Project

Projeto Javali [Javali project]: ecology and management of wild boar in Brazil

Goal: The project started with basic ecological questions about the distribution and abundance of wild pigs: both wild form of Sus scrofa (wild boar and feral pigs) and native pigs (Tayassuidae). We also aimed to understand the environmental impact of wild boar based on the ecological interaction with wild mammals, especially with the native pigs. Afterwards we aimed to measure the human conflict with wild boar and the actions of its management (hunting etc) by local people and State.

Updates
0 new
2
Recommendations
0 new
0
Followers
0 new
12
Reads
1 new
107

Project log

Carlos H. Salvador
added an update
The monitoring of wild boar alive with GPS-collar.
This video is one of the preliminary results of the project about the the movement of a 110 kg boar during 1 month.
The device collects information when and where the boar moves.
Each point on the video was collected every 30 minutes, and was presented in different colours for each day. Thus, the same colour belongs to the same day.
It was then possible to realize, for example, the male boar has moved very little, keeping in the same place for long time and moves only in small period of the day. However, it has a phenomenal ability to move long distances (see the movements after 3:40 minutes of video).
The landscape consists of reforestation of pine and corn crops.
The projects will help improve the population control of this invasive species, one of the most damaging of the world.
The second video is the same method (tellemetry) for 2 individuals during one week: 61 kg female and 43 kg male.
The home range (100%MPC) was 0.99 - 3.39 km².
Animation also available at Youtube:
 
Carlos H. Salvador
added 2 research items
Mammalian carnivores are considered a key group in maintaining ecological health and can indicate potential ecological integrity in landscapes where they occur. Carnivores also hold high conservation value and their habitat requirements can guide management and conservation plans. The order Carnivora has 84 species from 8 families in the Neotropical region: Canidae; Felidae; Mephitidae; Mustelidae; Otariidae; Phocidae; Procyonidae; and Ursidae. Herein, we include published and unpublished data on native terrestrial Neotropical carnivores (Canidae; Felidae; Mephitidae; Mustelidae; Procyonidae; and Ursidae). NEOTROPICAL CARNIVORES is a publicly available data set that includes 99,605 data entries from 35,511 unique georeferenced coordinates. Detection/non‐detection and quantitative data were obtained from 1818 to 2018 by researchers, governmental agencies, non‐governmental organizations, and private consultants. Data were collected using several methods including camera trapping, museum collections, roadkill, line transect, and opportunistic records. Literature (peerreviewed and grey literature) from Portuguese, Spanish and English were incorporated in this compilation. Most of the data set consists of detection data entries (n = 79,343; 79.7%) but also includes non‐detection data (n = 20,262; 20.3%). Of those, 43.3% also include count data (n = 43,151). The information available in NEOTROPICAL CARNIVORES will contribute to macroecological, ecological, and conservation questions in multiple spatio‐temporal perspectives. As carnivores play key roles in trophic interactions, a better understanding of their distribution and habitat requirements are essential to establish conservation management plans and safeguard the future ecological health of Neotropical ecosystems. Our data paper, combined with other largescale data sets, has great potential to clarify species distribution and related ecological processes within the Neotropics. There are no copyright restrictions and no restriction for using data from this data paper, as long as the data paper is cited as the source of the information used. We also request that users inform us of how they intend to use the data.
Carlos H. Salvador
added a research item
Biodiversity loss is currently one of the most important societal concerns worldwide, and it is caused mainly by habitat loss and fragmentation, biological invasion, and climate change (Vitousek et al. 1996, Newbold et al. 2015, Bellard et al. 2016). Introduced species can have positive effects on human well‐being, especially when used for livelihoods benefits (Shackleton et al. 2019). However, introduced species become invasive when they disrupt ecosystem processes by negatively affecting native species through direct, indirect or apparent competition, predation, habitat modification, and alteration of nutrient and water cycles (Long 2003, Mooney et al. 2005, Clout and Rusell 2007, Bellard et al. 2016).
Carlos H. Salvador
added a research item
Introduction South America is facing a new wave of biological invasion of Sus scrofa and the novelty is related to Eurasian wild boar phenotype instead of the most common invasive variety, the feral pig (Jaksic 1998; Jaksic et al. 2002; Herrero & Luco 2003; GISP 2005; Canevari & Vaccaro 2007; Deberdt & Scherer 2007; Ghione et al. 2008; Novillo & Ojeda 2008; Pescador et al. 2009; MMA/CONABIO 2009; Cuevas et al. 2010; García et al. 2011; Barrios-Garcia & Ballari 2012; Sampaio & Schmidt 2013; Salvador & Fernandez 2014; Pedrosa et al. 2015; Skewes & Jaksic 2015). The current geographic distribution of wild boar is different from that of feral pig and useful to identify the implications of this invasion on political borders, ecosystems and protected areas (Figure 29.1). Sus scrofa in the wild performs many ecological interactions, becoming a new threat for the South American biodiversity as a potential predator, disease reservoir, and competitor (Coblentz & Baber 1987; Sicuro & Oliveira 2002; Pérez Carusi et al. 2009; Desbiez et al. 2012; Keuroghlian et al. 2012). The species is also the reason for many economic and social conflicts with human activities, such as livestock and crop attacks (Barrios-Garcia & Ballari 2012). Potential niche overlap is possible between Sus scrofa and the native pig-like peccaries (Sicuro & Oliveira 2002). Considering competition as one of the threats to biodiversity, the new massive invasion of S. scrofa makes the peccaries the species most threatened by wild boars and feral pigs. If other species and ecosystems coevolved with native pig-like varieties, they could deal better with similar ecological interactions of alien pigs than would do peccaries. For instance, we could assume the peccaries as a reference to assess the relative environmental impact of S. scrofa on the South American ecosystem. Moreover, this threat should take place in most parts of the continent (Figure 29.2). Peccaries can reach elevated biomasses in the Neotropical realm and are engaged in such important ecological interactions that they are often considered engineers or architects of ecosystems (Taber et al. 2008; Keuroghlian & Eaton 2009; Altrichter et al. 2012).
Carlos H. Salvador
added a research item
The Araucárias National Park (ANP) is one of the largest remaining areas of the Araucaria Forest, a threatened ecosystem in Brazil. The ANP protects biodiversity, including threatened species of carnivore mammals. In addition to the fauna listed in the ANP Management Plan, we recorded five carnivore species: Galictis cuja and Conepatus chinga (new records); Leopardus wiedii, Herpailurus yagouaroundi and Eira barbara (interviews confirmation). Conepatus chinga is usually associated with open environments but occurred in dense forested areas. The results highlight the importance of ANP and its surrounding areas for protection of vulnerable species and the need of long-term research.
Carlos H. Salvador
added a research item
This abstract reports the experience of controlling the invasion of wild boar in the Fritz Plaumann State Park, Southern Brazil. The aim of this project was to develop an action plan for this protected area and we did meanwhile a pilot to count and remove wild boars and then to set better actions. The eradication was not planed at the beginning, but we have decided to try because during the project we discovered that the population was very small (13 individuals). However, the eradication failed and we report the reasons and their outcomes for all Brazilian System of Protected Areas.
Carlos H. Salvador
added 2 research items
PORTARIA INTERMINISTERIAL No 232, DE 28 DE JUNHO DE 2017, do Ministério do Meio Ambiente (MMA) e de Estado da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA). Diário do Oficial da União de 8 de novembro de 2017
Carlos H. Salvador
added 2 research items
O javali europeu (Sus scrofa), espécie exótica invasora no Brasil, foi introduzido no país a algumas décadas para exploração comercial, porém a atividade comercial não se desenvolveu como esperado e muitos animais retornaram a natureza por soltura ou escape. Em vida livre, os javalis e seus cruzamentos com suínos domésticos se estabeleceram como populações asselvajadas em algumas regiões de Santa Catarina (SC). Considerando que os suídeos de vida livre são susceptíveis e potenciais reservatórios de patógenos comuns aos suínos domésticos, o monitoramento sanitário dessas populações tornou­se estratégico para a suinocultura. Desde maio de 2013 a peste suína clássica (PSC) passou a fazer parte da lista de doenças de reconhecimento oficial da Organização Mundial de Saúde Animal (OIE) e a partir de então o reconhecimento oficial de país ou áreas livres da doença, condição de grande importância para comércio internacional, será dado através de certificação da agência internacional. a vigilância da PSC para o reconhecimento internacional de zonas livres, além das ações de vigilância nas populações de suínos domésticos, comerciais e de subsistência, inclui também o monitoramento dos suídeos asselvajados, com foco em áreas de risco, que incluem áreas de alta densidade e/ou de coabitação entre populações de suínos domésticos e de vida livre. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a presença de anticorpos contra o vírus da Peste Suína Clássica em suídeos asselvajados abatidos para controle populacional em SC. Amostras foram colhidas por caçadores legalmente habilitados para abate para controle populacional dos javalis, orientados para colheita de sangue/soro post mortem. Entre outubro de 2012 e julho de 2014 foram colhidas amostras de sangue/soro de 106 suídeos asselvajados abatidos em 2 regiões: (1) municípios de Irani, Passos Maia, Ponte Serrada, Vargem Bonita, próximos a áreas de suinocultura de SC e incluem a área de proteção ambiental do Parque Nacional das Araucárias, Unidade de Conservação que se tornou um grande reservatório da espécie invasora; (2) – Lages e áreas adjacentes, próxima à fronteira com Rio Grande do Sul com áreas contíguas de floresta na divisa entre os dois estados, apresenta grande abundância de suídeos asselvajados. Os soros foram testados com Kit de Teste de ELISA para detecção de anticorpos contra o Vírus da PSC ­ Idexx, no laboratório CeDISA, credenciado para realização das análises. Todas as amostras resultaram negativas, confirmando ausência de atividade viral para PSC nas populações de suídeos asselvajados. Este resultado é de extrema relevância para a suinocultura de Santa Catarina, pois estes dados complementam a vigilância dos suínos domésticos na demonstração do status de área livre de Peste Suína Clássica. Palavras-chave Suídeos asselvajados, Sorologia, Peste Suína Clássica É necessário inscrever­se na conferência para visualizar os documentos.
This chapter belongs to the Brazilian Action Plan for Wild Boar. The official name is the National Plan for Prevention, Control and Monitoring the Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in the wild in Brazil. The Plan was launched as the attachment of the Ordinance no. 232 of June 28th 2017 by the Ministry of Environment (MMA) and Agriculture (MAPA). The Plan has two main parts, the assessment (this document) and the Strategic Planning. The assessment has three main topics: (1) Biology and Ecology, (2) Strategy and Methods and (3) Institutional Arrangements and Structure of Plans. The first topic is the review of the specie with some subtopics: Taxonomy, Diversity and Phenotype; Abundances; Reproduction; Food Habit; World Distribution; Distribution in Brazil and adjacent countries; Invasion History in Brazil and adjacent countries; Environmental Impacts; and Socioeconomic impacts. The second topic is the review of strategic and methods implemented by other countries or in use in Brazil to prevent, control and monitoring this specie. The last topic is the review of other similar Plans for Sus scrofa as alien specie. The Plan is available at: http://www.ibama.gov.br/noticias/422-2017/1252-governo-federal-publica-plano-nacional-de-prevencao-controle-e-monitoramento-do-javali
Carlos H. Salvador
added a project goal
The project started with basic ecological questions about the distribution and abundance of wild pigs: both wild form of Sus scrofa (wild boar and feral pigs) and native pigs (Tayassuidae). We also aimed to understand the environmental impact of wild boar based on the ecological interaction with wild mammals, especially with the native pigs. Afterwards we aimed to measure the human conflict with wild boar and the actions of its management (hunting etc) by local people and State.