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Prioritization of Semi-Arid Agricultural Watershed Using Morphometric and Principal Component Analysis, Remote Sensing, and GIS Techniques, the Zerqa River Watershed, Northern Jordan

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Dr.Dalal Zregat
added a research item
التغير في الغطاء الأرضي واستعمالات الأراضي في حوض وادي ابن حمّاد/ محافظة الكرك(1986-2016) د.دلال زريقات / قسم الجغرافيا/ الجامعة الأردنية الملخص تهدف هذه الدراسة إلى تحديد الأنواع الرئيسية للغطاء الأرضي واستعمالات الأراضي في وادي ابن حمّاد/محافظة الكرك، وتحليل معدل التغيّر المكانيّ والزمنيّ لتوزيع الغطاء الأرضي واستعمالات الأراضي، باستخدام نظم المعلومات الجغرافيّة(GIS)، وتقنيات الاستشعار عن بعد(RS)، وقد تم اشتقاق الخصائص الطبوغرافيّة من خلال نموذج الارتفاعات الرقميةDigital Elevation Model(DEM).، المشتق من الخرائط الطبوغرافيّة لوادي ابن حمّاد، مقياس 1:50000. كما تم استخدمت المرئيات الفضائية Landsat للأعوام 1986، 1996، 2006، 2016 م. كشفت الدراسة عن وجود أربعة أنواع رئيسية للغطاء الأرضي واستعمالات الأراضي في وادي ابن حمّاد وهي: الأراضي المبنيّة، والأراضي الزراعية ، والأراضي الجرداء، والأراضي غير المستغلة. وظهور تغيّر واضح في الغطاء الأرضي واستعمالات الأراضي خلال الفترة 1986-2016؛ حيث بلغ معدل التغيّر في الأراضي المبنيّة 153.34%، والأراضي الزراعية -42.57%، والأراضي الجرداء 8.57%، والأراضي غير المستغلة-8.85%، كما بينّت الدراسة التّحوّل لكلّ نوع من أنواع الغطاء الأرضي واستعمالات الأراضي. كما توصلت الدراسة الى أهم العوامل التي أدت الى التغير في الغطاء الأرضي واستعمالات الأراضي ومن أهمها: تراجع عدد المشتغلين في القطاع الزراعي، والعزوف عن العمل الزراعي بسبب عدم جدوى العمل الزراعي، وتراجع الاوضاع الاقتصادية للسكان، وتفشي ظاهرتي الفقر والبطالة في محافظة الكرك بشكل عام، وارتفاع أسعار الأراضي، ورواج تجارة بيع الاراضي، واستغلالها لغايات البناء، وتراجع كمية الامطار، وضعف الخدمات والبنية التحتية، وقيام البلديات بتوسيع حدودها على حساب مساحات واسعة من الاراضي، وتراجع حجم الملكيات الزراعية نتيجة لنظام الإرث, المصطلحات الدالة : الغطاء الأرضي واستعمالات الأراضي، التصنيف الموجة، مصفوفة التّحوّل، مؤشر الاختلاف النباتي المغاير، وادي ابن حمّاد، محافظة الكرك، الأردن
Yahya iSA Farhan
added 2 research items
Morphometric analysis is of vital concern to understand hydromophological processes in a given watershed, and thus, it is a priority for assessing water resources in drainage basins. A morphometric analysis was conducted to identify the drainage properties of Wadi Wala and the 23 fourth-order sub-basins. ASTER DEM data was employed to compile slope, elevation, and aspect maps. Arc GIS software was used to measure and calculate basic, derived and shape morphometric parameters. W. Wala is found to be a sixth-order drainage basin, and the drainage pattern is trellis to sub-trellis in the central and lower part of the catchment, whereas it is dendritic to sub-dendritic pattern in the southern and northern parts. The slopes of the catchment vary from 0° - 5° to >35° in slope categories. Tectonic uplifting and tilting, lithology, structure and rejuvenation are the major factors controlling morphological variation over the watershed. The recognized fault systems are chiefly controlling the drainage pattern, and the elongated shape of the sub-basins is attributed to dense lineaments in the central and eastern parts of the watershed. The Rb values for the entire catchment and the sub-catchments range from 2 to 7, with a mean of 4.55, which indicates the distortion of drainage pattern by geological structure. Hypsometric integral values are high for the W. Wala watershed and the sub-basins, where it ranges from 70% to 89%. High HI values indicate that drainage basins are at the youth-age stage of geomorphic development, and they are affected by tectonic uplifting, tilting, and the dominance of hillslope process. Variation in HI values is apparent between sub-basins located at the western part, or, the rejuvenated belt where HI values range from 85% to 89%. Whereas the HI values of the sub-basins located at the eastern part of the watershed, vary from 70% to 84%. Regression analysis reveals that R2 values, which represent the degree of control of driving parameters on HI are reasonably high for the height of local base level (m) and the mean height of sub-basins (m). Both parameters contribute 0.42 and 0.39 respectively (where the F-value is significant at 0.1% and 0.5% levels). Such results imply that the height of local base level (m), and the mean height (m) are the only morphometric driving parameters which have significant control on HI values in the W. Wala watershed. High annual soil loss and sediment load estimated recently, denote that the catchment is highly susceptible to surface erosion at present. Hence, the present study, and the resultant information would help to plan for efficient soil and water conservation measures to reduce soil erosion rates, conserve water, and to control sediment into W. Wala dam.
Yahya iSA Farhan
added 4 research items
In arid and semi-arid watersheds, sustainable management of natural resources (i.e. land, water and ecological resources), and watershed management are crucial issues in applied morphometric studies. Geomorphometric parameters and their interrelationships are of paramount importance in characterizing the morphology, topography, geology and structure, hydrological potential, and geomorphic evolution of such catchments. An analysis of spatial characteristics and morphological development of the demarcated 76 sub-watersheds related to W. Mujib-Wala catchment, was carried out using ASTER DEM and GIS. Multivariate statistical techniques such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Cluster Analysis (CA), and Discriminant Analysis (DA), were also employed to assess different aspects of drainage networks, and their morphometric properties. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) reduces the 22 morphometric parameters to five components, which explain 90.4% of total variance. The relationship of these components to the morphometric variables and to the individual sub-watersheds was evaluated, and then the degree of inter-correlation among the morphometric descriptors was explored. The 76 sub-watersheds were classified according to their individual relation to the components, and similarities in their morphometric characteristics. Re-gionalization of sub-watertsheds was achieved using hierachical Cluster Analysis (CA). The validity of the resultant cluster groups was tested statistically by means of Discriminant Analysis. The present investigation provides information which highlights the benefit of geomorphometric analysis and multiva-riate statistics in modeling hydrological responses: i.e., surface runoff and sediment yield, hydrological assessment, water resources planning, and watershed management. Furthermore, the results can be useful for soil and water conservation planning, and assessment of flash floods potential. How to cite this paper: Farhan
GIS and remote sensing were utilized for prioritizing the W. Mujib catchment. Fifty three fourth-order sub-watersheds were prioritized based on morphometric analysis of linear and shape parameters. ASTER DEM (v.2), topographical maps, and Arc GIS (10.1) software, have been employed to delineate the 53 sub-basins, to extract the drainage networks, and to compute the required basic, linear, and shape parameters, and to compile the necessary thematic maps such as elevation and slope categories. The land use/land cover map was generated using ERDAS Imagine (2015), LANDSAT 8 image, and supervised classification (Maximum Likelihood Method). Soil map was digitized using the Arc GIS tool. Each sub-basin is prioritized by assigning ranks based on the calculated compound parameter (Cp). The final score for each sub-basin is ascribed as per erosion threat. The 53 sub-watersheds were grouped into four categories of priority: very high (15 sub-basins, 28.3% of the total), high (17 sub-basins, 32% of the total), moderate (16 sub-basins, 30.2% of the total), and low (5 sub-basins, 9.5% of the total). Sub-basins categorized as very high and high priority (60.3% of the total) are subjected to high erosion risk, thus, creating an urgent need for applying soil and water conservation measures. The validity of the prioritized four groups was tested statistically by means of Discriminant Analysis (DA), and a significant difference was found between the four priority classes. A relatively complete separation exists between the recognized priority classes; thus, they are statistically valid, distinct, and different from each other. The present results intend to help decision makers pay sufficient attention to soil and water conservation programs, and to encourage tree plantation over the government-owned sloping land. Such procedures are essential in order to minimize soil erosion loss, and to increase soil moisture on farms, thus, reducing the impact of recurrent droughts and the possibility of flooding downstream.
Rami Mousa
added 3 research items
This research is intended to assess the regional pattern of hypsometric curves (HCs) and hypsometric integrals (HIs) for the watersheds draining into the Jordan Rift (River Jordan, the Dead Sea, and Wadi Araba watersheds). Hypsometric analysis was performed on 22 drainage basins using ASTER DEM (30 m resolution) and GIS. The area-elevation ratio method was utilized to extract the hypsometric integral values within a GIS environment. A prominent variation exists in the HC shapes and HI values. The highest hypsometric values are found for the Dead Sea ( x = 0.87) and River Jordan ( x = 0.77) watersheds. Whereas the lowest values ( x = 0.51) characterized Wadi Araba catchments, except Wadi Nukhaileh (lower Wadi Araba) which yields an HI value of 0.26. Seventeen HCs pertained to the River Jordan and the Dead Sea watersheds evince remarkably upward convex shapes indicating that such drainage basins are less eroded, and at the youth-stage of the geomorphic cycle of erosion. Catchments draining to Wadi Araba are of intermediate HI values (0.41 - 0.58) which are associated with a balance, or dynamic equilibrium between erosion and tectonic processes. Accordingly, they correspond to a late mature stage of geomorphic development. Additionally, Wadi Nukhaileh yields the lowest HI value (0.26) and is associated with highly eroded terrain of late mature geomorphic evolution, approaching an old stage therefore, with distorted concave upward curves. High HI values indicate that these watersheds have been subjected to tectonic uplift, down faulting of the Rift and intense rejuvenation. Differences in HI values can be attributed to disparity in tectonic uplift rate, base level heights, and mean heights of the River Jordan watersheds, the Dead Sea and Wadi Araba watersheds, and variation in lithology, which caused noticeable differences in rejuvenation processes, and channel incision. Regression analysis reveals that R2 values which represent the degree of control of driving parameters on HI, are positive and generally low (ranging from 0.026 to 0.224) except for the height of base level (m) parameter which contributes 0.42 (significant at 0.1% level). Such results mean that the height of base level has a significant at 0.1% level. It is obvious that the most crucial driving morphometric factor influencing HI values of the Jordan Rift drainage basins, is the height of base level (m).
Remote sensing and GIS techniques were employed for prioritization of the Zerqa River watershed. Forty-three 4th order sub-watersheds were prioritized based on morphometric and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), in order to examine the effectiveness of morphometric parameters in watershed prioritization. A comparison has been carried out between the results achieved through applying the two methods of analysis (morphometric and PCA). Afterwards, suitable measures are proposed for soil and water conservation. Topo sheets and ASTER DEM have been employed to demarcate the 43 sub-watersheds, to extract the drainage networks, and to compile the required thematic maps such as slope categories and elevation. LANDSAT 8 image (April-2015) is employed to generate land use/cover maps using ENVI (v 5.1) software. The soil map of the watershed has been digitized using Arc GIS software. Prioritization of the 43 sub-watersheds was performed using ten linear and shape parameters, and three parameters which are highly correlated with components 1 and 2. Subsequently, different sub-watersheds were prioritized by ascribing ranks based on the calculated compound parameters (Cp) using the two approaches. Comparison of the results revealed that prioritization of watersheds based on morphometric analysis is more consistent and serves for better decision making in conservation planning as compared with the PCA approach. The recommended soil conservation measures are prescribed in accordance with the specified priority, in order to avoid undesirable effects on land and environment. Sub-watersheds classified under high priority class are subjected to high erosion risk, thus, creating an urgent need for applying soil and water conservation measures. It is expected that decision makers will pay sufficient attention to the present results/information, activate programs encouraging soil conservation, integrated watershed management, and will continue working on the afforestation of the government-owned sloping lands. Such a viable approach can be applied at different parts of the rainfed highland areas to minimize soil erosion loss, and to increase infiltration and soil moisture in the soil profile, thus, reducing the impact of recurrent droughts and the possibility of flooding hazards.