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The current study examined the effects of a nationally scaled up Professional Learning and Development (PLD) model on teachers’ classroom implementation of the Geospatial Inquiry instructional framework. Geospatial Inquiry is defined as: asking and answering a research question through the analysis and communication of data that is linked to a geographic location on, above, or near Earth. These data are often represented visually via maps and explored with geospatial technologies. It also examined the relationships between Geospatial Inquiry Teacher Workshop (GITW) implementation and teacher implementation of the Geospatial Inquiry Cycle. Situated cognition provided a theoretical framework for the design, development, and implementation of the GITWs and lessons. Surveys, technology assessments, lessons, and artifacts were analysed using a-priori coding, descriptive statistics, and a generalised linear modelling approach that included hierarchical analysis. Results indicated teachers implemented Geospatial Inquiry lessons with integrity to the principles of Geospatial Inquiry and utilised research-based pedagogical practices. Format of GITWs (e.g. face-to-face or blended) resulted in differences during teachers’ lesson implementation. In addition, whether GITWs were delivered by an individual facilitator or a team of facilitators impacted teachers’ lessons. The findings have several implications for the design and scaling of PLD.
An aim of the NSF-ITEST funded POD project is to examine the effect that technology-integrated, problem-based learning modules have on the learning of secondary students whose teachers have participated in a curriculum implementation professional development structure. This research focuses on the professional development structure as the first step to achieving changes in student learning. The assumption is that the teachers themselves have to learn the technology before they can successfully implement it into their classrooms. Teachers attended a 2-week professional development workshop that presented pedagogy, content and GIS training. Our premise for the workshop was that modeling and practicing research-based pedagogical practice will improve participant science instruction through an immersion program focusing on real life problems. The second premise is that improving teacher technology skills and pedagogical knowledge and practice will improve student achievement in science. Professional development is necessary to help teachers learn not only how to use new technology but also how to provide meaningful instruction and activities using technology in the classroom. Therefore if our goal is to immerse the teachers in learning as the students, we need to measure if they indeed did learn. To evaluate if the teacher learned the material just as a student might, we administered a pre- and post-test to 23 teachers attending the workshops. There were 2 forms of the test, a multiple-choice test that focused on content questions in earth science, interpretation of GIS screen shots and spatial reasoning skills. The second component, the Geospatial Technology Performance Assessment, focused on the teachers' abilities to use the GIS technology to gather data, sort and communicate information using maps, tables and keys. For the latter a grounded-theory approach was used to group teachers answers based on the responses provided. Teacher responses fell into 5 groups, scored 0-4. These scores were cumulative, meaning that for someone to earn a 3 they needed to be able to show proficiency at a 1 and 2 level. Results of the pre and posttests are in the table below. The ultimate goal of this project is to improve student understanding. At this point we have data that our teachers did develop an understanding of GIS from the professional development workshop that we hope to see implemented into the classroom.Results of pre and posttests *The scoring rubric will be presented at the conference.
The EYE-POD project at Northern Arizona University is an NSF-ITEST-funded professional development program for secondary science (SS) and career technical education (CTE) teachers. The program recruited SS-CTE teacher pairs from Arizona and the surrounding region to participate in two-week workshops during Summer, 2010, and an advanced workshop ins Summer, 2011. The workshops are led by a team with distinct expertise in science content, professional development and pedagogy, GIS, and project evaluation. Learning modules and a workshop agenda are developed using the Legacy Cycle of learning. Rather than compartmentalize pedagogical, content, and GIS learning activities, they have been combined throughout the workshop timeline. Early activities focus on learning of climate and weather processes through GIS modules provided by ESRI-``Mapping our World'' and ``Analyzing our World''. Participants learn the technical aspects of GIS software while investigating real phenomena. The science/GIS learning activities are augmented by laboratory demonstrations and field data collection using Labquest handheld field measurement systems with a variety of probes. At the end of the first week teacher-participants presented the solution to a problem, using GIS-based climate and weather data, involving travel to various locations on Earth. The second week focused on classroom, lab, and field activities devoted to recommendations to the City of Flagstaff for development in the Rio de Flag floodplain. Teacher-participant groups presented solutions making claims and recommendations supported by evidence from georeferenced field data and other GIS data acquired from various sources. At the close of the workshop teachers were provided with GIS software, hardware for field data collection, and several reference materials to aid in curriculum development. They have been tasked with implementing two GIS-based Earth science content modules in their schools, to one science class and one CTE class. One module must involve a field-based problem at their school site. The EYE-POD team will provide support to each school team through site visits and phone consultation. As part of the project, data on learning efficacy is being collected by an independent evaluator and analyzed by a science education faculty member (summarized in companion paper by Claesgens, et al.).
We have provided two years of professional development for secondary and middle school teachers with a focus on project-based instruction (PBI) using GIS. The EYE-POD project (funded by NSF-ITEST) involved pairs of teachers from Arizona and the surrounding region in two-week institutes during Summer, 2010, and an advanced institute in Summer, 2011. The NAz-POD project (funded by Arizona Department of Education and administered by Science Foundation Arizona) provided similar PD experiences, but the institutes occurred during weekends in the academic year. The institutes were led by a team with expertise in Earth science content, professional development and pedagogy, and GIS. The teachers developed learning modules using the project based learning instructional model. Pedagogy, content, and GIS skills were combined throughout the professional development activities. Academic year follow up by NAU personnel included classroom observations and technical support. For assessing student work we provided a rubric, but learned that teachers were not prepared to assess GIS products in order to determine the level of student understanding. In year two of the project we incorporated strategies for assessment of student products into the professional development. Teacher-participants and their students completed several pre- and post- assessments. Teacher assessments included a geospatial performance assessment, classroom observations, and content tests. Student data collection included attitude and efficacy questionnaires, content tests, and authentic assessments including products using GIS. Content tests were the same for teachers and students and included spatial reasoning, data analysis, and Earth science content. Data was also collected on teacher perception of professional development delivery and self-reported confidence in teaching with PBI and geospatial technology. Student assessments show that improvement occurred in all areas on the content test. Possible factors resulting in this improvement will be shared, and placed in the context of other assessment results.
The current study scaled-up proven PD by providing Facilitation Academies which taught facilitators to provide Teacher Workshops (TWs) to secondary STEM educators. The purpose was to identify how TWs prepared teachers to implement geospatial inquiry lessons, provided them with geospatial technology (GST) performance skills, and prepared them for teaching a lesson with students. Surveys, GST assessments, lessons, observations, and artifacts were analyzed using a-priori coding and descriptive and correlational statistics. Participants included secondary STEM teachers who attended Power of Data Teacher Workshops. Results suggest what happens when an educational innovation that works in one setting is implemented by trained facilitators in other contexts. The study identifies effective design principles that support the uptake of new practices in the classroom as well as identifying issues teachers struggle with when trying to implement geospatial inquiry lessons.
This design-based research study examined the first two cycles of development, enactment, analysis, and redesign of the Power of Data (POD) Facilitation Academy. Professional Learning and Development (PLD) providers’ geospatial technology (GST) skills, understanding of programme principles, preparation, and stages of concern for implementing POD Teacher Workshops were investigated. The POD Team analysed previous POD PLD models. Using these results, the POD Academy and Guide were developed, enacted, and revised. Two cohorts (n = 28) participated in the POD FA designed to prepare PLD providers to implement POD Teacher Workshops and to support teachers in learning to enhance an existing lesson via the integration of GST and Geospatial Inquiry. Data sources included surveys, daily debriefs, observations, performance assessments, and interviews. The qualitative data were analysed using inductive analysis conducted by two coders to reach agreement on codes and emerging themes. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Analyses informed the redesign and modification of the POD Academy and Teacher Workshops. Findings provide deeper insight into the needs and concerns of PLD providers in implementing PLD for science teachers. Furthermore, this investigation sheds more light on the selection and preparation of PLD providers as programmes seek to scale PLD.
Since 2009, Power of Data Teacher Workshops have enabled teachers to enhance instruction with GST. Hundreds of students benefited. We identified principles that led to successful teaching and learning, created a teaching and learning framework, & developed programs to enable teacher educators to replicate POD Teacher Workshops across the nation. We share the principles behind the POD PD model, our research framework and resources we provided for teachers.
The Power of Data projects helped teachers teach with geospatial technologies. We share findings from the latest iteration and describe our research plan for taking the PD model to scale.
Power of Data (POD) scaled-up an effective research-based professional development (PD) model to prepare teachers to incorporateGIS into secondary classrooms through Geospatial Inquiry. In the scale-up, PD providers attendedFacilitation Academies to learn to provide POD Teacher Workshops (TW) nationwide. Fifteen PD providers participated. Twelve have led TWs locally (two in pairs). Data sources included videos and implementation forms from PD providers and surveys from participating teachers. An analysis framework for integrity of implementation was created to understand how PD providers enact the program, retain or modify the program, adhere to program principles, and how this influences teaching and learning. Quality of enactment was high but logistic and enactment integrity varied.