Project

REMOVAL OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AND SOME BACTERIA FROM CONTAMINATED WATER USING SOME SELECTED RAW AND MODIFIED FRUIT WASTE PRODUCTS

Goal: to synthesize adsorbents from locally available materials and apply these adsorbents in their raw and modified forms in removal of selected phenolic compounds and some bacteria from contaminated water

Updates
0 new
0
Recommendations
0 new
0
Followers
0 new
2
Reads
0 new
13

Project log

James Ndiritu
added a research item
Abstract Anthropogenic activities contribute large amounts of pollutants to the environment which threaten animal and human health. There is increased realization of the effect of these toxins on surface and ground water, consequently, their elimination is vital in rendering secure water for drinking as well as culpable release of effluents to our habitats. Phenolic compounds cause serious health effects to both humans and animals, a p-Nitrophenol concentration of 1ppb changes the taste and odour of water as well as meat and fish quality. In humans, exposure to PNP causes eye and skin burns while its interaction with blood leads to confusion, cyanosis and unconsciousness. It is imperative therefore to find ways for removing PNP from water. Among the available techniques for removing PNP from water, adsorption is more convenient and offers more advantages because of its design, simplicity and operating flexibility. The present study involved application of raw and modified peels of Afromomum melegueta agricultural wastes to remove PNP from water through adsorption. The raw adsorbents were modified with a quaternary ammonium salt to improve their uptake efficiency. The impact of experimental parameters; contact time, pH, sorbent dose, temperature and concentration was investigated. Attenuated FTIR technique was employed to characterize the adsorbent materials. It was established that the quaternary ammonium compound was anchored chemically within the cellulose structure of Afromomum melegueta peels. The behavior of adsorption of PNP was investigated using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The physical sorption load was 8.70 and 106.38 mg/g for raw and quaternised Afromomum melegueta peels respectively from Langmuir adsorption equation. Uptake of PNP is high at the first 30 mins of contact and at sorbent dosage of 0.01 g and 0.03 g for RAM and QAM respectively. Quantity of PNP removed increases as the initial concentration rises however, adsorption decreases after a concentration exceeding 30 mg/L. The ideal pH and temperature for PNP removal is at pH 3 and 25 ˚C respectively. In conclusion, the findings suggest that Afromomum melegueta peels can be friendly to the environment, cheap biosorbents and efficient which can be applied for the uptake of PNP from drinking water. Key Words: Afromomum melegueta, Adsorption, Modification, Quaternised, p-Nitrophenol, Isotherms
James Ndiritu
added a research item
Phenolic compounds are injurious to human and animal health, for instance PNP is an eye irritant and its ingestion or inhalation brings about vomiting, sleepiness, headaches and ataxia. Interaction of PNP with blood leads to confusion, cyanosis and unconsciousness. Conventional water treatment methods for example; use of activated carbons involve high production cost hence not attractive to many needy people. It's important to explore on cheaper alternatives for removing PNP from drinking water. The current inquiry deals with the utilization of thorn melon (Cucumis metuliferus) peels in their raw and modified forms as adsorbents for PNP. Raw thorn melon peels were modified using a quaternary ammonium salt and then applied for the uptake of p-Nitrophenol (PNP) from aqueous media. The influence of experimental parameters: concentration, contact time, pH, sorbent dose, temperature and initial concentration were investigated. The adsorbent materials were characterized using FTIR. The adsorption behavior of the PNP was studied using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The physical sorption load was 12.79 and 16.31 mg/g for raw and quaternised thorn melon peels respectively from Langmuir adsorption equation. Uptake of PNP on adsorbent was indicated to rise with decreased initial concentration and lowering pH to a value of 3. This study showed that thorn melon peels are friendly to the environment, cheap biosorbents and useful which can be applied for the uptake of PNP from drinking water especially in quaternised form.
James Ndiritu
added a research item
Anthropogenic activities contribute large amounts of pollutants to the environment which threaten animal and human health. There is increased realization of the effect of these toxins on surface and ground water, consequently, their elimination is vital in rendering secure water for drinking as well as culpable release of effluents to our habitats. Phenolic compounds cause serious health effects to both humans and animals; a p-Nitrophenol concentration of 1 ppb changes the taste and odour of water as well as meat and fish quality. In humans, exposure to PNP causes eye and skin burns while its interaction with blood leads to confusion, cyanosis and unconsciousness. It is imperative therefore to find ways for removing PNP from water. Among the available techniques for removing PNP from water, adsorption is more convenient and offers more advantages because of its design, simplicity, and operating flexibility. The present study involved application of peels of raw Afromomum melegueta (RAM) and quaternised Afromomum melegueta (QAM) to remove PNP from water through adsorption. The raw adsorbents were modified with a quaternary ammonium salt to improve their uptake efficiency. The impact of experimental parameters; contact time, pH, sorbent dose, temperature and concentration were investigated. Attenuated FTIR technique was employed to characterize the adsorbent materials. It was established that the quaternary ammonium compound was anchored chemically within the cellulose structure of Afromomum melegueta peels. The behavior of adsorption of PNP was investigated using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The physical sorption load was 8.70 and 106.38 mg/g for RAM and QAM peels respectively from Langmuir adsorption equation. Uptake of PNP is high at the first 30 mins of contact and at sorbent dosage of 0.01 g and 0.03 g for RAM and QAM respectively. Quantity of PNP removed increases as the initial concentration rises however, adsorption decreases after a concentration exceeding 30 mg/L. The ideal pH and temperature for PNP removal is at pH 3 and 25 ˚C respectively. In conclusion, the findings suggest that Afromomum melegueta peels can be friendly to the environment, cheap biosorbents and efficient which can be applied for the uptake of PNP from drinking water
James Ndiritu
added a project goal
to synthesize adsorbents from locally available materials and apply these adsorbents in their raw and modified forms in removal of selected phenolic compounds and some bacteria from contaminated water