Project

Populations- und Dispersionsmonitoring des Nandus (Rhea americana) in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern und Schleswig-Holstein

Goal: Monitoringprojekt seit 2008.
Ermittlung der Populationsgröße sowie der Ausbreitung des Nandus in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

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Project log

Arne Korthals
added an update
Artkapitel Nandu (Rhea americana)
Informationen zur Verbreitung, Bestand und Gefährdung.
Author: Frank Vögler
Herausgegeben von der Ornithologischen Arbeitsgemeinschaft
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern e.V.
 
Arne Korthals
added a research item
Cornell Lab of Ornithology Birds of the World Species account Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) Contributed information on systematics, distribution, habitat, movement and migration, diet and foraging, sounds and vocal behavior, behavior, breeding ecology, parental care, disease and body parasites, population status and regulation, conservation and management, among other additions.
Frank Philipp
added a research item
Die norddeutsche Nandupopulation ist auf Gehegeflüchtlinge aus den Jahren 1998 bis 2009 aus einer extensiven Freilandhaltung in Groß Grönau südlich von Lübeck zurückzuführen. Die Art behauptet sich seit nun mehr mindestens elf Jahren erfolgreich in der Landschaft Nordwestmecklenburgs und weist ein enormes Etablierungspotenzial auf. Im Vortrag werden die Ergebnisse des Nandumonitorings von 2008 bis 2012 dargestellt und die Populationseinflüsse beschrieben
Arne Korthals
added a research item
Die größte Neozoenart in Deutschland aus der Reihe der Vögel, der in Südamerika beheimatete Nandu, lebt seit zwanzig Jahren frei in der Landschaft Nordwestmecklenburgs. Wurde anfangs noch an der Überlebensfähigkeit der kleinen Population gezweifelt, zeigte sich im Laufe der Jahre, wie gut diese Art in der hiesigen Kulturlandschaft zurechtkommt. Der Artikel informiert über das Monitoring und Management des Nandus (Rhea americana) als Neozoe in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Journal: Der Falke: Sonderband 2020
Frank Philipp
added an update
Vortrag auf der 33. Tagung über tropische Vögel der Gesellschaft für Tropenornithologie e.V.
vom 6. bis 9. September 2012 in Dresden.
 
Arne Korthals
added an update
The spring census of the free ranging Rhea americana population in 2019, results a strong increase in the total number of individuals, compared to the last year spring census. The reason was the high breeding success in 2018, because of the warm and dry summer. Census 23.03.2018 total: 205
Census 22.03.2019
total: 362 (Korthals, A)
 
Arne Korthals
added an update
Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Bachelorarbeit wurden zwölf Neststandorte einer frei lebenden Nandupopulation in Nordwestmecklenburg nachgewiesen. Die Biotopstrukturen im Umfeld der Gelege sind dokumentiert und analysiert worden, ergänzt durch Datensätze früherer Neststandorte. Anhand der gewonnenen Informationen konnten Rückschlüsse über die bevorzugte Wahl der Brutplätze und die daraus resultierenden Wechselwirkungen mit dem jeweiligen Biotop getroffen werden. Die intensive Überprüfung der bebrüteten Gelege zum Nachweis
des Bruterfolges, lieferte einen fundierten Ansatz für Prognosen über die zukünftige Reproduktion. Zusätzlich durchgeführte Analysen unterschiedlicher Einflussfaktoren auf den Brutverlauf, stützen die Schlussfolgerungen.
 
Arne Korthals
added an update
The autumn census of the free ranging Rhea americana population in 2018 results a strong increase in the total number of individuals, compared to the last year autumn census.
The number of this years offspring showed a strong increase. We suppose, that the high number of juveniles benefit by the dry and warm summer. The manipulation und destruction of eggs by the biosphere administration as a management measure was not successful to reduce the population size of the avian alien species.
Census 03.11.2017
total: 244
Census 23.11.2018
total: 566
(Korthals, A.)
 
Arne Korthals
added an update
The spring census of the free ranging Rhea americana population in 2018 results again a slight decline in the total number of individuals, compared to the last year spring census.
Census 10.03.2017
total: 220
Census 23.03.2018
total: 205
(Korthals, A & Philipp, F. 2018
 
Arne Korthals
added an update
"Neozoen in Norddeutschland - Habitatnutzung des Nandus (Rhea americana) als Neozoon in der Kulturlandschaft Nordwestmecklenburgs"
A bachelor thesis on the use of habitats by the alien avian species Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) in Germany is in progress: "Neozoa in Northern Germany - Habitat Use of the Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) as a Neozoon in the Cultivated Landscape of North West Mecklenburg"
 
Arne Korthals
added an update
The autumn census of the free ranging Rhea americana population in 2017 results a slight decline in the total number of individuals, compared to the last year autumn census.
The number of this years offspring showed a strong decline. We suppose, that the low number of this years offspring is caused by the manipulation und destruction of eggs, organized the biosphere administration to reduce the population size of the avian alien species.
Census 01.11.2016
total: 266
Census 03.11.2017
total: 244
(Korthals, A & Philipp, F. 2017)
 
Arne Korthals
added an update
Vortrag von Frank Philipp auf der Tagung über tropische Vögel der Gesellschaft für Tropenornithologie (Tag. trop. Vögel Ges. Trop.ornithol) 2012
 
Arne Korthals
added an update
The new instruction manual for the monitoring of the Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) in Germany contains standards for the survey of individuals, nests and carcass findings. It also contains many photographic pictures for the identification of the species, sex, different ages, footprints and faeces. It is written in german language.
Die Kartieranleitung für das Monitoring des Großen Nandus (Rhea americana) in Deutschland enthält Standarts für die Erfassung von Individuen, Nestern und Totfunden. Zur sicheren Identifikation der Art, Altersklasse und Geschlecht , sowie Trittsiegeln und Kot befinden sich zahlreiche Fotos in der Anleitung.
 
Arne Korthals
added a research item
The new instruction manual for the monitoring of the Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) in Germany contains standards for the survey of individuals, nests and carcass findings. It also contains many photographic pictures for the identification of the species, sex, different ages, footprints and faeces. It is written in german language. Die Kartieranleitung für das Monitoring des Großen Nandus (Rhea americana) in Deutschland enthält Standarts für die Erfassung von Individuen, Nestern und Totfunden. Zur sicheren Identifikation der Art, Altersklasse und Geschlecht , sowie Trittsiegeln und Kot befinden sich zahlreiche Fotos in der Anleitung.
Arne Korthals
added an update
Currently we are searching for nests of the Greater Rhea. Because of the constantly growing vegetation, it becomes more and more difficult to find new nests. Thus we used a GyroCopter to detect new nest sites from the air.
 
Frank Philipp
added an update
The biosphere reserve Schaalsee approved the manipulation of eggs this year with the aim of reducing the rheas' offspring. According to press releases, eggs were manipulated in nine nests until May 15th. The males often left the nest after that. Our scientific workgroup was not involved in this project. However, we will evaluate the results through controls and censuses.
 
Arne Korthals
added an update
Breeding season has started.
 
Frank Philipp
added 4 research items
Breeding behavior and breeding site selection of the Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) in Mecklenburg-West Pommerania, Germany Brutverhalten und Brutplatzwahl des Nandus (Rhea americana) in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Deutschland
Das Ziel der Untersuchungen war, das Brutverhalten sowie die Brutplatzwahl der frei lebenden Nandupopulation in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in deren Hauptverbreitungsgebiet zu dokumentieren, sowie Präferenzen in der Wahl der Neststandorte zu ermitteln.
Arne Korthals
added a research item
Das Ziel der Untersuchungen war, das Brutverhalten sowie die Brutplatzwahl der frei lebenden Nandupopulation in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in deren Hauptverbreitungsgebiet zu dokumentieren, sowie Präferenzen in der Wahl der Neststandorte zu ermitteln.
Frank Philipp
added 2 research items
The Greater Rhea (Rhea americana ssp.) belongs to the subclass Paleognathae (paleognath birds) of the order Struthioniformes, together with cassowaries, emus, kiwis and ostriches. The shape of the Greater Rhea can be described as typical ostrich-like. The species attains a height of ~ 1.40 – 1.50 m and weight up to 30 kg. It is an endemic bird species to the South American countries of north-east and south-east Brazil, east Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay and north-east and east Argentina. It occupies the tall grass steppe of the pampas, as well several other savannah-type habitats (BLAKE 1977; HOYO ET.AL 1992). Since 1860 the Greater Rhea has been kept in several European zoological gardens (KRUMBIEGEL 1966). In the year 2000, about seven individuals of the South American avian species, escaped from an enclosure located in the community of Groß-Grönau in North Germany, because of poor fencing. The group composition, concerning the structure of age and sex is unknown (SCHEEL 2008). The Greater Rhea occurs verifiable with one feral, reproducing population in north-east Germany, with its population centre in Mecklenburg-Western-Pomerania. The establishment of further populations in Germany or elsewhere in Europe has not been confirmed so far. Of a special interest is the adaptation ability of this species to its new habitat and the aspect if this alien species tend to be invasive. Beneath an intensive field work and monitoring, our study includes a risk assessment (invasive/pest), as well a prognosis of possible impacts (ecological impacts and impacts on human subjects as security, health and economy). Own field observation resulted, that the dispersion of this species since 2000 is relatively low (<15 km from the source location). The occupied area encompasses about 70 sq.km. The home ranges are strongly related to food availability. Relevant food sources are abundant. Examined home ranges sized of about 1.2 km². Travel distances may vary, a female moved not more than 470 m away from a nest during egg laying phase, whereas the same female has been found 3.3 km away during off breeding season. A chicken rearing male used an area of 9.3 ha over one day. The maximum daily travel distance of this group was 4.8 km. The Greater Rhea population increased continuously from 37 indiv. (2006: 26 adult; 11 juvenile) to 118 indiv.(X.2009: 36 adult; 82 juvenile). The simultaneously census of 2010 in spring resulted 37 indiv. (36 adults; 1 juvenile). The high mortality of juvenile could be trace back on the strong and long winter (low temperatures, closed snow cover). The winter mortality is one of the most important limitation factors beneath road accidents and illegal removals (eggs, juveniles). No relevant negative impacts on native species (food and habitat competition, predation) could be detected so far. The number of road accidents contains a risk for human health. Notable is that the species is able to establish a high population within a relative short time. The adaptation ability to extreme weather/climate conditions is high. Though, at present the species tends not to be invasive. The study is ongoing.
This thesis is about the general habits and the land use of a small population of Greater Rhea (Rhea americana ssp.) in the district of North-West Mecklenburg, which have been living in the wild since the year 2000. Since then, these birds, that had escaped an owner in Groß Grönau in Schleswig-Holstein, have occupied a local area of 45 km² approximately 10 kilometres south of the City Lübeck. The aim of this study is a comprehensive description of the species behaviour in the local habitat and the intensity of the use of different biotopes. Data about the breeding behaviour, the food and the land use were collected during the vegetation period from February until October 2008. During intensive field observations a number of different behavioural patterns could be described. Further studies on these animals were used for a more detailed description and comparison with the own studies. Three Rheas were individually marked with coloured neckbands and two of them also with radio transmitters for identification and localisation. The records of Greater Rhea sightings were digitised in a Microsoft Access database. The location data were joined with an ESRI ArcGIS 9.2 map document. The actual state of dispersal, foraging routes, home ranges and the use of habitat was inferred from this data. Analysis of faeces and observation while feeding showed the main items of ingested food. Controlling three successfully bred nests and observing the males and the chicks during summer and autumn allowed for conclusions with respect to breeding success as well as hatching rates and survival rates of chicks. A current determination of the population size was defined by means of two simultaneous counts: On 08/04/11, 31 Rheas could be registered in the study area and in extended areas. These were approved during the second counting on 08/10/08, when 32 adult and 33 juvenile Greater Rheas could be registered. A record of further sightings of Greater Rheas in a more remote distance of 10 to 25 kilometres from the area of research showed that sporadically, five to six animals stayed there. A connection between those and the main population is not proved. In fact, a release or escape of these animals from different enclosures is assumed. Food availability was shown to be important for habitat choice. An evaluation of the field observations showed an intense use of agricultural cultivated areas in the autumn and spring months for foraging and feeding. However, Greater Rheas were seen on grassland during the summer more frequently. Rape (Brassica napus) is the most important food item from autumn to spring. An ingestion of seeds of maize (Zea mays) and wheat (Triticum spec.) could also be observed and was analysed in faeces. Rheas were observed feeding on young plants as well as ripe crop seed on cropland but the seeds were also ingested in decoy spots for hunting. The repeated change of home range of an individually marked male could be verified, which was repeatedly provoked by different social behavioural interactions. The observed home range of the marked male while breeding and during parental care measured 1,2 km². Dispersal could be proven for the other marked male. In four months, it was located in different habitats in the investigation area. A longer stay in the same local home range was not observed for this male. This shows that - contrary to the prior assumption - Rheas do not only use small parts of the investigation area, but can also be found in the whole area of dispersion. Social behaviour within the North German population is comparable to that of South American Greater Rheas. Differences were noticed in the timidity of the animals. A different behaviour towards the approach of human beings was also observed. Some animals fled in panic others moved slowly away from the approaching person. Only few animals approached the observer. Interspecific mixing and socialisation with other animals, as seen in wild living Rheas in South America, and disturbances by other wild living animals was not observed. For the time being, no predators of the adult birds are known. In this study, wild boars (Sus scrofa) are proven to be predators of the eggs. The Redfox (Vulpes vulpes), the Sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), the hawk (Accipiter gentilis) and the raven (Corvus corax) are possible predators of the chicks. The adoption of chicks was observed and described. This example shows that few days old chicks without the care of the male are also able to survive in this landscape. A calculation of the hatching rate of the known successful nests showed that 67,1 % of all eggs hatched. The high mortality rate (79,6 %) of the chicks in their first two months presumably was a consequence of the death of a male and the disappearance of a second one together with its chicks. No proofs for a strong influence on the ecosystem or damages caused by the animals have been found yet.
Frank Philipp
added an update
 
Arne Korthals
added 2 research items
Breeding behavior and breeding site selection of the Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) in Mecklenburg-West Pommerania, Germany Brutverhalten und Brutplatzwahl des Nandus (Rhea americana) in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Deutschland
In Mecklenburg Vorkommern (Germany) konnte sich eine wildlebende Population des Großen Nandu (Rhea americana) etablieren. Der Artikel enthält Information zur Herkunft des südamerikanischen Straußenvogels und gibt einen kurzen Überblick zu ersten Untersuchungsergebnissen.
Frank Philipp
added an update
JOKISCH N, 2010: Brutplatzwahl und Bruterfolg von Rhea americana in Nordwestmecklenburg
 
Frank Philipp
added a project goal
Monitoringprojekt seit 2008.
Ermittlung der Populationsgröße sowie der Ausbreitung des Nandus in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.