Project

P2I Project “COREAP” – Service life, conservation and rehabilitation of walls of buildings with relevant patrimonial value

Goal: In the built heritage, in terms of importance, one must highlight the architectural heritage prior to the 20th century, mainly monumental, as well as the buildings built in the 20th century whose relevance was being gradually recognized due primarily to its historical and cultural value and of public utility (here referred to generically as "patrimonial value"). With respect to this last set of most recent and relevant interest buildings, this project intends to examine, in particular, the buildings with reinforced concrete integral structure or with mixed structure of reinforced concrete and masonry, which is being gradually recognized their intrinsic value at the level of society and cultural agents and technicians, for the excellence of the architectural parts in presence and specific techniques and materials used, in some cases with artisanal or semi-industrial nature. The project intends to study, essentially, that kind of relevant buildings from the point of view of service life, conservation and rehabilitation of the respective interior and exterior masonry walls and confining elements, as well as the facilities housed in them. The goal of the study is to improve the methods and practice associated with the actions of conservation and rehabilitation of relevant buildings, which by the complexity of the issues involved, the level of constructive/functional rehabilitation, require a very specialized knowledge in order to integrate interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary, and all valances that matter to be involved.

Date: 1 June 2015

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José Miranda Dias
added 2 research items
Anomalies in heritage buildings with reinforced concrete structure, related to the cracking of infill masonry walls due to vertical deformations of their structural supporting elements, can have strong negative impact on these buildings, as they usually represent an important cultural and historical value to preserve. These deformations can affect the functionality, aesthetics and the safety of the referred heritage buildings, leading to significant costs associated to repair actions and decrease of their patrimonial value. Hence, a better knowledge of the vertical deformations in heritage buildings with reinforced concrete structure is needed. In this paper, a general description of anomalies related to vertical deformations of the masonry walls and their reinforced concrete supporting elements (beam or slab support) is made. Relevant influencing factors of the wall-support basic behaviour are presented. An analysis of wall-support behaviour related to vertical deformations is carried out, based on the study of the stresses in the constituent elements of wall-support assembly (especially, masonry units, mortar joints and interface wall/support), and of their main types of deformation related with the rigidity of the reinforced concrete support of the wall, and also of the reinforced concrete element (beam or slab) confining at the top of the wall. Serviceability requirements related to the limitation of damage in infill masonry walls, through the control of the deflections of reinforced concrete supports with due consideration of the respective building heritage relevance, are discussed. Finally, general strategies for repair and rehabilitation of building infill masonry walls with anomalies related to vertical deformations of their reinforced concrete supports, as well as for strengthening of these supports, are proposed.
In buildings with reinforced concrete structure, it is observed that, in many cases, the cracking in facade masonry walls and internal walls is essentially related to deformations due to temperature variations (thermal deformations). In fact, thermal deformations can induce significant stresses in these building elements and cause appreciable cracking, the repair of which may incur high costs. Where the effect of temperature variations is presumed to be predominant, the detection of the respective cracking situations shall involve the identification, with high reliability, of the characteristic signs that clearly can be associated to the typical pattern of cracking due to thermal deformations. The purpose of this paper is to analyse, in heritage buildings, thermal deformations in masonry walls and their confining reinforce concrete elements. It also addresses the process of identification of this kind of cracking associated with the effect of temperature variations. In particular, the potential for using NDT techniques, namely ultrasound testing, infrared thermography and photogrammetry, in this process of identification, is here evaluated.
José Miranda Dias
added 2 research items
Buildings with structural concrete elements associated to infill or resistant masonry walls, constructed, in their great majority, since the beginning of last century, have lately profited a considerable improvement of their durability characteristics, particularly to resist common climate actions. The climate change, and particularly the global warming, are expected to have impact on the durability and service life of these buildings, with premature degradation of materials and construction elements. In this paper, the evolution of construction characteristics of buildings with structural concrete elements associated to infill or resistant masonry walls is briefly analysed, particularly regarding heritage buildings, focusing on the constructive provisions that have been introduced, aiming the increase of its durability characteristics. Concerning the premature degradation of the materials and construction elements due to the impact of climate change, the main factors to be taken into account are presented/estimated. General criteria for selection of materials and components in maintenance and rehabilitation of these heritage buildings, particularly concerning the effects of climate change, are here analysed. Finally, in the context of monitoring the degradation effects of climate change on these heritage buildings, the potential application of non-destructive techniques is generally discussed, namely the use, along the service life, of ultrasound testing, infrared thermography and photogrammetry, for accessing the decrease of the durability conditions of the referred buildings, due to climate change.
New challenges to the performance of buildings heritage have emerged from the environmental effects of climate changes. Climatic factors affect the performance of buildings. The recent changes in the climate have been more marked than previously documented. This tendency is expected to continue in the near future, despite the measures that have been taken to mitigate global warming. Thus, the predicted and significant impact of this climate change on buildings will enforce their necessary adaptation based on special measures to mitigate the adverse effects of climate change. This paper discusses structural and functional rehabilitation of heritage buildings with reinforced concrete structure, given the predictable effects of climate changes. The environmental impacts of climate change require a detailed analysis about the effective suitability of current performance requirements, particularly when the uncertain character of these environmental impacts is a major issue. The need for adjustment of performance requirements will be analysed from the perspective of structural and functional rehabilitation of buildings. This will address aspects such as mechanical strength and stability (especially in relation to the retrofitting of existing structures), fire safety, hygiene and health, thermal/acoustic insulation, lighting and sustainability.
José Miranda Dias
added 2 research items
Resumo - No contexto da preservação de edifícios do património edificado nacional, constata-se a necessidade de intervenção sobre esse património, sobretudo nos casos de crescente degradação dos seus elementos construtivos. Em particular, na parcela mais recente desse património, construída no século XX e constituída na sua maioria por edifícios com base em estrutura de betão armado (estrutura mista de betão armado e alvenaria ou estrutura integral de betão), verifica-se, frequentemente, que as respetivas paredes de fachada de alvenaria e elementos confinantes de betão armado estão sujeitos a ações agressivas que comprometem a sua durabilidade e se traduzem na necessidade de ações preventivas e/ou corretivas de forma a prevenir a sua degradação prematura, em especial nos edifícios com valor patrimonial. Pretende-se analisar, nesta comunicação, as possíveis medidas preventivas e/ou corretivas relativamente aos problemas mais correntes de durabilidade que afetam, em particular, os revestimentos e pinturas das paredes e os elementos estruturais confinantes de betão armado de edifícios de valor patrimonial com estrutura de betão armado atrás descrita, no contexto da respetiva manutenção e reparação. Visa-se, ainda, avaliar a potencial utilização de técnicas não destrutivas (em particular, os ensaios de Ultrassons, a Análise Termográfica e a Fotogrametria), no âmbito da verificação da eficácia das ações de manutenção e de reparação de revestimentos e pinturas de paredes e dos elementos estruturais confinantes de betão armado desses edifícios, realizadas com vista a conferir aos elementos reparados, as caraterísticas de durabilidade adequadas face ao respetivo valor patrimonial. Abstract - In the context of the preservation of buildings of the national built heritage, there is a need for intervention on this patrimony, especially in cases of increasing degradation of its building elements. In particular, in the most recent part of this patrimony, built in the 20th century and consisted, mostly, of buildings based on reinforced concrete structure (mixed structure of reinforced concrete and masonry or integral concrete structure), it is often observed that the respective façade of masonry walls and the confining reinforced concrete elements are subject to aggressive actions that compromise their durability and lead to a need for preventive and/or corrective actions in order to prevent their premature degradation, especially in buildings with patrimonial value. Here, it is intended to analyse the possible preventive and/or corrective measures, in relation to the most current problems of durability that affect, in particular, the renders and paintings of the walls and the structural confining reinforced concrete elements of buildings of patrimonial value with reinforced concrete structure described above, in the context of their maintenance and repair. It also aims to evaluate the potential use of non-destructive techniques (in particular, ultrasound tests, thermographic analysis and photogrammetry), in the context of verifying the effectiveness of maintenance and repair actions of wall renderings and paintings and structural confining reinforced concrete elements of these buildings, carried out with a view to confer to the repaired elements, the appropriate durability characteristics, taking into account their patrimonial value.
Resumo - Os edifícios de valor patrimonial com estrutura de betão armado, construídos, em geral, a partir do final da segunda década do século XX, necessitam, em alguns casos, de intervenções corretivas, face a problemas originados, sobretudo, pela degradação dos elementos constituintes ou pela alteração do tipo de utilização associada, frequentemente, a novas necessidades de segurança, de conforto térmico e acústico, e de eficiência energética. Por outro lado, a seleção de soluções de reabilitação de paredes de alvenaria e elementos de betão armado de edifícios existentes de valor patrimonial, depara-se com dificuldades, face aos requisitos básicos a considerar e ao que é exigido no atual enquadramento legal. Constata-se, ainda, que é uma tarefa que exige multidisciplinaridade e soluções de compromisso. Pretende-se neste artigo analisar as intervenções de reabilitação estrutural e funcional dos edifícios de valor patrimonial com estrutura de betão armado, face à degradação dos respetivos elementos construtivos e à necessidade de se garantirem níveis funcionais adequados. Para tal, visa-se identificar os principais fatores condicionantes a considerar na seleção das soluções de reabilitação desse património, tendo em vista a satisfação das necessidades decorrentes das atuais exigências de utilização e segurança. As soluções mais adequadas para dar resposta a cada uma dessas exigências podem não ser compatíveis entre si, pelo que se procura estudar soluções globais que resultem de um compromisso entre as diferentes exigências. Saliente-se o contexto particular de deficiente resistência sísmica de alguns dos edifícios de valor patrimonial, nos quais é crucial que sejam objeto de ações de reabilitação que visem melhorar a resistência sísmica. Em simultâneo, importa, ainda, incrementar os níveis de segurança contra incêndio e de conforto térmico e acústico, e a eficiência energética, bem como as condições de sustentabilidade da construção. Abstract - Buildings of patrimonial value with reinforced concrete structure, built in general since the end of the second decade of the twentieth century, require, in some cases, corrective interventions, to face the problems arising, mainly, by the degradation of the constituent elements or by the alteration of the type of use often associated with new needs of safety, thermal and acoustic comfort, and energy efficiency. On the other hand, the selection of rehabilitation solutions for masonry walls and reinforced concrete elements of existing buildings of patrimonial value is faced with difficulties, given the basic requirements to be considered and what is required in the current legal framework. It is also observed that it is a task that requires multidisciplinary and compromise solutions. This article aims to analyse the structural and functional rehabilitation interventions of buildings of patrimonial value with reinforced concrete structure, in view of the degradation of their construction elements and the need to ensure adequate functional levels. To this end, it aims to identify the main conditioning factors to be considered in the selection of rehabilitation solutions of this patrimony, with a view to meet the needs arising from the current requirements of use and safety. The most appropriate solutions to meet each of these requirements may not be compatible between them, so the study of global solutions that result from a compromise between the different requirements is to be seek. The particular context of deficient seismic resistance of some of the buildings of patrimonial value should be highlighted, and it is crucial that these buildings are subjected to rehabilitation actions to improve their seismic resistance. At the same time, it is also important to increase the levels of fire safety and thermal and acoustic comfort, and energy efficiency, as well as the sustainability conditions of the construction.
José Miranda Dias
added 2 research items
Elements of building envelope, during service life, are subjected to deformations and volume changes due to moisture variations, which can cause anomalies in the building, such as the cracking of facade walls and consequent rain penetration, with increase of their moisture content. In case of heritage buildings with structural concrete elements and infill masonry walls, when, besides moisture variations, other different causes can be hypothetically possible, it can be justifiable to investigate more profoundly the anomalies with the available NDT techniques. This study is related to the application of non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques, with a view to the evaluation of anomalies related to the presence and flow of moisture in masonry walls, notably through Ultrasound, Infrared Thermography (IRT) and Photogrammetry. These NDT techniques are used in the evaluation of masonry specimen with variable moisture content, subjected to compression test, before and after been tested, when cracking will be present.
José Miranda Dias
added 3 research items
Abstract: The foundations movements can be a cause of anomalies in affected buildings. Such situations can have particularly negative implications for heritage buildings that represent a particular cultural and historical value that matters to preserve. This article intends to present study methodologies for the implementation of preventive and curative measures in existing Heritage Buildings with reinforced concrete structure or mixed structure of reinforced concrete and masonry walls, specifically focusing on the risks of foundation settlements that, in particular, can cause cracking in masonry walls. Foundation settlements that are considered here relate, especially, to those resulting from the execution of geotechnical works, in the building itself or in its neighbourhood. Methodologies are presented to estimate and limit the damage. Strategies for repair and rehabilitation of walls and reinforcement of foundations of buildings are also presented.
Abstract: The anomalies related with durability of building masonry walls and their confining concrete elements are often related to the occurrence of cracking/detachment and with the presence of moisture. In many situations, it involves the cracking of masonry walls and the deterioration of concrete which, in cases of greater severity, results in the detachment of the walls render and in the local delamination of the concrete elements (columns, walls and beams), with the uncovering of the steel reinforcement and their consequent corrosion. Automated anomalies detection, in inspection of these anomalies, based on image processing techniques, can be done using the non-destructive testing (NDT). The paper intends to identify the most common anomalies related with durability affecting the functionality and aesthetics and, in some situations, the safety of heritage buildings with reinforced concrete structure, seeking to typify the main anomalies related to the durability of materials and construction elements. A methodology of recognition of the most relevant patterns of these anomalies is briefly presented, in particular through image processing and features extraction of anomaly patterns in facade walls and on confinement elements of reinforced concrete, with the purpose of subsequent use within the framework of support to the inspection actions and consequent maintenance of this type of heritage buildings.
Resumo: No contexto da preservação do património edificado nacional tem-se destacado, gradualmente, o construído no século XX. Este património tem exigido intervenções de conservação e reabilitação, devido à degradação dos elementos construtivos e à necessidade de garantir níveis funcionais adequados às atuais exigências de utilização e segurança. Esta comunicação centra a análise nos edifícios de betão armado classificados como património de interesse cultural e em edifícios que, embora não enquadrados nessa classificação, têm valor cultural, histórico ou utilidade pública. A escolha de soluções corretivas das anomalias ou limitações existentes deve ser suportada por um diagnóstico adequado das causas das reais condições dos edifícios, após a sua prévia identificação e caraterização. No contexto da escolha de soluções integradas de reabilitação, apontam-se algumas interações ou incompatibilidades existentes entre diferentes exigências funcionais na avaliação das necessidades de reabilitação estrutural e funcional de edifícios de betão armado. Abstract: In the context of the preservation of national built heritage, the 20th century built heritage, gradually, has been highlighted. This built heritage has required conservation and rehabilitation interventions, due to degradation of the constructive elements and need to ensure functional levels appropriate to the present use and safety requirements. This paper focuses on the analysis of reinforced concrete buildings classified as cultural heritage and buildings which, although not included in this classification, have cultural, historical value or public utility. The choice of corrective solutions of anomalies or existing limitations must be supported by a proper diagnosis of the causes of the real conditions of buildings, after their prior identification and characterization. In the context of choice of integrated solutions of rehabilitation, some interactions or existing incompatibilities between different functional requirements in the evaluation of structural and functional rehabilitation needs are referred.
José Miranda Dias
added an update
Development of “COREAP-e Aplication” using "Microsoft Access" environment for the analysis of anomalies in masonry walls of Heritage Buildings The research project "COREAP" includes the task of developing an working environment using the "Microsoft Access" application, supported by computer network, and designed first to perform as a collaborative platform between research team members, with possible future extension to a web application. That Aplication will be a tool that would facilitate a teamwork in studies on conservation and rehabilitation of the particular set of Heritage Buildings that are specifically based on structural concrete elements associated to infill or resistant masonry walls (acronymus: EVPba), and that are covered by this project. It previews the development of an application that helps a research team in sectorial tasks and provide a shared environment with working menus in different areas of the module of inspection report form and of the technical document module; it will provide technical support information stored. Therefore, this research project intends to develop a “COREAP-e Application” using "Microsoft Access" environment, for implementing a module of inspection report form and a technical document module for the analysis of anomalies in masonry walls of Heritage Buildings, with its proposed intervention solutions (see fig. 1). In parallel, a supporting documentation is to be developed, which includes a reference information module with references to studies on Heritage Buildings; a case studies module; and to complement the refered modules, an additional anomalies form sheets module is also to be developed. The inspection form module, the technical document module and the anomalies sheets module will operate using an "user-friendly" iterative method, developed with the use of the environment provided by the software “Microsoft Access 2010" (see fig. 2). These modules are intended to serve as a common platform for the research team to develop studies on the real situations of anomalies in heritage buildings, particularly their masonry walls. The inspection form module, the technical document module, and the anomalies form sheets module are based on the following classification of anomalies: structural anomalies; functional anomalies; construction anomalies and anomalies in thechnical installations, framed by the situations of possible non-compliance with the construction basic requirements of construction.
Note: See this text and the referenced figures and tables in the attach file.
 
José Miranda Dias
added 24 project references
José Miranda Dias
added a project goal
In the built heritage, in terms of importance, one must highlight the architectural heritage prior to the 20th century, mainly monumental, as well as the buildings built in the 20th century whose relevance was being gradually recognized due primarily to its historical and cultural value and of public utility (here referred to generically as "patrimonial value"). With respect to this last set of most recent and relevant interest buildings, this project intends to examine, in particular, the buildings with reinforced concrete integral structure or with mixed structure of reinforced concrete and masonry, which is being gradually recognized their intrinsic value at the level of society and cultural agents and technicians, for the excellence of the architectural parts in presence and specific techniques and materials used, in some cases with artisanal or semi-industrial nature. The project intends to study, essentially, that kind of relevant buildings from the point of view of service life, conservation and rehabilitation of the respective interior and exterior masonry walls and confining elements, as well as the facilities housed in them. The goal of the study is to improve the methods and practice associated with the actions of conservation and rehabilitation of relevant buildings, which by the complexity of the issues involved, the level of constructive/functional rehabilitation, require a very specialized knowledge in order to integrate interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary, and all valances that matter to be involved.
 
José Miranda Dias
added 2 research items
Heritage buildings based on structural concrete elements associated to infill or resistant masonry walls often present facade anomalies such as cracking, disintegration, settlement, delamination, wear, deflection or leakage. The selection of the most suitable test method is essential for the reliability and confidence of assessment and service life prediction of heritage buildings. Usually, only one non-destructive test method cannot give enough information about the facade anomalies to support a diagnosis, so a combined use of different methods could be of great convenience. This article presents the experimental results of the combined use of ultrasound testing, thermography and photogrammetry for assessment of anomalies occurring in facades of a heritage building, these results are compared and discussed and recommendations are made to address the advantages of the combined use of these techniques to support the diagnosis of the causes of anomalies in facades.
A escolha da solução corretiva das situações de fendilhação nas paredes de alvenaria de edifícios deve ser suportada pela realização de um diagnóstico das causas, o qual deve ser apoiado pela realização de um levantamento detalhado das anomalias. A identificação destas anomalias poderá ser obtida utilizando técnicas de inspeção in-situ, preferencialmente as técnicas não destrutivas (NDT). De entre os referidos métodos NDT pretende-se neste artigo abordar, em particular, os ensaios de ultra-sons, a análise termográfica e a fotogrametria, tendo em vista analisar as possíveis vantagens da sua utilização combinada para apoio à elaboração do diagnóstico das causas da referida fendilhação. Analisa-se, em particular, os resultados de ensaios de provetes de alvenaria sujeitos à compressão axial em foi efetuada uma utilização combinada das três referidas técnicas.
José Miranda Dias
added a research item
For the definition of conservation and rehabilitation actions in buildings of heritage value, it is necessary to take into account the significant evolution processed in several functional aspects of these buildings. The complexity of the issues involved in conservation and repair of their construction elements and functional rehabilitation requires knowledge in several domains, in order to integrate, in an interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary way, the functional requirements that are needed to be considered. This article focuses attention on the buildings classified as cultural heritage as well as buildings not included in this classification, but which present relevant cultural/historical value or public utility. In both cases targeting the set of buildings that are specifically based on structural concrete elements associated to infill or resistant masonry walls. Relevant aspects of the overall performance of referred heritage buildings are here presented, in particular of their walls and confining elements, concerning the different basic requirements and the other functional requirements.