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Public Diplomacy

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Kadir Jun Ayhan
added a research item
Throughout the six decades evolution of the public diplomacy concept, international relations approaches have remained at the margins of the field. An important international relations theory that has been virtually non-existent in the public diplomacy literature is the English School of international relations. This theory has been the centerpiece of literature in diplomatic studies, but curiously, has not been applied to public diplomacy. In this editorial, I outline a public diplomacy framework for global governance issues that builds on the English School and Pamment's framework on the intersection of international development and public diplomacy.
Nancy Snow
added a research item
A former government official of an independent foreign affairs agency reflects on her experience as a woman in public diplomacy.
Nancy Snow
added 2 research items
Former Rhodes Scholar Senator J. William Fulbright was the greatest American propagandist of his day for what is considered the flagship international exchange program of the United States of America. Using a personal narrative approach, the author explores her participation in the flagship program of the U.S. Government that she argues is a form of good (virtuous) propaganda. No matter the personal enrichment outcomes or binational administration architecture of this sponsored international exchange, the nature of the sponsorship tilts American virtue. The Fulbright propagation of "persons equipped and willing to deal with conflict or conflict-producing situations on the basis of an informed determination to solve them peacefully" is a much better form of persuasion than propagations that permeate today.
Public diplomacy is often cast as having magical powers of persuasion-it can help stop wars before they happen through active listening, efforts to build mutual understanding and promote dialogue, and collaboration across country, culture, and sector. But the reality is that as a field of impact, we aren't there yet. We have a smattering of elite institutions of higher education with advanced degree offerings in this field, but in the larger scheme of impacting the narrative, we're small dogs who don't often mix with the big dogs. The big dogs are the political science and policy-driven programs that sideline our importance and our values-driven undertakings. We have a few stars in our growing constellation of public diplomacy scholars, but none to rival the realpolitik, game theory, and positivist noteworthies whose theories and methods correlated with the rise of political science and international relations.
Kadir Jun Ayhan
added 5 research items
Country images have been notoriously difficult to capture and measure effectively. In this article, we propose a methodological approach that combines designed and found data to capture public attitudes. We demonstrate how a mixed-method design with survey data and digital data – namely tweets and Google Trends – make it possible to better capture what target audiences think about a country. We make the case for such a combination by highlighting three aspects of country images. First, to understand what different types of public think about a country, we need to listen to different voices, and complement standardised public opinion survey data with open questions and digital data. Second, social media platforms are invaluable data resources as well as outlets that people on social media turn to for news and information. Last, digital data is unique and powerful, but difficult to analyse and interpret to create value for developing strategic communication policies. Public opinion survey data can help structure digital data and link both outcomes with each other. We support our methodological arguments through an illustrative study of the South Korean country image. We conclude our article by presenting a roadmap for multi-method analysis.
본 절에서 우리는 국가포용성지수(SII)와 세계정치에서의 소프트파워 간의 상관관계를 찾는 일 을 맡았다. 예상했던대로, 권력, 특히 소프트파워를 측정하는 일은 단순하지 않기 때문에 이것은 쉬운 과제가 아니었다. Joseph Nye의 말처럼, “권력은 사랑과 비슷해서 정의하거나 측정하기보 다는 경험해 보는 것이 더 쉽지만, 그렇다고 실재하지 않는 것은 아니다”(Nye, 2004: 1). 국가의 소프트파워를 측정하는 지수나 세계정치의 다른 차원에서 국가의 영향력에 순위를 매기는 다른 지수들은 모두 저마다의 개념적, 방법론적인 문제점을 가지고 있다. 대부분의 측정 방법은 강압 및 유인을 통제하지 못하고, 하드파워와 소프트파워 사이의 높은 상관관계를 찾아내는 데 그친다 (Singh & MacDonald, 2017). 소프트파워의 개념상 문제(Ayhan, 2020; Bially Mattern, 2005)와, 그것을 측정하는 시도들의 흠결(Singh & MacDonald, 2017; Yun, 2018)에도 불구 하고, 소프트파워의 측정은 한 나라의 자산을 상대적으로 보여주기 때문에 불완전하더라도 장점 이 없다고 볼 수는 없다. 이러한 측정방법들을 사용하여 우리는 세계정치에서 비강압적인 영향력 에 대한 대리변수들을 제공해 주는 다양한 데이터셋을 살펴봄으로써 한 나라의 다차원적인 포용 성이 세계정치에서 그 나라의 상대적인 영향력과 어떤 관계가 있는지를 조사하고자 한다.
As communication moves to social media, countries are losing control over what messages are being circulated about themselves. This article explores how South Korea’s country image is reflected within this contemporary networked communication context. We argue that country images, defined as the perceptions of countries by foreign audiences, can be swayed not only by official actors engaging in public diplomacy and nation branding projects but by any internet user who contributes to a marketplace of images. Using a social listening platform, we captured all the tweets about South Korea sent from June 01, 2019 to Jan 31, 2020. Combining textual and network analyses, our study looked at the main actors, topics, and network structures that influence South Korea’s country image on Twitter. Our findings suggest that there is no unified South Korean country image, rather diverse and relatively dispersed images. We further found that official actors had limited impact on the conversations surrounding South Korea due to their insular activities. Our methodology and findings contribute to the nascent body of empirical works in country image studies. © 2020 Ewha Womans University Graduate School of International Studies. All rights reserved.
Kadir Jun Ayhan
added a research item
we are glad to introduce the Journal of Public Diplomacy (JPD), currently published by the Korean Association for Public Diplomacy (KAPD). To our knowledge, KAPD is the only academic society with a focus on public diplomacy. JPD aims to be part of the global conversation on public diplomacy, not only as followers but also leading initiatives to help take the scholarship and practice of public diplomacy to the next levels. JPD, based in Korea, an underrepresented country in the production of knowledge on public diplomacy, will not be confined to Korean, Asian, or peripheral public diplomacy. As a global forum for interdisciplinary research and scholarship, JPD will deliver critical thinking at a critical time in the new and complicated century.
Nancy Snow
added a research item
This article is a book review of Steve D. Gish's "Amy Biehl's Last Home: A Bright Life, a Tragic Death, and a Journey of Reconciliation in South Africa."
Nancy Snow
added 2 research items
Since March 11, 2020, when the World Health Organization declared the coronavirus outbreak to be a pandemic, we have been living with what seems like a global nightmare. It is reasonable for Japan to be a model of slow-going with reopening its borders. But it also needs to keep its eyes on the prize -- defeating the virus, not the person.
A gradual reopening is also something that might allow for more strategic communications and planning. Global connectedness and integration should proceed at a brisker pace across digital platforms. This is an opportune time for the Suga administration to embrace international science and technology collaboration along with more gender balance.
Nancy Snow
added a research item
Japan, the chair of this year’s Group of 20 summit held last week in Osaka, diminished its global leadership capacity by hosting a gathering dominated by political hot -potato centerpieces. Let’s begin with U.S. President Donald Trump and his top senior advisers in tow, daughter Ivanka Trump and Jared “making the peace process in the Middle East great again” Kushner. Ivanka, whose awkward appearance among world leaders launched hashtag #UnwantedIvanka, wrote in her 2017 book “Women Who Work” that her father “is renowned for his negotiating skills,” so she’s “been fortunate to learn from the very best.” Her best negotiating skill — nepotism — finagled a seat at the table at international policy discussions with heads-of-state and photo bombs galore."
Nancy Snow
added a research item
Speech before the Public Relations Society of Japan about how Japan can better tell its stories to the world in business, university, and government
Nancy Snow
added a research item
Propaganda is sponsored information that uses cause‐ and emotion‐laden content to sway public opinion and behavior in support of the source's goals. Propaganda utilizes mass media to cultivate a propaganda mind, that is, the individual in relationship to the masses, such as society or large groups. The majority view of propaganda today is neutralist: it is generally accepted that propaganda is here to stay and the need now is to figure out how to delineate the good from the bad. In the twenty‐first century, the rise of fake news and disinformation campaigns have expanded the continuum of what constitutes the darker forms of propaganda. On its face, the ethics and standards of respectable journalism eschews propaganda goals altogether, but increasingly treads into its path through the rising waters of credibility, narrativity, opinion shaping, entertainment, and storytelling that have increasingly replaced the higher standard of objective, facts‐centric truth. To various degrees, the influencers and respectable journalists are immersed in propaganda channels, much more so than the general population, which has neither the means nor interest in distinguishing information from propaganda. The propaganda that we so often disdain is here to stay.
Nancy Snow
added a research item
Nancy Snow and Philip Taylor have pulled together an impressive number of academics and practitioners to lay the foundations of the concept in the 29 chapters of this handbook. Organized topically into six parts, the editors have attempted to provide a resource with wide-appeal ranging from the lay-person interested in public diplomacy to the advanced practitioner.
Nancy Snow
added 3 research items
Japan is seen as a leader in soft power, the ability to attract and persuade rather than coerce, but is this the result of government initiative? In "Japan's Information War," public diplomacy and propaganda specialist Dr. Nancy Snow takes an inside look at brand Japan's inner workings. The result of two years of intensive research as an Abe Fellow at Keio University in Tokyo, Dr. Snow makes a critical analysis of Japan's global diplomacy and gives insights on how Japan could improve its nation branding strategy.
This is an updated version of my chapter, "Valuing exchanges public diplomacy," in the 2009 Routledge Handbook of Public Diplomacy. This chapter is for the 2019 second edition, co-edited by Nick Cull.
Nancy Snow
added a research item
A critique of the United States Information Agency by a former employee (Presidential Management Fellow), two years before its demise as an independent foreign affairs agency. (1997)
Nancy Snow
added a research item
Japanese universities are becoming regionally more powerful, but they still have a long path ahead to rank among the top universities in the world. What they need is the support of elite, exchange, informational and city diplomacy to appeal to the world’s best and brightest.