added a research item
Deep Learning becomes the most accurate and precise paradigms for the detection of plant disease. Leaves of Infected crops are collected and labelled according to the disease. Processing of image is performed along with pixel-wise operations to enhance the image information. It is followed with feature extraction, segmentation and the classification of patterns of captured leaves in order to identify plant leaf diseases. Four classifier labels are used as Bacterial Spot, Yellow Leaf Curl Virus, Late Blight and Healthy Leaf. The features extracted are fit into the neural network with 20 epochs. Several artificial neural network architectures are implemented with the best performance of 98.59% accuracy in determining the plant disease. This was a great success, demonstrating the feasibility of this approach in the field of Plant Disease Diagnosis and high crop yielding.
p class="Default"> With the digital disruption governments all over the world have envisaged into big data technology with the purpose of seeking values for the benefit of governmental activities. Governments have taken up this technology as a game changer of the e-governance. Citizen centric data over the web access and activities over the smart handsets have driven large volume of data not only in structured form but largely in unstructured form. The necessity of processing and analyzing the exploding data sets has driven governments to adopt this technology. This paper studies the possibility of digitalizing Nepal e-government services with innovative problem solving measures by adapting the Big Data applications. Following the global trend of digitalization and the ICT infrastructure development, Nepal e-Government services can initiate Big Data technology to resolve many of the governmental services. This paper explores some big data applications for the e-government of Nepal and further studies some challenges that Nepal could face while adopting the Big data in the e-government services. Journal of the Institute of Engineering , 2018, 14(1): 216-222</p
p>Information Exchange has always been an integral part of our lives. With the rapid advancement in Information and communication technologies, communication and information exchange have become much easier and faster but at the same time the issues regarding security of data and its confidentiality have become our major concern. Cryptography and Steganography are two such data hiding techniques that can be combined together in order to enhance data security. Cryptography scrambles a message so that it cannot be understood whereas Steganography hides its existence. In this process, message is first encrypted using an algorithm based on Fibonacci series or the Rijndael cryptographic algorithm and then the encrypted message is embedded inside an image using improved Least Significant Bit substitution method where the secret information is stored into a specific position of Least Significant Bit of an image based on the security key entered. This combinational methodology will satisfy the requirements such as capacity, security and robustness for secure data transmission over an open channel. Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management , Vol. 2, 2016, Page: 105-112</p
p>Successful Information and communication technology (ICT) can cause rapid development in administrative processes. ICT strategies and ICT plans should be evaluated to align with organization visions and missions in order to achieve effective use of ICT in their organizations . Efficient Software and Hardware together play a vital role giving relevant information which helps improving ways we do business, learn, communicate, entertain and work. This exposes to an environment with significant risks which are vulnerable to inside or outside attacks [2,3]. Security is a degree of protection or resistance from harm. Security can also be defined as a layer created to separate assets from threats . In order to understand clearly about security, it is very important to understand important terminologies . This research paper talks about important terminologies, concerns and challenges on Information System and Security Audit. This research seeks explanation from the observed phenomena, problems or behavior and thus exploratory research is used. The outcome of this research is an overview of different security concerns that must be sincerely addressed in any Information System and Security Audit. Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management, Vol. 2, 2016, Page:127-135</p
The lab manual of C Programming provides twelve laboratory exercises to provide the concept of programming for beginners. In addition, students will be well familiar with report writing skills and make them prepared for the lab VIVA.These lab sheets will guide guide student to prepare for programming and submission of lab reports. These exercise shall be taken as the base reference during lab activities for students of intermediate and bachelor of engineering, science & technology. students have to submit lab report of previous lab into corresponding next lab during when instructor shall take necessary VIVA for each lab works. “how to write a complete lab report?” is being prepared as sample report for LAB sheet #1 and LAB sheet #2 in this manual. Students are requested follow the reporting style as provided. The lab report to be submitted should include at least the following topics. 1. Cover page 2. Title 3. Objective(s) 4. Problem Analysis 5. Algorithm 6. Flowchart 7. Coding 8. Output (compilation, debugging & testing) 9. Discussion & Conclusion. On each lab, students have to submit the report as mentioned above however for additional lab exercises; they have to show the coding and output to instructor. The lab exercises shall not be completed in a single specific lab. Students are encouraged to complete the programming questions given in the exercise prior to come to the lab hour and do the lab for the given title/objectives.
Different fractal structures and their relevance in navigational antennas have been studied. Based on multiband characteristics and performance of sierpinski gasket fractal structures, a dual band, low profile antenna is devised in this paper. Classical fractal structures have been generated with extensive use of MATLAB, dimensions o f the parasitic layers are determined via several optimizations in MathCAD and finally design analysis is carried out using Ansoft Designer. The performance of this antenna is theoretically measured in terms of its return loss, gain radiation pattern and axial ratio. The multi layered physical antenna has been fabricated using glass epoxy substrate material contributing acceptable bandwidth in both bands. The measured performance of the fabricated antenna has been analyzed and evaluated with the theoretical outcomes.
The aim of this paper is to evaluate 27 central government websites of the government of Nepal using web-based analysis tool called "Bobby". The evaluation is based on the Web Content Accessibility guidelines (WCAG) provided by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). The results of the evaluation, the importance of Web accessibility and recommendations for improvement are highlighted in the paper.
This paper presents a modified Adapted Lesk algorithm for word sense disambiguation in Nepali language. We included the synset, gloss, example and hypernym of the context words to form the final collection of context words. The context window contains all the words from the whole sentence except articles, prepositions and pronouns. The collection of words for each sense of a target word is also formed by including their synset, gloss, example and hypernym. Each word in the collection of context words is compared with every word in the collection of words for each sense of a target word to count the overlaps. Moreover, the numbers of examples for each word in our sample Nepali WordNet have been increased to four in average. The experiments performed on 348 words including 59 polysemy words shows the accuracy level of our algorithm to be 88.05%.
This paper presents a new model of WordNet that is used to disambiguate the correct sense of polysemy word based on the clue words. The related words for each sense of a polysemy word as well as single sense word are referred to as the clue words. The conventional WordNet organizes nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs together into sets of synonyms called synsets each expressing a different concept. In contrast to the structure of WordNet, we developed a new model of WordNet that organizes the different senses of polysemy words as well as the single sense words based on the clue words. These clue words for each sense of a polysemy word as well as for single sense word are used to disambiguate the correct meaning of the polysemy word in the given context using knowledge based Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) algorithms. The clue word can be a noun, verb, adjective or adverb.
Ad hoc network often refers to a mode of operation of IEEE 802.11 wireless networks. Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET) is the subclass of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). VANETs are expected to support a large spectrum of mobile distributed applications that range from traffic alert dissemination and dynamic route planning to context-aware advertisement and file sharing VANET is one of the influencing areas for the improvement of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) in order to provide safety and comfort to the road users. Data delivery in VANETs is particularly challenging due to the unique characteristics of VANETs, especially under the circumstance of sparsely connected VANETs. An integration of VANET and 3G networks using mobile gateways will improve the delivery ratio. In addition to that it will also minimize the delivery delay. A packet can either be delivered via multi-hop transmissions in the VANET or via 3G[1-4]. Data delivery is very challenging in VANETs because of its unique characteristics, such as fast topology change, frequent disruptions, and rare contact opportunities. This paper tries to explore the scope of 3G-assisted data delivery in a VANET within a budget constraint of 3G traffic. It is started from the simple S_Random (Srand) and finally reached the 3GSDD, i.e., the proposed algorithm. The performance evaluation of different algorithms is done through the two metrics delivery ratio and average delay. A third function utility is created to reflect the above two metrics and is used to find out the best algorithm. A packet can either be delivered via multihop transmissions in the VANET or via 3G. The main challenge is to decide which set of packets should be selected for 3G transmissions and when to deliver them via 3G. The aim is to select and send those packets through 3G that are most sensitive and requiring immediate attention. Through appropriate communication mechanism, these sensitive information are delivered via VANET for 3G transmissions. The delivery ratio of the packets can also be maximized by this proposed system.. Keywords: VANET, 3G, 3GDD, NS2, clustering
The programming languages have become important to develop computer programs. It is essential to write efficient programs in order to solve all simple to complex problems. An efficient and powerful high level language like C helps to solve large and complex problems in reasonable time. Learning C as a programming language is the first step for those who want to enter the profession of computer programming. As the programming language C gives standard construct, it is easier to learn any other language if one has a clear concept of C. This book “A Textbook of C programming” is written as a course book for B.E, B.I.T, B.C.A., B.B.A., B.I.M., and intermediate level of various universities of Nepal. This is a complete book in C programming language to assist students in learning process. The book focuses on theory as well as programming examples to facilitate students on programming using C. The entire book is divided into fourteen chapters and appendices. Each chapter has been presented with detail explanation of relevant theory topics, immediate examples to illustrate the related theory, a number of solved examples and exercises to enhance analytical skills. It contains more than 200 solved examples which help to familiarize the readers with many problems and write programs to solve them. Chapter fourteen is the dedicated chapter which covers all about the programming concepts with FORTRAN. This FORTRAN programming concepts shall be helpful for all and especially to Institute of Engineering (IOE) students who have to study FORTRAN with C Programming as a course in their syllabus. In addition with the syllabus chapters, it provides appendix for Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) which will be beneficial to get clear concepts, guidelines in project development in C with sample projects, programming lab sheets suitably designed to perform lab activities for a maximum of 2.5 hours lab per week in the university colleges. We proudly say that “TEXT BOOK OF C PROGRAMMING” has been published with its revised edition to meet the expectation of professors/lecturers as well as students and fulfill the course requirements of all the universities of Nepal and abroad.
Considering the demands on C-Programming from intermediate and bachelor levels of different streams, this book is presented to all those lecturers and students who are willing to get immediate answers of several popular programming questions in their academic courses with terms and definitions within the subject of C Programming. Examples and evidences are the most important part of learning. Use of examples in teaching/learning makes us clear about the concepts. However there are hundreds of, thousands of examples we can create in programming, the several examples in this book will guide you to strengthen your theory knowledge on C-programming and increase your programming skills so that your further skills on object oriented programming and real life programming in your JOB will also be boosted up properly. This book has six sections and appendices starting with the concepts of history of computers, programming fundamentals and all about C programming with its examples. Brief knowledge on theory with terms and definitions are included before the examples on every section. Every section has hundreds of examples, included old questions of universities of Nepal. The summary of terms and definitions with examples would be fruitful to students for short time preparation in the exam as well as lecturers shall feel comfortable while teaching to present these examples to achieve the learning objectives. ONLY LAB SHEETS SHALL BE DOWNLOADED FORM HERE
बिज्ञान तथा प्रबिधी अन्तरगतको इन्जिनियरिङ् शिक्षाको महत्व हाम्रो देशमा मात्र नभई विश्वमानै उच्च छ र क्षेमतावान प्राविधीकहरुको माग संसार भरीनै बढेको तथ्याङ्कहरुबाट देख्न सकिन्छ। यसै सन्दर्भमा हाम्रो जस्तो बिकास-उन्मुख देशको लागि त गुणस्तरिय प्राबिधिकहरुको निकैनै खांचो देखिन्छ। भुक्मपले धोस्त भएका पुराना संरचनाको पुनरनिर्माण र नयां संरचनाको बिकास, जलस्रोतको धनि भएतापनि हामी जनाता अँध्यारोमै बस्नु पर्ने बाध्यता साथै सूचना तथा प्रबिधिमा खासै फड्को मार्न नसकेको अवस्थामा र नयाँ सम्बिधान मार्फत देशको राजनीतिक तथा भौगलिक परिवर्तन संगै देशमा प्राबिधीक दक्ष जनसक्तिको आवश्यकता बढ्दै गएको भने पक्का छ। इ. स. १९७२ देखि प्राविधिक शिक्षा सुरु भई प्रथम स्थापित इन्जिनियरिङ् अद्ययन संस्थान लगायत हाल देशमा इन्जिनियरङ् शिक्षा प्रदान गर्ने थुप्रै बिश्वबिद्यालयहरुको स्थापना भैसकेको भएता पनि अपेक्षाकृत रुपमा गुणस्तरिय जनशक्ति उत्तपादन भने भैरहेको देखिंदैन। आधुनिक युगको आधुनीकिकरण संगै स्थापित नयाँ बिश्वविध्यालयहरुको उत्पादन स्तरिय हुनु पर्ने हो तथापि यो देखिंदैन। माथील्लो निकायको उचित भूमिका, शिक्षा नीतिमा ल्याउनु पर्ने सुधार र एकरुपता अनि शैक्षिक गतिबिधिमा आधुनिकता अहिलेको माग हो। यस लेख मार्फत देशलाई आवश्यक पर्ने प्राबिधिक जनशक्ति निर्माणमा हाल स्थापित बिश्वबिध्यालयहरुले प्रदान गर्ने शिक्षामा के कस्तो गुणस्तर अवस्था छ? ति बिश्वबिध्यालयहरुले आवश्यकता अनुसारको जनशक्ति निर्माणमा के कस्तो भूमिका निर्बाह गरेका छन? आदि बिषयमा प्रस्तुत गर्नुको साथै गुणस्तरिय शिक्षा प्रदान गर्न देशको पुरानो र बिश्वमान चित्रमा स्थापित त्रिभुवन विश्वबिद्यालय इन्जिनियरिङ् अद्ययन संस्थान (इ. अ. स.) को थप भूमिका र यसको चुनौतिका बारेमा समेत प्रस्तुत गर्ने प्रयास गरिएको छ।
There exists different parameters that act as influencing factors to measure the quality of technical education. Nature of examination with its process and activities has direct and indirect relationship towards quality product and result status in any academic institution. Institute of Engineering (IOE) is continuously enhancing the examination process with the objective to increase the quality and pass rate in the semester examination. Being to conduct several bi-annual exams, Examination Control Division (ECD) of Institute of Engineering (IOE) is mostly the busy organization that has to manage examinations for bachelor, masters and PhD degree programs throughout the year. ECD conducts by-annual semester exams for regular and back exam of bachelor of engineering students having 10 streams (Civil, Computer, Electronics, Electrical, Mechanical, Geomatics, Agriculture, Industrial, Architecture and Automobile) in its four constituent campuses and ten affiliated colleges. Similarly, ECD also conducts bi-annual exams for masters of engineering programs having seven streams and 24 sub-streams. There are more than 16,000 examinees in the bachelor exam including regular and back. Additionally, successful conduction of BE/BArch/ M.Sc. entrance examinations is also an integral duty of ECD. The student pass rate in the semester exams of IOE is below expectations. This study is mostly focused on finding the factors affecting the quality results and approaches of optimizations for better education at IOE. After reviewing several factors, we proposed “restructuring of regular and back paper examinations” as one of the major approach that will help to increase the quality of education and consequently increase the pass rate in the semester examination system of IOE.
p class="Default"> Institute of Engineering (IOE), Tribhuvan University (TU) is the government owned oldest institution in Nepal providing quality education in the engineering domain since 1972. However in the recent decade, other several universities are established in the country, IOE hasn’t lost its popularity with its major features to have dedication on quality education to fulfill the world class education. As a public institution, it provides equal opportunities for all qualified citizens to enter into the university education. With the increasing number of affiliated colleges and applicants, the entrance exam and admission system are becoming challenging. Accepting the challenges, IOE adapted online applications and admit card generation with computer based entrance exam since 2014. Since recent past years, the student pass rate in the semester exams is not satisfactory. It raised the quality issues and required to find the causes so as to enhance quality. However there are several factors that affect the education quality, we identified that the admission process followed in most of the affiliated colleges is partially in the meritorious basis that affects the semester exam results. From this paper, we analyzed the past admission process and the student’s status in semester exam where we tried to co-relate the quality intake in entrance exam and the semester exam of IOE. We proposed an optimal technical framework to admit merit based applicants through online centralized admission system that helps to overcome the admission challenges and enhance the quality of engineering education of IOE. Journal of the Institute of Engineering , 2017, 13(1): 48-59</p
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is a technology to transfer voice signal over the internet (Network). The transmission of audio data over digital packet switched networks faces lots of issues and challenges basically due to the presence of network impairments such as packet loss, delay, echo, network security and throughput. The biggest issue in the digital voice and video communication is the loss of packets due to network congestion, delay, jitter and other network factors. Different protocols have been standardized to detect and recover the lost packets to overcome the issues and maintain the quality of communication. However, for a real time application it is too late before a lost intermediate packet is retransmitted. This paper evaluates the implementation of a good Packet Loss Concealment (PLC) techniques that must be in action to minimize the effect of packet loss during voice communication. PLC algorithm is an end-to-end bidirectional transmission control scheme that minimizes the effect of data loss to improve sound quality in voice communication.
Online education is education training delivered primarily via the Internet to students at remote locations, which encompasses any kind of learning that, can be done exclusively online. Sometimes this learning is through free, self-study websites. Often, though, students learn through virtual universities such as the WIDE University and others. We are just going to focus about brief introduction and operating environment as well as the current IPv6 network Infrastructure of “school On internet” project under WIDE University running since September 1997. WIDE university is an experimental University to research about the new form of higher education on the Internet infrastructure whose sole objective is to share lectures within Asian countries by implementing latest internet and network technologies. It is a research project which consists of group of research team from twenty-six partner universities of thirteen Asian countries including Tribhuvan University, Nepal
The recent breakthrough in Information and Communication Technologies(ICT) make the internet and e-mail as a basic service for the people of every country. The rapid growth in internet users and ICT market by the development of smart devices increase the challenges in hardware and networking management as well as effciency on software and services. Hence migration to new and latest technologies like software defned networking, cloud computing and IPv6 addressing become inevitable for the service providers throughout the world. Asia is the frst continent where shortage of IPv4 was faced. APNIC announced the depletion of IPv4 address on April 2011 . Similarly the IPv4 pool on other Regional Internet Registries have already fnished except AFRINIC. With the shortage of address, Asian countries like Japan, China, India, Malaysia etc... have developed the government policies and national roadmap. They are under monitoring and evaluation of the private and public networks. European union and the American government put forward the priority on IPv6 network migration. In this paper a migration roadmap for Nepal is being proposed after reviewing the world’s IPv6 migration status, other countries policy and roadmap for migration planning as well as survey carried out with Nepalese telecom, internet market and government agencies . Journal of the Institute of Engineering, 2015, 11(1): 67-78
With the advancement of computing technologies, the modern cloud computing and virtualization system is highly distributed by the invention of better and light weight distributed applications packaging toolkit over the cloud environment, called the container technology. Cloud containers feature the management of applications with easy plug and play ability, migration, replication, relocation, upgrading et cetera in the real time. Such containers running different applications over the cloud infrastructure may consume different resources that require real time monitoring. Docker is an open source platform independent tool to create, deploy, and run applications by using Containers. Billions of applications for the end users and SMEs running over the cloud require efficient management, monitoring and operations to achieve better SLAs for cloud service providers. With this research, a Docker Container and Migration Monitoring System (CoMMoN) has been developed in which a customer running its application in a Container shall monitor its application in the real-time as well as take decision for the migration of Container to another network by service provider for liad balancing or by the customer under the violation of SLA. Once the customer registers its Container to the monitoring system, the monitoring probe collects different monitoring metrics and sends those parameters to remote monitoring system. The system which stores the monitoring metrics into InFluxDB, a time series database, also monitors the real-time migration of the Containers among the network. Journal of the Institute of Engineering, 2016, 12(1): 51-62