RESERVOIR: Sustainable groundwater RESources managEment by integrating earth observation deriVed monitoring and flOw modelIng Results
- Massimiliano Ferronato
- Gerardo Herrera
- Pablo Ezquerro
The RESERVOIR project aims to provide new products and services for a sustainable groundwater management model to be developed and tested in four water-stressed Mediterranean pilot sites. The water usages of these aquifers are irrigation, drinking water and/or power generation. Each site is prone to different issues such as land subsidence, salt water intrusion, water pollution, over-exploitation and insufficient recharge. The methodology consist on various steps: 1) Preliminary assessment of ground deformation using the GEP: identification of potential deformation areas. 2) Conclusive A-DInSAR analysis with supervised procedures: terrain displacement data. 3) Characterization and calibration of groundwater flow and deformational numerical models using MT-DInSAR and in situ data. 4) Provide effective support tools for the stakeholders and authorities in charge of the land and groundwater management. User friendly, fast, all resources are external, robust results EXPLORING LAND SUBSIDENCE WITH A-DINSAR THEMATIC APPS OF THE GEOHAZARDS PLATFORM 99% all liquid Earth's freshwater 50% drinking world's water 40% irrigation world's water 30% industry world's water Groundwater depletion can cause Land Subsidence Land subsidence detection and monitoring: A-DInSAR
Recent studies highlight the fragility of the Mediterranean basin against climate stresses and the difficulties of managing the sustainable development of groundwater resources. In this work, the main issues related to groundwater management have been identified from the stakeholder’s perspective in the following four representative water-stressed Mediterranean areas: the coastal aquifer of Comacchio (Italy), the Alto Guadalentín aquifer (Spain), the alluvial aquifer of the Gediz River basin (Turkey), and the Azraq aquifer (Azraq Wetland Reserve, Jordan). This has been achieved by designing a methodology to involve and engage a representative set of stakeholders, including a questionnaire to learn their point of view concerning the current management of aquifer systems and their experience with the already available tools for groundwater resource management, such as monitoring networks and numerical models. The outcome of the survey has allowed us to identify both particular and common challenges among the four study sites and among the various groups of stakeholders. This information provides valuable insights to improve the transfer of scientific knowledge from the research centers to the authorities managing the groundwater resources and it will help to plan more effective research activities on aquifer management. The proposed methodology could be applied in other aquifers facing similar problems.
Groundwater is a vitally important resource for humans. One of the main problems derived from the overexploitation ofaquifers is land subsidence, which in turn carries other associated natural risks. Advanced Differential satellite radarinterferometry (A-DInSAR) techniques provide valuable information on the surface displacements of the ground, whichserve to characterize both the deformational behaviour of the aquifer and its properties. RESERVOIR is a research projectbelonging to the European PRIMA programme, whose main objective is to design sustainable groundwater managementmodels through the study of four areas of the Mediterranean subjected to water stress. One of the main tasks of the projectis the integration of the terrain deformation data obtained with satellite remote sensing techniques in the hydrogeologicaland geomechanical models of the aquifers. In the present work, a first evaluation of the deformation of the ground in eachstudy area is carried out using the tools contained in the Geohazards Exploitation Platform (GEP). This is a service financedby the European Space Agency (ESA) that allows processing directly on its server, without need to store data orapplications locally.
Subsidence, the lowering of Earth's land surface, is a potentially destructive hazard that can be caused by a wide range of natural or anthropogenic triggers but mainly results from solid or fluid mobilization underground. Subsidence due to groundwater depletion (1) is a slow and gradual process that develops on large time scales (months to years), producing progressive loss of land elevation (centimeters to decimeters per year) typically over very large areas (tens to thousands of square kilometers) and variably affects urban and agricultural areas worldwide. Subsidence permanently reduces aquifer-system storage capacity, causes earth fissures, damages buildings and civil infrastructure, and increases flood susceptibility and risk. During the next decades, global population and economic growth will continue to increase groundwater demand and accompanying groundwater depletion (2) and, when exacerbated by droughts (3), will probably increase land subsidence occurrence and related damages or impacts. To raise awareness and inform decision-making, we evaluate potential global subsidence due to groundwater depletion, a key first step toward formulating effective land-subsidence policies that are lacking in most countries worldwide.
The San Luis Potosi metropolitan area has suffered considerable damage from land subsidence over the past decades, which has become visible since 1990. This paper seeks to evaluate the effects of groundwater withdrawal on land subsidence in the San Luis Potosi Valley and the development of surface faults due to the differential compaction of sediments. For this purpose, we applied the Coherent Pixels Technique (CPT), a Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) technique, using 112 Sentinel-1 acquisitions from October 2014 to November 2019 to estimate the deformation rate. The results revealed that the deformation areas in the municipality of Soledad de Graciano Sánchez mostly exhibit subsidence values between −1.5 and −3.5 cm/year; whereas in San Luis Potosi these values are between −1.8 and −4.2 cm/year. The PSI results were validated by five Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) benchmarks available, providing a data correlation between the results obtained with both techniques of 0.986. This validation suggests that interferometric derived deformations agree well with results obtained from GNSS data. The strong relationship between trace fault, land subsidence,e and groundwater extraction suggests that groundwater withdrawal is resulting in subsidence induced faulting, which follows the pattern of structural faults buried by sediments.
The launch of the medium resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Sentinel-1 constellation in 2014 has allowed public and private organizations to introduce SAR interferometry (InSAR) products as a valuable option in their monitoring systems. The massive stacks of displacement data resulting from the processing of large C-B and radar images can be used to highlight temporal and spatial deformation anomalies, and their detailed analysis and postprocessing to generate operative products for final users. In this work, the wide-area mapping capability of Sentinel-1 was used in synergy with the COSMO-SkyMed high resolution SAR data to characterize ground subsidence affecting the urban fabric of the city of Pistoia (Tuscany Region, central Italy). Line of sight velocities were decomposed on vertical and E-W components, observing slight horizontal movements towards the center of the subsidence area. Vertical displacements and damage field surveys allowed for the calculation of the probability of damage depending on the displacement velocity by means of fragility curves. Finally, these data were translated to damage probability and potential loss maps. These products are useful for urban planning and geohazard management, focusing on the identification of the most hazardous areas on which to concentrate efforts and resources.