Programa de Capacitação Institucional - INMA
Grazing represents the most extensive use of land worldwide. Yet its impacts on ecosystem services remain uncertain because pervasive interactions between grazing pressure, climate, soil properties, and biodiversity may occur but have never been addressed simultaneously. Using a standardized survey at 98 sites across six continents, we show that interactions between grazing pressure, climate, soil, and biodiversity are critical to explain the delivery of fundamental ecosystem services across drylands worldwide. Increasing grazing pressure reduced ecosystem service delivery in warmer and speciespoor drylands, whereas positive effects of grazing were observed in colder and species-rich areas. Considering interactions between grazing and local abiotic and biotic factors is key for understanding the fate of dryland ecosystems under climate change and increasing human pressure.
Yellow fever (YF) is a viral disease whose transmission involves non-human primates (NHP), mosquitoes, and humans. Between 2016 and 2018 occurred the largest YF outbreak in the last 100 years in Brazil. We analyzed epidemiologic profile and geographic distribution of epizootics and described most frequent histopathological findings in NHP that died during YF outbreak in the state of Espírito Santo. We consider 487 epizootics notifications registered at the State Health Department from January 2017 to July 2020. Throughout the state, 51 (65.4%) municipalities reported epizootics, with more cases in central and metropolitan areas. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were laboratory tests performed for diagnosis of yellow fever, with 160 (32.9%) positive results, 314 (64.5%) negative and 13 (2.7%) inconclusive. Histopathological findings were compared statistically between positive and negative animals for YF. The liver was the most affected organ. Hemorrhage, hepatocyte necrosis, steatosis, cholestasis and eosinophilic degeneration were statistically more frequent in positive animals. Tubular necrosis, nephritis, congestion and lymphoid hypoplasia on spleen were statistically correlated to positive animals. Knowledge of pathogenic aspect of YF is necessary to guarantee that samples from Neotropical primates are properly used for YF surveillance purposes, to ensure appropriate diagnoses and subsequent public health responses.
• Abelhas sem ferrão são comercializadas pela internet no Brasil. Este comércio tem misturado populações e introduzido espécies, proporciona a disseminação de simbiontes e doenças e majoritariamente não cumpre legislações nacionais.• Ao menos 33 espécies de abelhas sem ferrão têm sido visadas pelo comércio digital; oito outras não foram confirmadas. Todas as transações encontradas estão na internet de superfície e a maioria dos vendedores não cumprem os requerimentos legais. Tais resultados sugerem pouca necessidade de anonimato dos vendedores, um fato que sustenta conclusões sobre a recorrente falta de aplicação de leis ambientais contra o comércio ilegal de vida selvagem no país.• Zonas geográficas críticas no Brasil, onde se concentram os vendedores de colmeias sem ferrão sem autorização, estão principalmente na Mata Atlântica. Medidas políticas urgentes e avaliações científicas são necessárias tanto para a conservação das abelhas quanto para o controle do risco de patógenos. A estratégia mais promissora para evitar as ameaças relacionadas ao movimento das abelhas é a sensibilização dos meliponicultores.
Stingless bees are commercialised in Brazil through the internet. Such trade has mixed populations and introduced species, allows the potential dissemination of hitchhiker symbionts and diseases, and mostly does not follow national legislation policies. • At least 33 species of stingless bees have been exploited by e-commerce; eight others were not confirmed. All transactions found are in the surface web and most sellers do not fulfil legal requirements. Such results suggest that there is little need of anonymity for sellers, a fact that strengthens conclusions on the recurrently reported lack of successful law enforcement against illegal wildlife trade in the country. • Critical geographical zones in Brazil, where sellers of stingless beehives are concentrated , are primarily in the Atlantic Forest. Urgent policy measures and scientific evaluations are necessary for both conservation of bees and risk control of pathogens. The most promising strategy to avoid the threats regarding movement of bees is the education of stingless bee keepers.
Mammalian collection of the Museu de Biologia Professor Mello Leitão: 70 years recording the biodiversity of Espírito Santo. The mammal collection of the Museum of Biology Professor Mello Leitão (MBML) of the National Institute of the Atlantic Forest (INMA) is a regional collection created in 1949. With almost 4,000 specimens, its data is available in free open access repositories. The collection holds 151 native species from Brazil, representing 74% of the mammal diversity of Espírito Santo, 44% of the Atlantic Forest, and 21% of Brazil. Bats, rodents, and primates are the most representative groups. For the former, more than ¼ of the specimens were collected until the 1960s. But for primates, the number of specimens increased significantly only recently, because of the yellow fever outbreak in Espírito Santo, between 2016 and 2017. The mountain region of Espírito Santo is the source of the majority of specimens, mainly Santa Teresa, where the INMA is located. Thus, despite being the main biodiversity reference center for Espírito Santo, the collection shows gaps regarding the state’s biodiversity, especially from the north of the Doce River. Even with restrictions in technical and curatorial staff during its 70-year history, the MBML-INMA mammal collection has provided scientific and educational support for many types of scientific research and schools. Thus, the history of MBML-INMA symbolizes the history of mammalogy and scientific outreach in the Espírito Santo.
Here we describe a new species of Passiflora subg. Passiflora (Passifloraceae sensu stricto) found in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest in areas of campos rupestres of the João Pinto formation in Minas Gerais and on granitic inselbergs of Espírito Santo. The new species, named Passiflora ita, is described, illustrated, compared to similar species and its conservation status is preliminarily assessed as Endangered (EN) following IUCN Red List categories and criteria, reinforcing the importance of the areas where it occurs (which are not national or state-level parks) as priorities for conservation.
Floral traits associated with functional groups of pollinators have been largely employed to understand mechanisms of floral diversification. Hymenaea is a monophyletic legume genus widely recognized to being bat-pollinated, with nocturnal anthesis and copious nectar. The most of species has short-paniculate inflorescences, white and robust flowers, congruent with a bat-pollination syndrome. However, other Hymenaea species show a different floral pattern (e.g., long-paniculate inflorescences and smaller flowers) which we report here as being bird pollinated. We examined the floral traits and visitors of Hymenaea oblongifolia var. latifolia and identified evolutionary shifts in floral traits associated with potential pollinators of Hymenaea species. Floral traits of H. oblongifolia var. latifolia differ from those expected for bat-pollinated flowers in species of sect. Hymenaea, and we observed hummingbirds collecting nectar legitimately. Our phylogenetic analysis did not support the monophyly of the taxonomic sections and suggests that bat pollination is ancestral in Hymenaea, with bird pollination evolving later. The transition coupling with shifts in the timing of anthesis and other floral traits. Pollinator-mediated evolutionary divergence hypothesis partially explains the Hymenaea diversification in the Neotropics. It is congruent with those species shifting from traits linked traditionally to bat pollination to hummingbird pollination.
Endophytic fungi are extremely diverse in natural biomes, which display a unique plant-microbe association inside different living host tissues. Among the plants that shelter endophytes, the endophytic fungal assemblages of Cactaceae remain poorly understood. Our study characterized the taxonomy, diversity, and ecology of endophytic fungal assemblages living in different tissues of the cactus Melocactus ernestii present in the Brazilian Caatinga biome. A total of 222 endophytic fungi were obtained from roots, stems, and spines, which were identified in 99 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla. Most of the fungal taxa were recovered from root tissues, followed by stems and spines. The most abundant orders from Ascomycota were Xylariales, Dothideomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes. Basidiomycota is represented by Cantharellales, Agaricales, and Geastrales. Only Nigrospora sp. and Preussia sp. 1 were common among the three plant tissues, and 78.41% of the species were not shared among the populations and tissues. We detected similar richness patterns among the same tissue types using sample-based rarefaction and extrapolation curves. The multiple site dissimilarity across the plants and tissues showed greater disparities in species richness among M. ernestii fungal assemblages. These results highlight the compartmentalization of endophytic fungal species in the root tissue, and the endophytes sharing observed exclusively between spines and stems may reflect interactions of endophytic fungal assemblages with possible dependency on shared resources in cacti. Overall, our findings will an approach to understand changes in the diversity and the key roles of turnover of endophytic fungal assemblages in semi-arid environments.
Supporting information for the article Comparative phylogeography and paleomodelling reveal idiosyncratic responses to climate changes in Neotropical paper wasps" published in the Biological Journal of the Linnean Society.
Biogeographical studies for Neotropical polistines are very recent and with scarce information. For instance, there is a paucity of discussions linking multiple sources of biological data (e.g., morphological, molecular, and physiological) with historical processes. Nevertheless, in this chapter, we reviewed biogeographical hypotheses for some genera of Neotropical social wasps such as Angiopolybia, Apoica, Brachygastra, Chatergellus, Epipona, Mischocyttarus, Polistes, Pseudopolybia, and Synoeca.
Honey bee colony losses worldwide call for a more in-depth understanding of the pathogenic and mutualistic components of the honey bee microbiota and their relation with the environment. In this descriptive study, we characterized the yeast and bacterial communities that arise from six substrates associated with honey bees: corbicular pollen, beebread, hive debris, intestinal contents, body surface of nurses and forager bees, comparing two different landscapes, Minas Gerais, Brazil and Maryland, United States. The sampling of five hives in Brazil and four in the USA yielded 217 yeast and 284 bacterial isolates. Whereas the yeast community, accounted for 47 species from 29 genera, was dominated in Brazil by Aureobasidium sp. and Candida orthopsilosis, the major yeast recovered from the USA was Debaryomyces hansenii. The bacterial community was more diverse, encompassing 65 species distributed across 31 genera. Overall, most isolates belonged to Firmicutes, genus Bacillus. Among LAB, species from Lactobacillus were the most prevalent. Cluster analysis evidenced high structuration of the microbial communities, with two distinguished microbial groups between Brazil and the United States. In general, the higher difference among sites and substrates were dependents on the turnover effect (~ 93% of the beta diversity), with a more pronounced effect of nestedness (~ 28%) observed from Brazil microbiota change. The relative abundance of yeasts and bacteria also showed the dissimilarity of the microbial communities between both environments. These results provide a comprehensive view of microorganisms associated with A. mellifera, highlighting the importance of the environment in the establishment of the microbiota associated with honey bees.
Background and aims – Copaifera coriacea, a species in the resin-producing clade Detarioideae (Leguminosae), is an endemic and abundant species found in sand dunes in Brazilian Caatinga domain vegetation – a Quaternary paleodesert. We investigated floral traits and aspects of pollination biology, focusing on the pollination system of C. coriacea. Material and methods – Anthesis duration, stigma receptivity, pollen viability, nectar concentration, and the presence of osmophores and pigments reflecting UV light were assessed. Floral visitors were classified as potential pollinators, occasional pollinators or thieves, based on the time and foraging behaviour and resource collected. Pollination effectiveness were assessed for potential pollinators by the detection of pollen tubes on the stigma or stylar canal by epifluorescence microscopy.Key results – The species has white and small flowers, with anthesis beginning in the dark (ca 00:30) and the flowers are completely opened approximately 3 h later, when a sweet odour is perceptible. The onset of stigma receptivity and pollen grain viability occurs only after the completion of flower opening, and a concentrated nectar is available during the day. The presence of pollen tubes confirmed the efficiency of the main insects in the transfer of pollen. Conclusion – Our result demonstrates that C. coriacea has a generalist pollination system mediated mainly by two distinct guilds of insect pollinators: moths (nocturnal, searching for nectar) and bees (diurnal, pollen collectors). This finding can provide more information about diversification in the genus Copaifera.
Physalis angulata L., a member of the family Solanaceae, known popularly in Brazil as "camapu", is widely used in folk medicine. Its leaves have various pharmacological activities and fruits can also be used as human food. Considering the species' potential economic importance, further knowledge is necessary of its reproductive biology for germplasm conservation and to obtain new hybrid combinations in breeding programs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to elucidate aspects of the reproductive biology of P. angulata. We investigated the floral morphology, anthesis, nectaries and pollinator-attraction structures, identified floral visitors, and estimated pollen viability by the colorimetric method with acetocarmine and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) at different collection times. In addition, we evaluated the reproductive systems by measuring the pollen/ ovule ratio (P/O), as well as by observing pollen-pistil interaction and seed germination after pollination. The P. angulata plants presented hermaphrodite flowers, and the floral opening occurred between 06:00 h and 08:00 h. Anthers and pollen were the main attractive structures to pollinating insects, especially Apis mellifera, the floral visitor found in greatest abundance, followed by nectar, which was analyzed by neutral red solution. Regarding pollen viability, in the first three collection hours it was greater than 90 % according to both staining methods evaluated, and no in vitro pollen germination was observed. According to the P/O ratio, P. angulata was classified as facultative autogamous. Controlled pollination under field conditions indicated the species is self-compatible with a mixed reproductive system. With respect to fruit production and seed formation, the plants originating from natural self-pollination had the best results, with a fruiting rate of 86 % and production of 156 seeds per fruit. The results obtained from studies of the reproductive biology can aid in planning of crosses and establishment of Physalis breeding programs, and also increase the efficiency of controlled pollinations for agronomic purposes.
Lista das coordenadas pontos dos centróides municipal do Brasil calculado. Fonte do layer: [IBGE 2020] Malha municipal. https://www.ibge.gov.br/geociencias/organizacao-do-territorio/15774-malhas.html?=&t=sobre https://www.ibge.gov.br/geociencias/organizacao-do-territorio/15774-malhas.html?=&t=downloads
Hololepta (Leionota) reichii Marseul is a widespread but rarely encountered natural enemy of social bees, so we evaluated feeding habits and behavior of such a clown beetle regarding bees, beehive by-products, and other sources of food under a monitored environment. The experiments revealed that H. reichii preferentially predates larvae and pupae of social bees extracted from brood cells, but also feeds on dead adult stingless bees and on larvae and pupae inside cells. This note reports the first finding of clown beetles (Coleoptera, Histeridae) in a hive aggregation of stingless and honey bees in natural conditions and expands the known distribution of the species to the state of Espírito Santo, the second record in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.
O contrabando de escaravelhos para “torneios” de luta no Japão, a venda colmeias pela internet no Brasil, a introdução de coelhos infectados com um vírus na Austrália. Todas essas ações humanas – ilegais ou não – e tantas outras representam grave ameaça à biodiversidade por, muitas vezes, provocarem a disseminação de patógenos e inimigos naturais em regiões onde não há armas naturais para combatê-los.