Project

PRODUCTION, EVALUATION OF QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS AND STORAGE STABILITY OF EXTRUDED SNACKS FROM BLENDS OF WHOLE WHEAT FLOUR AND CHICKEN EGG

Goal: 1. Produce extruded snack from fresh raw whole egg, egg white and egg yolk in combination with whole wheat flour,
2. Evaluate the microstructural, physicochemical and microbial characteristics of the extrudates,
3. Evaluate the sensory quality and storage stability of the extrudates during storage for three months at ambient room conditions and at 37 oC.

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Project log

Oluchukwu Margaret Mary Nwadi
added 2 research items
The objective of this research was to produce antioxidant-rich extrudate from whole wheat flour and chicken egg. Antioxidants help in the management of certain chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, aging and cancer. Wheat and chicken egg contain antioxidants, therefore a snack product from the combination of both delivered a very healthy and especially antioxidant-rich snack. The samples were rich in antioxidants (15.8187-18.4346 % inhibition). Literature has it that the antioxidant capacity of chicken eggs depends on vitamin E and carotenoids which are found in the egg yolk. Generally, the consumption of whole grains has been associated with the prevention of oxidative stress-related diseases such as cancer mainly because most of the bioactive compounds is contained in the milled fractions rich in whole grain, bran or germ. Due to health-consciousness of consumers, cereals are consumed more due to their contents of phenolics. Phenolics and flavonoids are the sources of antioxidant activity of cereals.
Oluchukwu Margaret Mary Nwadi
added 9 research items
Extrusion cooking of food entails different unit operations in a single process whereby different food ingredients are uniformly mixed and forcefully passed through a die. It has been used in producing various shapes and sizes of food products. Extrusion technology is mostly applied in the manufacture of snacks, breakfast cereals and ready-to-eat food products and the more modern 3D breakfast cereals and snacks. Extrusion cooking involves a high temperature short time process and is very useful in producing low-fat snacks. Extrusion cooking solubilizes fibre, increases protein and starch digestibility, inactivates antinutrients, toxins and harmful enzymes such as peroxidases [1]. During extrusion cooking, the structure and texture after processing of the food products (extrudates) are changed but most researchers have not paid attention to these changes. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to review the microstructure of extruded food products.
The aim of this paper was to review literature on the use of cereal flours and animal protein sources in the production of extruded foods to combat protein malnutrition. Extrusion cooking has been extensively used in the production of snacks, pet treats, breakfast cereals and sometimes beverages and instant powders. Most extruded foods are cereal-based, containing either wheat, maize, rice or other cereals, legumes, tubers and even by products from fruits and vegetable processing such as apple pomace. Over the years extruded products have been known to be starch-based. This could be as a result of the viscoelasticity of starch which results in expansion of the extrudate. Addition of animal protein sources such as meat, fish, milk or egg in fresh or dried forms will deliver more nutritious products. Among dietary proteins, egg is one of the cheapest, bioavailable and most socially acceptable in the globe. Egg is a complete protein and may be described as a near perfect food due to its nutrient composition and may be the most suitable source of animal protein.
The aim of this paper was to review the literature on the antioxidant properties of egg and processed eggs. One of the important biological functions of egg is dietary antioxidant. Bioactive peptides from egg have been shown to prevent some chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer and age related macular degenerative conditions which have been associated with oxidative stress. These bioactive peptides in egg are released during digestion in the gastrointestinal tract when consumed. Bioactive peptides can also be derived from egg proteins through enzymatic hydrolysis using enzymes such as alcalase. The resulting hydrolysates also have antioxidant activity.
Oluchukwu Margaret Mary Nwadi
added a project goal
1. Produce extruded snack from fresh raw whole egg, egg white and egg yolk in combination with whole wheat flour,
2. Evaluate the microstructural, physicochemical and microbial characteristics of the extrudates,
3. Evaluate the sensory quality and storage stability of the extrudates during storage for three months at ambient room conditions and at 37 oC.