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Park Tourism

Goal: Philanthropy

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Martha L Barnes
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Paul F.J. Eagles
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14 September 2017 – The Secretariat of Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and IUCN -The International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources - today released a new publication titled Guidelines for tourism partnerships and concessions for protected areas: generating sustainable revenues for conservation and development.
Designed to support protected area authorities and the private sector in their development and use of tourism partnerships and concessioning to contribute financially and technically to biodiversity conservation, the guidelines are geared towards protected area authorities, ministries of environment and tourism, policy experts and interested enterprises. The aim is to enhance the level of financial resources available for conservation management obtained from tourism concessions and partnerships.
The tourism sector is recognized as being the largest global market-based contributor to the financing of protected area systems in many countries. In 2014, the Conference of the Parties to the CBD noted that, under appropriate safeguards, tourism can contribute to protected areas through partnerships and concessions. However, most countries currently underuse tourism as a means to contribute towards the financial sustainability of protected areas. The new guidelines aim to assist countries in addressing this gap.
Dr. Cristiana Paşca Palmer, CBD Executive Secretary, said: “This ground-breaking publication supports a decision by Parties to the Convention to build the capacity of national and subnational park and protected area agencies to engage in partnerships with the tourism sector to complement public budgetary allocations towards achieving Aichi Biodiversity Target 11.” The Aichi Biodiversity Targets are a set of 20 time-bound, measurable targets to be met by the year 2020.
Prepared in the framework of an agreement between the CBD Secretariat and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and released at the 22nd Session of the United Nations World Tourism Organization General Assembly (UNWTO) in Chengdu, China, the publication includes information on the fundamentals of tourism, different tourism partnerships, financing concessions, a step-by-step guide to concession processes, integrating sustainability, contract management and concession capacity requirements.
The guidelines were developed as part of a project called “Tourism partnerships and concessions in protected areas: Cooperating for success”, executed on behalf of the CBD Secretariat by the Tourism and Protected Areas Specialist Group (TAPAS Group) of the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas. Government representatives from the ministries of tourism and environment, protected area agencies, and tourism boards in Botswana, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe contributed to the guidelines. Representatives of the CBD, International Finance Corporation, UNWTO and members of the TAPAS Group also provided input.
Dr. Anna Spenceley, Chair of the TAPAS Group, said: “Our collaborative guideline development process has resulted in an informative tool that builds on previous experience and guidance, and is practical and easy-to-use, which is relevant for protected area managers.  We are proud to contribute this advice in the UN International Year of Sustainable Tourism for Development.”
Funding for the project was provided by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety and by the Government of the Republic of Korea through the Bio-Bridge Initiative. The publication also serves as a contribution to the Sustainable Tourism Programme of the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production patterns (10YFP).
Paul F.J. Eagles
added 21 research items
The nature-based tourism industry in Canada is substantially based upon an extensive system of national and provincial parks. Over the last two decades public demand has resulted in increases in the number of parks and in tourism use. However, fiscal restraint has caused budget reduction with the associated loss of management effectiveness. What fiscal and management responses have there been to this problem? This paper summarizes the data from a national survey of all provincial, territorial and national park agencies' budget, fiscal and pricing policies. Two major observations are evident. One is the continuing loss of management capability due to the reliance on insufficient government funding for capital and operational needs. The other is a shift from government budget funding to a higher utilization of tourism-based fees and charges. Overall the trend is away from tax-based government allocations, towards income derived from fees for the services and facilities provided to the park visitors.
Tanzania contains some of the world's greatest natural wonders. Following major reforms in its foreign tourism policies in the mid-1980s, tourism has increased to become the nation's second leading foreign exchange earner. Tanzania is a less developed nation than its East African neighbours, and seeks to o!er a low-density, high-quality, and high-priced tourism experience. Numerous de"ciencies, however, are present in its tourism product. A lack of infrastructure, trained sta!, and legal and regulatory framework o!er severe challenges for the delivery of world-class service quality. In addition to a lack of marketing and promotion, the tourism industry has failed to diversify into areas beyond wildlife, such as culture and beach tourism. Consequently, most visitors treat Tanzania as an add-on to their Kenyan safari. Tanzania however, is moving towards developing the infrastructure necessary to occupy its market niche. With careful planning and management, Tanzania has the tremendous potential to develop a diverse and sustainable tourism industry.
SUMMARY In an effort to quantify the importance of recreation in Conservation Areas in Ontario, a survey package with a standard set of definitions and instructions was sent to all 36 Conservation Authorities. One major goal was to compile a database of information on data ranging from the number of visitors received each year to the variety of recreation activities available at each Conservation Area. No such data province-wide was currently available. All 36 Conservation Authorities submitted data. Results indicated that the Conservation Authorities in Ontario have responsibility more than 11.6 million hectares of watershed land, and have just over 10 million people living within their boundaries. In 2000 there were just over 5.7 million people visiting nearly 500 Conservation Areas that encompass almost 75,000 hectares of land. There are 21 Conservation Authorities that operate 61 campgrounds that contain over 8,000 primitive and improved campsites. The survey revealed several problems. The definition for "Conservation Area" is not standardized, with many names used, such as wetlands, wildlife areas and forests. Other evidence suggests there are a large number of Conservation Authority owned areas and several thousand hectares of land not reported. Additionally, 286 Conservation Areas did not report any visitor statistics. Therefore, the database is incomplete.