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The nature-based tourism industry in Canada is substantially based upon an extensive system of national and provincial parks. Over the last two decades public demand has resulted in increases in the number of parks and in tourism use. However, fiscal restraint has caused budget reduction with the associated loss of management effectiveness. What fiscal and management responses have there been to this problem? This paper summarizes the data from a national survey of all provincial, territorial and national park agencies' budget, fiscal and pricing policies. Two major observations are evident. One is the continuing loss of management capability due to the reliance on insufficient government funding for capital and operational needs. The other is a shift from government budget funding to a higher utilization of tourism-based fees and charges. Overall the trend is away from tax-based government allocations, towards income derived from fees for the services and facilities provided to the park visitors.
Tanzania contains some of the world's greatest natural wonders. Following major reforms in its foreign tourism policies in the mid-1980s, tourism has increased to become the nation's second leading foreign exchange earner. Tanzania is a less developed nation than its East African neighbours, and seeks to o!er a low-density, high-quality, and high-priced tourism experience. Numerous de"ciencies, however, are present in its tourism product. A lack of infrastructure, trained sta!, and legal and regulatory framework o!er severe challenges for the delivery of world-class service quality. In addition to a lack of marketing and promotion, the tourism industry has failed to diversify into areas beyond wildlife, such as culture and beach tourism. Consequently, most visitors treat Tanzania as an add-on to their Kenyan safari. Tanzania however, is moving towards developing the infrastructure necessary to occupy its market niche. With careful planning and management, Tanzania has the tremendous potential to develop a diverse and sustainable tourism industry.
SUMMARY In an effort to quantify the importance of recreation in Conservation Areas in Ontario, a survey package with a standard set of definitions and instructions was sent to all 36 Conservation Authorities. One major goal was to compile a database of information on data ranging from the number of visitors received each year to the variety of recreation activities available at each Conservation Area. No such data province-wide was currently available. All 36 Conservation Authorities submitted data. Results indicated that the Conservation Authorities in Ontario have responsibility more than 11.6 million hectares of watershed land, and have just over 10 million people living within their boundaries. In 2000 there were just over 5.7 million people visiting nearly 500 Conservation Areas that encompass almost 75,000 hectares of land. There are 21 Conservation Authorities that operate 61 campgrounds that contain over 8,000 primitive and improved campsites. The survey revealed several problems. The definition for "Conservation Area" is not standardized, with many names used, such as wetlands, wildlife areas and forests. Other evidence suggests there are a large number of Conservation Authority owned areas and several thousand hectares of land not reported. Additionally, 286 Conservation Areas did not report any visitor statistics. Therefore, the database is incomplete.