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Research on base of the pyramid in India

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Keerthan Raj
added a research item
The Covid-19 pandemic has triggered a lot of studies on its impact, the way in which countries managed or coped with the issues arising out of the pandemic, and so on. While countries had several lessons to learn in terms of speed and thrust on leapfrogging digital capabilities and also creating a super-fast crisis access team in health considering the intensity and surge in numbers that needed critical care globally, the fact of the matter is that it is the low income category of the population of every country that had to suffer the most hardships. In this paper, the researchers study a set of this base of the pyramid population through a mixed approach, to understand the severity and impact that the pandemic and its associated restrictions and government measures had on the population.
Sreeramana Aithal
added a research item
According to the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), sustainable development has been defined in many ways, and it states that: "Sustainable development is a development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." We have seen a lot of focus on sustainable development starting from the initiative of the United Nations which has made all nations focus on Sustainable Goals to be achieved by 2030, to large conglomerates and small business enterprises likewise focussing on sustainable business practices, which if well planned would yield success and growth. In light of the global challenges faced in relation to environmental, economic and social resources sustainable development leading to sustainable success and growth calls for a significant rethinking in the management of resources within the, and external to the organization. In this paper, we propound the furthering of a circular economy concept to management as 'circular model of management'. Borrowed from the concept of circular economy, a circular economy (as against a linear economy) is an economic system aimed at minimizing waste and making the most of resources. Moving towards a circular economy delivers benefits such as reducing pressure on resources, increases competitiveness, stimulates innovation and boosts growth. This study is developed through extensive work in subsistence communities (base of the pyramid customers) in emerging markets. A circular economy promotes social, environmental, economic and overall restorative and regenerative capabilities, similarly, a circular model of management will as envisaged promote regenerative and restorative capability in the organization which will ensure sustainable growth and success by means of ensuring the reduction of leakage of resources to the minimum and applicability to the maximum.
Keerthan Raj
added a research item
It is known that the bottom of the pyramid is the largest but poorest socioeconomic group in the world. As developed world economies are getting saturated and a lot of multinational companies have turned towards emerging economies to tap deeper markets for growth. The business models adopted by some of these multinationals are unique and have given immense revenue to the companies. Ted London, at the University of Michigan, focuses on the poverty alleviation implications of the base of the pyramid ventures. His focus has been on the poverty alleviation perspective of BoP approaches as was initially proposed by Prahalad and Hart. A more recent focus has also been on the impact successful BOP approaches have on sustainable development. At the core of its articulation, the BOP perspective relies on the hypothesis of mutual value creation, the more the value created for the communities and consumers living in this segment, the higher the value attained by the venture. These ventures are expected to generate acceptable social and economic returns to the organization operating in these segments and to the communities it is serving. ABCD analysis technique is a model evaluations tool which takes into account all parameters of a business model. This technique evaluates a business model, strategy or operational strategy from the standpoint of the advantages, benefits, constraints, and disadvantages arising out of it. Further, it streamlines the data to identify the critical constituent elements in each determinant factor to narrow critical elements that need to be looked at to overcome the constraints and focus on the advantages to give the benefits. This paper is a study to analyse whether it is possible to generate revenue profitably by selling in BOP segments of emerging markets and its effectiveness in providing value to companies and generating revenues.
Keerthan Raj
added 9 research items
p>The question of survival and sustenance are at the very foundation of every individual or organization. There are various factors that are essential for growth and sustenance of companies. There has been many research studies undertaken to gauge the success factors or to breakdown the components and study success in detail. Especially so, it gains even more importance when companies are serving the markets where consumers have very low incomes and have several unmet needs. Companies serving the base of the pyramid markets need relatively unique strategies and value propositions for success. The base of pyramid came into forefront when management thinkers C K Prahalad and Staurt L. Hart, formulated the “Bottom of the Pyramid” theory in a 2002 article about how businesses can help the poor while still able to make a profit. They noted that there was little competition among the millions of the poor, who essentially live in a world of non consumption. Through low prices, new business models and innovative products, and inclusive value creation corporations along with the help of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and local governments, could make money and do good for the larger cause by tapping this underserved market. It has been the belief of many that BOP consumers are typically characterized by several unmet needs, it could range from food, sanitation, transport, communication, and connectivity. It is also interesting to note that in several BOP markets where are overlapping needs not necessarily following the need hierarchy. Information and communication technology businesses have been able to occupy a larger share of the BOP consumer’s wallet than even basic needs such as sanitation or electricity. What then prompts these consumers and how can businesses reach out to these segments in a phased successful manner. This paper develops the concept, postulates, explanations, theoretical model, and business case based proof on Cockroach Theory of Organizational sustainability and scalability by considering BOP business companies performance evidence. The study also discusses the applicability of this theory and its frameworks on companies and their business models focusing on BOP sectors along with the limitations.</p
Big data is a term traditionally used to denote data sets that are so voluminous and complex that traditional data processing application software is inadequate to deal with them. Big data challenges include capturing data, storage, analysis, transfer, querying, updating, information privacy, data source, and such aspects. As of recently, ‘big data’ also refers to predictive analytics, user behaviour analytics and other advanced analytic methods that churn value from data. Data sets are growing very rapidly because of the ability to gather cheap and enormous data from devices such as mobile phones, remote sensing, software logs, cameras, microphones, radio frequency identification readers, and wireless sensor networks. By 2025, IDC predicts that there will be 163 zettabytes of data. On the other hand, the base of the pyramid markets is the growing 4 billion populations who are living on less than $ 2 a day. Management thinkers, Prahalad and Hart, in 1999, propounded their idea on how multinationals can help alleviate poverty and generate profits successfully by selling their products in these markets; many companies have been looking at strategies to serve the BOP segment in emerging markets. Many large corporations have invested a lot of money in these markets and have failed, but also some multinationals who have engaged with the BOP sector have created scalable businesses and generated large profits. Some successful companies have used mobile phone and other information gathering and dissemination technologies to generate valuable information and devise relevant strategies to sell successfully in these markets. While the attraction of the BOP segment has been a topic of research for close to two decades, big data and its applicability to doing business better is prevalent only since 3-4 years. Big data and analytics using big data available all around us are huge in terms of impact for the consumer and the marketer. It has become so imperative that there are in depth studies revolving around big data and how it can be utilized in specific and generic ways and to devise various business strategies of multinationals, companies, domestic players and the like. It has become a huge opportunity that has come about as a result of technological progress and big data can be used in myriad ways to tap and deepen the base of the pyramid markets. There is very little data on the application of big data to the base of the pyramid markets. This paper is an attempt to create a new facet of application of big data to the base of pyramid segment research on how the BOP markets can be served better and companies can get better insights to strategize to enter and serve these markets in a mutually successful manner.
Big data refers to huge voluminous sets of data that requires advanced technologies to manage it. Today, the word has evolved to it also refers to predictive analytics, user behaviour analytics and other advanced analytic methods that churn value from data. Information and data is growing very rapidly because various devices are equipped with technology to capture data in a myriad of ways. By 2025, IDC predicts that there will be 163 zettabytes of data. The base of the pyramid markets is the growing 4 billion populations who are living on less than $ 2 a day. Management thinkers, Prahalad and Hart, in 1999, propounded their idea on how multinationals can help alleviate poverty and generate profits successfully by selling their products in these markets; many companies have been looking at strategies to serve the BOP segment in emerging markets. The attraction of the BOP segment has been a topic of research for close to two decades; however the concept of churning valued information from big data and its applicability to doing business better is prevalent only since 3-4 years. Any number of primary and secondary research studies can throw up information on predictive behaviour, cause effect relationships and so on but a prediction can be done more realistically when there is lot of concrete data to back the predictions. Big data serves exactly the same purpose.
Keerthan Raj
added 2 research items
India is poised on a renewed growth path and several new initiatives are a brainchild of this vision. Programs such as Skill India, Digital India, and Make in India are certain key strategies for driving growth and sustainable socio economic development. The base of the pyramid sector is predominantly characterized by people with very low incomes; it is known that the bottom of the pyramid is the largest but poorest socio-economic group in the world. The current usage of the term ‘bottom of the pyramid’ refers to the four billion people living on less than $ 2 per day, the definition was familiarized and became widely known in 1998 through the works of C. K. Prahalad and Stuart L. Hart. The wealth and revenue generation capabilities at the base of the pyramid, especially in emerging markets have been the topic of many studies and research in recent years. The potential of the customers, who live on less than $ 2 per day, is immense. It is estimated that India accounts for close to 300 million adults and is a significant percentage of the population. If there has to be inclusive and all round growth and development it has to be aimed at empowering the poorest of the poor. This is a conceptual paper and looks at the sustained growth of India during India 2.0 period (1992 onwards) and further fuelled by PM Modi Government, aimed by the various initiatives and explores avenues to create sustained development from the BOP perspective with special focus on Economic development, Social development, Environmental protection, and Industry development.
It is known that the bottom of the pyramid is the largest but poorest socioeconomic group in the world. The current usage of the term "bottom of the pyramid" refers to the four billion people living on less than $ 2 per day, the definition was proposed in 1998 by C. K. Prahalad and Stuart L. Hart. The wealth and revenue generation capabilities at the base of the pyramid, especially in emerging markets have been the topic of many studies and research in the recent years. The potential of the customers, who live on less than $ 2 per day, is immense. This population of four billion is expected to grow to six billion in the coming 10 years. As developed world economies are getting saturated and a lot of multinational companies have turned towards emerging economies to tap deeper markets for growth. The business models adopted by some of these multinationals are unique and have given immense revenue to the companies. Ted London, at the University of Michigan, focuses on the poverty alleviation implications of the base of the pyramid ventures. His focus has been on the poverty alleviation perspective of BoP approaches as was initially proposed by Prahalad and Hart. A more recent focus has also been on the impact successful BOP approaches have on sustainable development. At the core of its articulation, the BOP perspective relies on the hypothesis of mutual value creation, the more the value created for the communities and consumers living in this segment, the higher the value attained by the venture. These ventures are expected to generate acceptable social and economic returns to the organization operating in these segments and to the communities it is serving. ABCD analysis technique is a model evaluations tool which takes into account all parameters of a business model. This technique evaluates a business model, strategy or operational strategy from the standpoint of the advantages, benefits, constraints, and disadvantages arising out of it. Further, it streamlines the data to identify the critical constituent elements in each determinant factor to narrow critical elements that need to be looked at to overcome the constraints and focus on the advantages to give the benefits. This paper is a study to analyse whether it is possible to generate revenue profitably by selling in BOP segments of emerging markets and its effectiveness in providing value to companies and generating revenues.
Keerthan Raj
added 2 research items
Employability is on the decline in most areas and employers are being faced with the issues of finding people with adequate soft skills. There have been various measures adopted to improve soft skills in employees, even after the employees have been absorbed by the employers companies are looking at avenues to increase soft skills and build capabilitites in empCertain practices that are prevalent widely in the IT industry in terms of options of work from home, and elimination of strict office hours have seen a decline as employers realise that this added to enhanced productivity by human interface in physical environments. This paper is an exploratory study of a few companies in the information technology industry and some such trends in the IT industry that contributes to improved effectiveness of employees and enhances skill sets availbility.
Healthcare is a major area of concern especially in developing nations at the base of the pyramid segments. In a country such as India, which is blessed as of this date with a demographic dividend needs to address healthcare as an area of priority. Healthy people are able to work harder and smarter hence they will be in a position to not only create better living standards for themselves thereby uplift their and the nation’s economic status and contributing to societal growth and development. A major portion of the population of India resides in rural and semi urban segments and there is an explicit dearth of quality healthcare in these areas. Incidentally, for our discussion of the base of the pyramid segments, it has been evidenced that BOP consumers are seen to have limited or lack of access to healthcare due to various issues ranging from affordability, literacy, awareness, prejudices and so on. The cockroach theory of organizational sustainability and scalability proposed the various postulates governing the theory and the pillars those very preconditions for the success of organizations in creating sustained and scalable businesses in the BOP sectors. This paper is a case study approach to companies in the healthcare sector and the outlines the practices and businesses strategies of these companies that have made them successful or have failed at creating a profitable business opportunity and growth.