Aphasia is a common speech and language disorder, typically caused by a brain injury or a stroke, that affects millions of people worldwide. Detecting and assessing Aphasia in patients is a difficult, time-consuming process, and numerous attempts to automate it have been made, the most successful using machine learning models trained on aphasic speech data. Like in many medical applications, aphasic speech data is scarce and the problem is exacerbated in so-called "low resource" languages, which are, for this task, most languages excluding English. We attempt to leverage available data in English and achieve zero-shot aphasia detection in low-resource languages such as Greek and French, by using language-agnostic linguistic features. Current cross-lingual aphasia detection approaches rely on manually extracted transcripts. We propose an end-to-end pipeline using pre-trained Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) models that share cross-lingual speech representations and are fine-tuned for our desired low-resource languages. To further boost our ASR model's performance, we also combine it with a language model. We show that our ASR-based end-to-end pipeline offers comparable results to previous setups using human-annotated transcripts.