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The purpose of this study was to assess the Japanese version of General Procrastination Scale (J-GPS) previously created by Hayashi (2007), with a large, varied sample of Japanese adults. The paper-and-pencil surveys were distributed to Japanese people who lived in the large-, medium-, and small-sized cities who lived in Japan. Participants were recruited by the first author during a two-month period. The final sample was 2,564 Japanese citizens: 1,048 (40.9%) men and 1,516 (59.1%) women with a mean age of 44.3 years old (SD = 1.91). Participants reported demographic information including age, gender, marital status, married years, number of children, educational status, occupational types, worked years, living areas, whether considering themselves as procrastinator, and whether others considering them as procrastinator. Results showed that a two-factor solution was the best fit, duplicating studies with Turkish, Italian, and Greek populations, but in contrast to a uni-dimensional structure suggested originally by Lay (1986) or adapted in Spanish sample. Moreover, we investigated rates of self-reported procrastination in relation to a collective culture, which has mixed individualistic tendencies. Participants with strong individualistic tendencies were not significantly different on J-GPS scores, compared to those with little tendencies on individualistic characteristics. Our results added significant evidence to previous studies of General Procrastination. Future research in non-English speaking countries, especially in Asian countries, using a general procrastination measure might be helpful for further comparison to ascertain cultural differences in task delay perception.
The steady growth in the number of college students with learning disabilities (LD) increases the need to investigate their unique characteristics and behaviors in aca-demia. The present study examined the differences in academic and online procrastination , academic stress, and academic self-efficacy between college students with and without LD. In addition, the relationship between these variables was examined. It was assumed that the difficulties experienced by college students with LD would lead them to increased levels of academic stress, and academic and online procrastination. The results showed significant differences in the levels of all variables except online procrastination between students with (n ¼ 77) and without (n ¼ 98) LD. Further analysis indicated that academic stress and academic self-efficacy mediated the link between LD and academic and online procrastination. These findings support the notion that during higher education, students with LD experience more difficulties than students without LD, which at times will lead them to increased levels of procrastination. However, further studies are needed to understand the nature of online procrastination in students with LD in higher education.
University students are at high risk of exhibiting problematic Internet use as they tend to spend a lot of time online. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that procrastination would mediate the relationship between flow and problematic Internet use in a sample of 178 Greek University students, 67% of whom were females using a snowball sampling technique. Results revealed that flow was positively related to problematic Internet use (r = 0.36). In addition, mediation analysis revealed that academic procrastination mediates the relationship between flow and problematic Internet use. Findings suggest the more pleasurable is the Internet activity, the more the students tend to procrastinate towards meeting their academic obligations, and this is related to long hours of Internet use. Findings enrich previous literature on problematic Internet use and could potentially inform policies aiming to protect students’ health and well-being
background Decisional procrastination, or indecision, is the mala-daptive postponing of decision-making when faced with conflicts or choices. In the present exploratory study, we examined two factors of a psychological model toward understanding the underpinnings of indecision, namely: self-critical cognition as a predisposition to indecision and decreased hope as a post-decision behavior of indecision. Self-critical cognition is the tendency for self-related thoughts to be critical and defeating. It is hypothesized to predict indecision as self-critical individuals are likely to also doubt their competence at tasks such as decision-making and may, in turn, delay. Decreased hope is hypothesized to be an outcome of indecision as the latter is related to anxiety, worry, and life regret. participants and procedure Participants were 327 undergraduate students from a large Midwestern university (242 women, 82 men; M age = 20.31 years old). They completed the self-report measures in an online survey and received class credit for participation. results Using a bootstrap analysis of the indirect effect, the results showed that indecision mediates the relationship between self-critical cognition and decreased hope among emerging adults. conclusions Implications for future research and potential interventions to alter the pattern of indecision and to increase hope are discussed. This study moves forward the literature of indecision by examining a new predictor and outcome of indecision. key words hope; indecision; decisional procrastination; self-critical thoughts; self-criticism "I can't decide, and it upsets me": assessing self-critical cognition, indecision, and hope among young adults corresponding author
current issues in personality psychology · 8 doi: https://doi.org/10.5114/cipp.2018.75648 background Procrastination affects over 20% of adult men and women, with current international data indicating a global preference to systematically delay the start or completion of intended tasks. Procrastination is a common, sub-optimal decision-making strategy that emphasises short-term benefits at the expense of later performance. Some individuals develop a pattern of procrastination which proves difficult to break; worse, they may begin to identify as a procrasti-nator, setting themselves up for failure. participants and procedure The current investigation examined what develops a pro-crastinator identity. Previous research indicated that chronic procrastination is a learned tendency beginning in one's early development from parental control approaches. We extended that line of research using a cross-cultural sample (n = 2124), self-reported procrastination (behav-ioural or decisional), and retrospective regret scores in 12 domains. We used logistic regression to predict the likelihood of explicitly identifying as a procrastinator. results Across three randomised partitions, results indicated that indecision and regrets about education, career, and finances most increased the likelihood of identifying as a pro-crastinator. conclusions These findings support that regrets largely influenced by earning-potential best predict procrastination identity. The current results are consistent with other studies assessing the causes and consequences of chronic procrastination regardless of country or ethnic background. Future research is needed. key words identity; procrastination; regret; indecision; machine learning corresponding author-Prof. Procrastination identity 2 current issues in personality psychology BACKGROUND
University students (n = 75; M age = 21.4 years old) and community adults (n = 55: M age = 36.6 years old) completed self-reported measures of decisional procrastination (indecision), character (life satisfaction, meaningful life, and need for cognition), context (place attachment, sense of community, and psychological home) and Bcross-over^ factors relating character and context (self-identity with possessions, people/ thing orientation, and clutter), to provide an ecological understanding of persons who claim indecision. Controlling for social desirability tendencies, indecision was negatively related to all character but none of the context variables. Indecision also was related to both person and thing orientation and clutter. Multiple regression analysis indicated that only need for cognition significantly predicted (negatively) indecision among character, context, and cross-over variable sets. Subjective well-being also predicted indecision with low need for cognition among cross-over variables. Taken together, decisional procrastinators reported too much clutter (stuff), interfering with a positive quality of life and related to character over context and cross-over, ecological variables.
Abstract We explored how two types of procrastination (indecision and behavioral), contribute to problems with clutter across three adult U.S. samples differing as generational cohorts. An online survey was administered to college students (mean age = 21) and younger adults recruited using Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk; mean age = 31), plus older adults recruited with help from the Institute for Challenging Disorganization (mean age = 54) (http://challenging disorganization.org). Hierarchical linear regression revealed that behavioral procrastination contributed significantly to an increasingly larger percentage of explained variance in clutter problems across the generational cohorts in a series of separate analyses. The addition of indecision as a variable led to a significant incremental increase in explained variance for the younger and older adult samples, but not for the student sample. Clutter problems led to a significant decrease in satisfaction with life among older adults. Findings suggest that general procrastination tendencies may enable a lifelong pattern of responses to one’s environment that become increasingly maladaptive throughout the life cycle - simultaneously delaying disposal decisions.
The influences of self-forgiveness on the relationship between procrastination and positive affect were assessed. A total of 317 Turkish students (198 female; 119 male) completed procrastination, self-forgiveness, and positive-negative affect scales. We tested our hypothesized model with structural equation modeling, and results revealed the empirical model was a good fit to the data. Procrastination and self-forgiveness predicted positive affect, as 16% of the variance in positive affect was accounted for by the model. The bootstrap values determined that the mediated paths from self-regulation through self-esteem to procrastination (β = .29, p < .01) were significant. These findings indicated that self-forgiveness partially mediated the relationship between procrastination and positive affect among university students.
The present study investigated the factorial structure of a Japanese version of the Adult Inventory of Procrastination Scale (AIP; 15 items; McCown & Johnson, 1995; see Ferrari, Johnson, & McCown, 1995). The AIP measured individuals' behavioral tendency to delay either the beginning or completing tasks. Maximum likelihood factor analysis with oblique rotation was performed with 2,363 Japanese adults. A two-factor solution was a good fit for this Asian AIP version. Factor one focused on "lack of punctuality" while factor two assessed "lack of planning." This two-dimensional structure was similar to Spanish and Turkish samples, but different from a one-factor model suggested by other researchers in other non-Asian cultures. We also examined the impacts of demographic variables and cultural constructs on AIP scores. More data from non-English speaking countries, primarily in Asian settings, may be needed for further comparison. For many adults the difficulty of starting or finishing tasks on time has become a common problem. In fact, 20-25% of people self-identified as chronic procrastinators (Ferrari, 2010). The Adult Inventory of Procrastination Scale is a well-known psychometric inventory that measures individuals' behavioral tendency to delay either beginning or completing tasks (AIP; 15 items; McCown & Johnson, 1995; see Ferrari, et al. 1995). Previous research using the AIP examined delays in either European (Anglo, Spanish, and Italian) or Middle East Asian (Turkish) cultures but not much in South Asian countries. The present study explored the factorial structure of the AIP scale within Japanese culture. We also performed analyses to see whether demographic variables and cultural constructs affected AIP scores.
One of the most widely used measures of chronic procrastination is Lay’s General Procrastination scale (GP). This present study aimed to explore the factor structure of the Greek GP scale in a sample of 865 university students (Mage = 21.84 years; SD = 4.18). The scale’s convergent validity was tested with two personality measures most closely related to chronic procrastination, namely conscientiousness and neuroticism. The effects of gender and age on GP scores were also explored. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a two-factor structure, namely a) Delay and b) Procrastination domains. Males showed higher score in the “Procrastination domains” factor compared to females. High procrastinators also reported lower conscientiousness and higher neuroticism. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed.