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Priska Daphi
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Social movement scholars have become increasingly interested in the role of stories in contentious politics. Stories may facilitate the mobilization of activists and strengthen the resonance of their claims within public discourse and institutional politics. This book explores the role of narratives in building collective identity – a vital element in activists’ continued commitment. While often claimed important, the connection between narratives and movement identity remains understudied. Drawing on a rich pool of original data, the book’s analysis focusses on the Global Justice Movement (GJM), a movement known for its diversity of political perspectives. Based on a comparison of different national constellations of the GJM in Europe, the book demonstrates the centrality of activists’ narratives in forming and maintaining movement identity and in making the GJM more enduring.
Britta Baumgarten
added a research item
Britta Baumgarten
added 2 research items
Social media is currently discussed as a tool to support wider and more democratic political participation. The article deals with the question in how far such tools improve global political participation.
Britta Baumgarten
added a research item
The socio-economic crisis in 2011 caused a decrease in living standards for a large part of the Portuguese population, especially after the implementation of a new austerity programme. At the same time the country saw an increase in alternative projects such as: self-organised cultural centres; urban gardening groups; and solidarity-based exchange networks. The main aim of this contribution is to analyse how the crisis impacted these projects in Portugal in cities and also rural areas. The argument that the cri-sis had an adverse effect on resilience projects is strengthened by the results of case studies in other countries affected by the crisis and by empirical observations regarding the case of Portugal. After having re-viewed the scarce literature on social resilience and alternative projects I present data from an analysis of internet pages and a questionnaire on the impact of the socio-economic crisis on the projects of Rede Convergir in 2015.
Britta Baumgarten
added a research item
Das theoretische Potential von Webseiten und Zeitungen als Da-tenquellen für die Analyse politischer Kommunikationsprozesse«. This article compares the strengths and weaknesses of websites and newspapers as data sources for the analysis of political communication. Both are characterised as process-generated data and thus share various advantages and disadvantages but vary in detail. We argue that the theoretical potential of these data types in analysing political communication is unequal. We highlight the differences of the sources in production bias, selection bias, access to data and in the extent to which those two types of data can be classified. Based on these fundamental characteristics, we claim that the specific qualities of the data types recom-mend them for some kind of questions while disqualifying them for others. While websites tend to be more suitable for analysing interpretive frames of individual actors for political issues rather than political discourses, weak rather than strong actors, and for case studies with a narrow time frame rather than longitudinal analysis, the strengths of newspapers tend to be the reverse. Still, whether to use newspapers, websites, other data sources or a combination of sources depends largely on specific aspects of the research question. Our overview of characteristics and possibilities of websites and newspapers should help the reader to take these factors into account.
Britta Baumgarten
added a research item
This introductory text has several goals. First, it sets the stage for the topic. Why give thought to civility? Second, it discusses various concepts of civility including their paradigmatic backgrounds. Third, the authors suggest a definition of civil society for future research. In operational terms, the authors subdivide civility into five fields of research: the history of the concept (‘Begriffsgeschichte’), and the four analytic dimensions of human rights, political rights, social rights and basic norms of everyday interaction. Fourth, from a historical point of view, this chapter roughly outlines the history of the concept ‘Zivilität’ as compared to ‘civility’ and ‘civilité’ to examine the analytic usefulness of the concept ‘civility’ with regard to critical periods in the European history of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Further, civility as a concept of Western origin should be applied with caution to non-Western cultures to avoid an ethnocentric bias. Though the authors abide by the idea of civility as a universal norm, it can be legitimised only to the extent that is submitted to critical public debate from which no groups and cultures can be excluded a priori.
Britta Baumgarten
added a research item
Resistance to dominant economic models of globalization has a long history that reaches back to various movements, protests and campaigns, as for example the Tupac Amaru uprising (1780–1781) or the anti-slave trade movement (which peaked between 1787 and 1807). This chapter focusses on one of the most recent incarnations, the ‘global justice movement’ (GJM). The recent mobilizations by the Indignados and the Occupy movements do not form part of this movement. These current movements entered the scene in 2011 and became prominent for their large street protests and occupations of public spaces. They are mainly directed towards their respective national governments, claiming more democracy and protesting against austerity programmes. According to Dieter Rucht in this volume ‘a social movement can be defined as a network of individuals, groups and organizations that, based on a sense of collective identity, seek to bring about social change (or resist social change) primarily by means of collective public protest’. In order to speak about a movement as an entity, there has to exist a certain degree of consensus of what activists perceived as a grievance and how problems and solutions are defined. The actors within movements also need to be related to each other, at least in the sense that they consider their struggles as related. Similarities in action forms and internal practices also have to exist in a meaningful way in order for observers to be able to talk about movements. These criteria are also important when we decide whether to consider a movement as a new movement or as a continuity of an existing movement. Although some claims and practices are very similar to the GJM’s, the organizational structure of the current protests differs and the international ties of the GJM are hardly used by these new movements. As the current mobilizations have a lot in common with the global justice movement and as there already exists some comparative research on these movements that reveals the continuities between the GJM and the current mobilizations, this chapter will occasionally highlight connections and similarities as well as differences and discontinuities between these movements.
Britta Baumgarten
added 2 research items
This article analyses the Portuguese mobilizations that started with the Geração à Rasca in March 2011. The author argues that international events and the import of ideas from movements abroad had an important impact on the organizational structure and the claims of the Portuguese mobilizations. The nation-state, however, remains a very important factor in activism: organizational structures as well as claims are to a great extent country-specific. The article provides also an overview of the protest events and the field of actors involved in the organization of protest. Data come from 10 months of field research, which included participant observations, in-depth interviews and the analysis of websites and mailing-lists.
Britta Baumgarten
added a research item
Culture has become a prominent concept in social movement research. It is, however, often employed in an unsystematic and limited way. This volume introduces and compares different concepts of culture in social movement research. It assesses advantages and shortcomings of existing concepts and introduces new approaches. In particular, it addresses facets of cultural theory that have hitherto been largely neglected in the literature on social movements. This includes ideas from anthropology, discourse analysis, sociology of emotions, narration, spatial theory, and others. The chapters in this volume address three relationships between social movements and culture: culture as a framework for movements, social movements' internal culture, and culture and cultural change as a result of social movement activity. For the purpose of making concepts easily accessible, each contribution explains its approach to culture in an understandable way and illustrates it with recent cases of mobilization. See also google books: http://books.google.de/books?id=5HCoBAAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=conceptualizing+culture+in+social+movement+research&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ofQ0VLCmH-a8ygPmmIDgCw&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=conceptualizing%20culture%20in%20social%20movement%20research&f=false