenergetski usev i poželjno da se gaji zbog velike godišnje produkcije biomase. Poslednjih decenija zbog porasta potražnje za obnovljivim izvorima energije i sanacija degradiranih zemljišta, vlada veliko interesovanje za biljne vrste koje imaju veliku godišnju produkciju biomase, koje su tolerantne na biotički i abiotički stres i za koje su potrebna minimalna ulaganja u agrotehniku. U radu su prikazani rezultati ispitivanja parametra produktivnosti miskantusa u dve ispitivane godine u 2012. i 2013. godini iz rano prolećne žetve. Prosečni prinosi miskantusa u istraživanom period iznosili su 5,78 t/ha. Analizom dobijenih podataka evidentna je statistički značajna razlika u prinosu biomase između istraživanih godina. U 2013. godini prinos biomase miskantusa bio je statistički značajno viši u odnosu na 2012. godinu i to za 5,90 t/ha odnosno za 209,54%.
U monografiji pod naslovom Alternativne ratarske biljke u konvencionalnom i organskom sistemu gajenja autora: Đorđa Glamočlije, Snežane Janković, Vere Popović, Vladimira Filipovića, Janje Kuzevski i Vladana Ugrenovića obrađena su pitanja vezana za privredni značaj, poreklo, biološke osobine, odnos prema uslovima uspevanja i agrotehniku 44 ratar-ske biljke koje se na velikom geografskom području, od tropskih klimatskih, do kontinentalnih područja. Klimatski uslovi naše zemlje pružaju mogućnost gajenja svih opisanih vrsta i velika su šansa za naše male poljoprivredne proizvođače jer se, uz standardnu poljoprivrednu mehanizaciju i veće učešće ručnog rada, mogu gajiti na manjim površinama i pružiti potpunije angažovanje svih članova domaćinstava. Uz malo veća ulaganja u primarnu preradu glavnog i sekun-darnih proizvoda, farmer je u mogućnosti da ostvari veću dobit nego ako gaji standardne ratarske useve. Pored konvencionalnog sistema gajenja ovih biljaka, u monografiji je prikazan i sistem ekološke (organske) proizvodnje opisanih ratarskih vrsta, tako da potencijalni proizvođači mogu saznati kako mogu proizvesti zdravstveno bezbedne sirovine za prehrambenu i farmaceutsku industriju. Vrednost ovoj monografiji daje i činjenica da je napisana tako da je studenti mogu koristiti kao udžbenik, a kao priručnik poljoprivredni struč-njaci i svi sadašnji i budući proizvođači ovih „malih“ biljaka velikih proizvodnih mogućnosti.
Vera Popovic
added 2 research items
Oil flax is the oldest medicinal plant. Medicinal properties have: mature and dried linseed (Lini seed), flax mucilage (Mucilage Seminis Line), linseed oil (Oleum Lini) and flour (Lini farina). The seed is smooth, shiny, flattened, brown color and oval in shape. Linseed oil is most useful natural oil which is obtained by cold pressing the seeds. The subject of this study is to test the oil flax, variety NS Primus. In the study year of NS Primus had achieved a high yield of 2.200 kg ha-1 and excellent technological quality of grain: oil content ranged from 36.48 to 40.00%. Technological quality of grain is one of the most important properties to which paying attention to create new varieties of flax. Based on the mentioned it is evident that it is an excellent raw material and may have used in many industry sectors, special importance in the healing and in human nutrition. Keywords: flax oil, medicinal plant, NS Primus, grain yield, oil content
By sowing legume in the rotation, it is possible to achieve profitable organic production. Soybean is a protein - oil plant, high nutritional value. Soybean proteins are rich in essential amino acids. Soybeans are also used as an important source of phytoestrogens and isoflavones, contains significant quantities of B-complex vitamins, beta-carotene and minerals (calcium, iron and potassium). Soybean as legumes raises the fertility of the soil, by binding the nitrogen from the air, and by soybean crop residue, soil enriches in nutrients. Due to the large agro-technical character, cultivation of soybean in crop rotation is very important in organic cropping system. The breakeven point of soybean production is about 1 t ha-1. In Serbia, the average grain yield were 2.5 t ha-1. Profitable soybean production is achieved by applying appropriate growing technology, a proper selection of varieties and control of production costs. In 2016, on the organic plots of Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, an experiment with soybeans early varieties was performed. The varieties NS Kaća (000 MG, with white grain), NS Pantera and NS Blackstar (00 MG, with black seed coats) were tested and high yields of seed were achieved. Variety had a significant effect on the tested morphological productive characteristics of soybean. The largest mass and the height of plants had a variety NS Pantera (50.29 g; 140.22 cm). NS Blackstar had the largest height of the first pod (7.67 cm) and variety NS Kaća had the highest 1000 grain weight (240.16 g).
Jelena Milovanovic
added a research item
This monograph was written by the team of authors from the Slovak University of Agriculture and the Singidunum University in Belgrade, which cooperated on Bilateral Slovak-Serbian project SK-SRB-2013-0031 “Revitalization of small agricultural farms through energy crops cultivation and biomass production” and on technological development project “Ecoremediation of degraded areas through agro-energy crops cultivation” (TR31078). The bilateral project was implemented in the years 2015-2016. The main objective of international research was to create a baseline study document on available natural and human capacities for local socio-economic development based on biomass production emphasizing energy crops cultivation in partner countries and a consistent program of revitalization of agricultural farms with alternative use of agricultural land for short rotation crops as renewable energy resources with minimalization of environmental impacts and economic efficiency. The monograph contains the experimental results of quantitative and qualitative properties of fast-growing willows and perennial crop Miscanthus grown on agricultural land in south-west Slovakia and Miscanthus, grain Sorghum and Phalaris species in Serbia. Individual chapters are addressed to current state and perspectives of biomass production in rural development and marginal land suitable for biomass production based on examples in Slovakia and Serbia. Estimation of biomass production within case study of the farm Kolíňany (Slovakia) with example of biogas use is included. The economic part of the monograph is devoted to bioenergy on the energy market and to modelling of revitalisation of agricultural land for biomass. Evaluation of economic efficiency of woody plants /Salix/ and perennial crops /Miscanthus/, cultivation of arable land of farms in the conditions of Slovakia and Serbia provides applicable knowledge for practical growers. Overview on EU and national legislation and entrepreneurship support for biomass production is provided as well. The monograph provides valuable information and an overview of current knowledge and trends with a number of literature sources and their comparison with the results of the project team. It could serve as guidelines for scientific and professional community, students, graduates, and other stakeholders. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency and by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia under the contract SK-SRB-2013-0031 and by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia in the frame of the TR31078 project.
Jelena Milovanovic
added a project goal