added a project goal
The Positive Metacognitions and Meta-emotions Questionnaire (PMCEQ) developed by Beer and Moneta (2010) measures adaptive metacognitive beliefs when facing challenging situations. The cultural adaptation of Hindi version of PMCEQ was conducted in 17 to 75 years old (n = 838) Hindi speaking men and women participants of Varanasi city of Uttar Pradesh of India. The psychometric properties of the PMCEQ-H (Hindi version of PMCEQ) indicated good internal consistency with fairly high reliability and little different factor structure than that of original PMCEQ and acceptable construct and convergent validity. The CFA indicated that PMCEQ-H had an adequate and acceptable model fit indicating good construct validity. The three factors extracted were 'Confidence in Setting Flexible and Feasible Hierarchies of Goals (PMCEQ-H 1)', 'Confidence in Interpreting Own Emotions as Cues, Restraining from Immediate Reaction and Mind-Setting for Problem-Solving, (PMCEQ-H2)' and 'Confidence in Extinguishing Perseverative Thoughts and Emotions (PMCEQ-H3)'. The gender and age differences analyses also indicated that the instrument has good predictive validity. The PMCEQ-H1 and PMCEQ-H2 factors correlated positively with satisfaction with life, and all the three factors of PMCEQ-H correlated negatively with negative affect and BDI-II indicating good convergent validity of the instrument, thus, the PMCEQ-H produces a reliable and valid measurement of adaptive metacognitive beliefs in Hindi speaking Indian cultural milieu.
The positive metacognitions and meta-emotions measured by PMCEQ measures adaptive metacognitive beliefs people hold about their own cognitive and emotional processes. The study aimed to examine the independent and interaction effects of 'gender' (men & women) and 'levels (low & high) of facets of positive metacognitions and meta-emotions' on marital consensus, affectional expression, marital cohesion, marital satisfaction and overall marital adjustment. For this purpose, 318 spouses (159 husbands & 159 wives) were purposively sampled and were individually administered PMCEQ-H (the Hindi version of Positive Metacognitions & Meta-emotions Questionnaire; PMCEQ) and Marital Adjustment Scale (MAS). The participants falling below M 1SD and above M + 1SD on PMCEQ-H1, PMCEQ-H2 and PMCEQ-H3 factors of PMCEQ-H (respectively referred to as low & high scorers), besides the 'gender' (men & women) variables, were screened out. The 2 x 2 ANOVA (2 gender x 2 levels of facets of PMCEQ-H) performed on the scores of the facets of marital adjustment revealed non-significant main effect of'gender' and interaction effect of 'gender X levels of facets of PMCEQ-H' on all measures of marital adjustment, and significant main effect of (i)levels of PMCEQ-H' on marital satisfaction, affectional expression and overall marital adjustment, (ii) 'levels of PMCEQ-H2' on marital cohesion, marital satisfaction, and overall marital adjustment, and (iii)levels of PMCEQ-H3' for marital consensus and overall marital adjustment; and high as compared to the low scorers on PMCEQ-H1, PMCEQ-H2, and PMCEQ-H3 manifested significantly higher indices on overall adjustment. The findings demonstrated that high level of positive metacognitions and meta-emotions manifest significantly better marital adjustment in married couples.