The structural mass of a building provides inherent thermal storage capability. Through sector coupling, the building mass can provide additional flexibility to the electric power system, using, for instance, combined heat and power plants or power-to-heat. In this work, a mathematical model of building inertia thermal energy storage (BITES) for integration into optimized smart grid control is introduced. It is shown how necessary model parameters can be obtained using generalized additive modeling (GAM) based on measurable building data. For this purpose, it is demonstrated that the ceiling surface temperature can serve as a proxy for the current state of energy. This allows for real-world implementation using only temperature sensors as additionally required hardware. Compared with linear modeling, GAM enable improved modeling of the nonlinear characteristics and interactions of external factors influencing the storage operation. Two case studies demonstrate the potential of using building storage as part of a virtual power plant (VPP) for optimized smart grid control. In the first case study, BITES is compared with conventionally used hot water tanks, revealing economic benefits for both the VPP and building operator. The second case study investigates the potential for savings in CO2 emission and grid connection capacity. It shows similar benefits when using BITES compared to using battery storage, without the need for hardware investment. Given the ubiquity of buildings and the recent advances in building control systems, BITES offers great potential as an additional source of flexibility to the low-carbon energy systems of the future.
Bei den Betreibern des öffentlichen Personennahverkehrs (ÖPNV), als auch bei den städtischen Ver- und Entsorgungsunternehmen, besteht ein sehr großes Interesse an innovativen Konzepten zur Einführung von emissionsarmen Fahrzeugen, um in Innenstadtbereichen Luftverschmutzung und Lärmbelastung zu reduzieren. In diesem Beitrag werden die unterschiedlichen Aspekte der Planung und Einführung von elektrifizierten Flotten im urbanen Umfeld diskutiert. Es wird zunächst das Potenzial der Emissionsvermeidung durch elektrische Flotten analysiert und durch exemplarische Betrachtungen hinterlegt. Es folgt eine Vorstellung und Bewertung von Elektrifizierungskonzepten für innerstädtische Nutzfahrzeuge. Bei der Elektrifizierung großer Flotten müssen zudem die Betriebshöfe bei der Systemplanung mitberücksichtigt werden. Veränderungen im üblichen Betriebsablauf können notwendig werden und haben überdies Auswirkungen auf das Betriebshof-Layout sowie erforderliche Netzinfrastrukturen. Durch eine Smart-Grid-Integration können Synergien für Flotten- und Netzbetreiber entstehen, was prototypisch auf dem EUREF-Campus durch eine intelligente Ladestation für E-Busse erprobt wird. Der Beitrag wird durch Umsetzungsstrategien am Beispiel Berlins sowohl für den Bus- als auch für den Entsorgungsverkehr abgerundet.
In diesem Kapitel wird gezeigt, wie die verschiedenen Lösungsansätze, die im Rahmen des Forschungscampus Mobility2Grid entwickelt wurden, im Reallabor auf dem Berliner EUREF-Campus zunächst zentral evaluiert und getestet und dann auch betrieben werden. Die integrativen Lösungen ermöglichen ein hohes Maß an technischer, funktionaler und ökonomischer Flexibilität.
Governments and local authorities are increasingly focusing on electromobility to meet climate change mitigation targets and at the same time reduce pollution and noise emissions, especially in urban areas. Legal regulations and state support measures are encouraging local fleet operators to deploy electric vehicles on a large scale, following initial pilot projects. Many cities around the world aim to convert their bus fleets by the end of 2030. Additionally, fully electric vehicles for street cleaning as well as electric waste disposal vehicles are now arriving on the market, so that waste disposal traffic will also be electrically powered in future. This also applies to fleets of urban commercial transport. With the increasing number of electric vehicles, completely new challenges arise for both local public transport operators (PTO) and municipal supply and disposal companies, especially in depots. On the one hand, the necessary charging infrastructure must be integrated into the depots which typically have limited space. On the other hand, it must be ensured that an adequate power supply is available for the entire fleet. Furthermore, changes in operating procedures are unavoidable due to the reduced range and longer charging times of electric vehicles compared to conventional vehicles. Therefore, operators have a great interest in innovative concepts for depots for emission-free vehicles. This white paper provides an overview of future depot requirements and the resulting challenges for fleet operators. Possible software and hardware solutions are presented and, finally, real-life examples are discussed. Register to download https://new.siemens.com/global/en/products/energy/medium-voltage/solutions/emobility/smartdepot.html
This paper presents a methodology that addresses the challenges of designing a depot for electric vehicle fleets. The wide variety of possible solutions are structured using a morphological matrix. A modular simulation and planning tool is introduced which takes technical and operational aspects into account. The tool can be used to determine the effects of depot layouts and processes. Different from most existing works, the charging process is integrated into main depot operations, which consist of daily service, maintenance, parking and vehicle dispatch. In a real-world case study, the developed algorithms for dispatching and price-oriented charging are applied. The results show the depot processes of 74 electric buses over a week and a charging profile in low-cost electricity price intervals as well as a 56.6 % reduction in peak load compared to charging without management.
This paper deals with the operational integration of electric buses and charging infrastructure conducted in field tests. Relevant actors and entities for managing the charging processes are introduced and the main interactions described. Further, an overview of available charging infrastructures and acquisition equipment used in field sites is detailed. These findings reveal as input for a simulation framework allowing to analyze diversified charging processes. Finally, measured real-time data from uncontrolled and controlled charging processes of realworld bus operations is analyzed. The results of the simulation and real-world application state significant implications to be addressed in the operational planing of charging processes and for enhanced power system operations.
Goals • Citizens participate, are informed and are asked which changes through an energy and transport transition in urban areas may find acceptance • Parting from the Mobility2Grid approach on the EUREF-campus which are their recommendations for an intelligent Energy and transport transition in Berliner neighborhoods • Their recommendations are presented to politicians, industrials and academics for their further transfer to other urban areas. Method The participation process planning cell / Citizens' Panel was developed in the 1970s and has been widely used since then in planning and decision-making processes. The method has the following key features: 1. 25 randomly selected people discuss for 2-4 days as a citizen reviewers and panelists (Participants in the planning cell) a problem (usually at least two planning-cells take place in parallel sessions). 2. The participants are released from their daily obligations through a financial compensation. 3. The participants receive information from experts and stakeholders. 4. They discuss in small groups with a rotating cast, thus a fair conversational situations are guaranteed. 5. The developed recommendations are summarized in the citizen's report. Most important results about the energy transition: The work units 2, 4 and 5 dealt with several aspects of the energy transition. The most important recommendations from the citizens were: For a local energy-generation in cities solar energy should be combined with an energy mix. The energy costs should not increase through the energy transition. For a social and equitable configuration of the energy transition, the industry should have a stronger contribution. A citizens energy transition should categorically follow the ecological goals Most important results about the transport transition: The transport transition was discussed over a scenario for an urban mobility concept as well as the example of a pedestrian area in the city of Hamburg. A new mobility concept in the city should be characterized by an improvement of the cycle and pedestrian concepts as well as multimodality. Auto-free urban quarters should be appreciated as positive. To promote the switching of internal combustion vehicles to electric ones the acquisition costs must be lower. A very interesting charging option for electric cars are the light posts and the slow and inductive charging. To make electric vehicles more attractive, transition-grants should be awarded. To increase the usage of Car-sharing, the access to the vehicles should be easier. Most important recommendations for Mobility2Grid: In the work units 10 and 11 was the combination between energy and transport transition discussed. The most important recommendations are: The prerequisite for a deployment of a private car as an energy storage is the self-determination of the car owners. To be able to charge and discharge in a day-today basis, the infrastructure of the cities must be improved. The data privacy in an intelligent energy grid should be taken seriously and be considered from the start. Intelligent interconnection between research institutions and companies on the Campus EUREF Objectives: • To present the perspectives of industry and academia stakeholders from their cooperation within the EUREF Campus. • To use the ideas of the featured stakeholders for the main phase of the research project. • To contribute to the development of a cooperation strategy and common identity. • To support the communication, knowledge transfer and know-how between the industry and academia. • To communicate the research-project to the external community.
For the purpose of utilizing electric bus fleets in metropolitan areas and with regard to providing active energy management at depots, a profound understanding of the transactions between the market entities involved in the charging process is given. The paper examines sophisticated charging strategies with energy procurements in joint market operation. Here, operation procedures and characteristics of a depot including the physical layout and utilization of appropriate charging infrastructure are investigated. A comprehensive model framework for a virtual power plant (VPP) is formulated and developed to integrate electric bus fleets in the power plant portfolio, enabling the provision of power system services. The proposed methodology is verified in numerical analysis by providing optimized dispatch schedules in day-ahead and intraday market operations.
Increasing numbers of electric vehicles and renewable power generation can be beneficial for curbing carbon emissions. Vehicle2Grid technologies are available for integrating such vehicles into power networks that are fed with volatile renewable energies. Hence, cars, busses, and trucks can serve as both flexible energy storage and source. This paper summarizes results of the Mobility2Grid research project in the fields of grids and vehicles, acceptance and participation, and business models. As the paper focusses on the question of how to get from research results to application, it also features questions of successful cooperation and communication within the project. It is shown that it is technologically possible to apply Vehicle2Grid technologies in real-life scenarios; that user acceptance can be facilitated; and that potentially viable business models exist.
In order to explore possible solutions for smart grid applications, the integration of a uni-and bidirectional charging infrastructure for the operation of an electric bus is investigated and partly demonstrated. The established infrastructure is used to charge a bus battery or to feed electrical energy into the power system. Necessary components with consideration of applicable standards, guidelines and regulations are described and discussed. An approach for the information system integration is proposed, which enables a bidirectional data exchange between different entities in a superior control system and therefore regulation and control possibilities. Furthermore, the operational use of the electric bus and real-world measurements of charging processes are presented.
The paradigm shift towards a more sustainable energy supply with a less detrimental environmental impact successively changes the energy sector from a polycentric towards a more distributed energy system. The presence of distributed and renewable energy sources combined with the anticipated electrification of the transport sector results in changes along the entire value chain. This so-called transformation process is accompanied by energy market deregulation and restructuring of the power system. However, in order to increase energy efficiency and improve environmental protection, investigations are needed to establish reliable and secure infrastructures. This will be accompanied by the development of suitable computer aided software solutions for energy market participants and system operators. With further advances in information and communication technology and system automation, there are significant opportunities for realizing such a sustainable energy future. In this context, the thesis provides a comprehensive discussion of the potential application and deployment of Virtual Power Plants. Here, the aggregation concept serves as a vehicle for the implementation of coordinated and optimized control decisions by means of interconnected and interoperable solutions. The developed methodologies and functionalities are implemented through the service-oriented design and control scheme of the Virtual Power Plant for the determination of economic and technical feasible solutions in energy market and power system operations. Following the framework conditions of liberalized energy markets, an energy management algorithm for joint market operations is established which aims to integrate various distributed, renewable and mobile energy sources. A mixed integer linear programming formulation is proposed for solving the unit commitment and dispatch problem of the Virtual Power Plant operator in multi-period optimization processes. The presented methodology allows trading of various market products with variable time increments capable of solving real-time market transactions. By providing a uniform model architecture for scalable power plant portfolios, deterministic planning methods and comprehensive investigations are performed. In particular, electric vehicles are considered as additional sources of energy in joint market operations for the provision of service-oriented operations. Furthermore, multilateral transactions are reflected in the hierarchically structured optimization problem formulation for enhancing the allocation of power system services. The simulation results of the market-related interactions serve to identify the temporal and spatial effects in power system operations. Within this framework, a coordinated voltage control is proposed which combines both local droop controls with remote control algorithms. This allows the additional flexibilities provided by a comprehensive set of distributed, renewable and mobile energy sources to be exploited to mitigate time-varying voltage variations. In addition, the modeling of an active network management is carried out for the purpose of conducting control algorithms for electric vehicles charging in distribution systems. Appropriate evaluation functions and programming indicators are presented to determine the simulation results.
For the purpose of utilizing electrified bus fleets in metropolitan areas and with regards to provide an active energy management at intra-urban depot, a profound understanding of the transactions between the market entities involved in the charging process is given. Sophisticated charging strategies with energy procurements in joint market operation are presented. Further, the operation procedures and characteristics of an intra-urban depot including the physical layout and utilization of appropriate charging infrastructure are investigated. For the purpose of joint market operations and provision of power system services, a Virtual Power Plant (VPP) is formulated and developed that integrates the capacities of the electrified bus fleet in the power plant portfolio. The proposed optimization model is verified in numerical analysis and the applicability of using the energy capacity of the electrified bus fleet in VPP operations is demonstrated.
Three approaches for grid integration of Electric Vehicles (EVs) through a Virtual Power Plant (VPP) concept are introduced. A classification of these different ways for realizing a VPP based on the control structure, resource type, and the aggregation approach is discussed. This is followed by a description of the three VPP approaches, which are referred to as direct, hierarchical, and distributed control approaches. For each of the three approaches, the necessary operational steps are discussed and the differences are highlighted. Finally, a case study is presented to demonstrate EV integration through a VPP concept.
The paper presents an agent-based scheduling and energy management system for a smart distribution feeder which is installed on a test site and includes an electric car sharing fleet. Distributed Energy storage systems provide flexibility in the operation of the test site, where the integration of multiple power sources including Renewable Energy Sources and Distributed Generators is implemented. A software agent control architecture is introduced, which is divided into distinct subsystems in order to consider market roles of the Micro Smart Grid Operator, Car Sharing Operator and Distribution System Operator. Within this architecture, an optimization mechanism with the objective to maximize the utilization of Renewable Energy Sources for charging the electric vehicles is implemented and the functionality of the agent-based system is tested in response to a basic electric vehicle booking and charging scenario.