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Oxford House

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Project log

Bradley Olson
added 2 research items
The Oxford House model for substance abuse recovery has potential economic advantages associated with the low cost of opening up and maintaining the settings. In the present study, annual program costs per person were estimated for Oxford House based on federal loan information and data collected from Oxford House Inc. In addition, annual treatment and incarceration costs were approximated based on participant data prior to Oxford House residence in conjunction with normative costs for these settings. Societal costs associated with the Oxford House program were relatively low, whereas estimated costs associated with inpatient and incarceration history were high. The implications of these findings are discussed.
The authors suggest that the mental health system of the nation could benefit by more fully embracing the idea of mutual-help (i.e., self-help), and this collaboration could be facilitated by the utilization of a well-established clinical theory to elucidate the psychological processes at work within mutual-help organizations. The processes of change of the transtheoretical model is offered as one potential framework. This well-established model has been used to help psychologists better understand clinical and professional phenemonena, but, to date, has been used less frequently with non-professional interventions. This article applies the ten processes of change of the transtheoretical model to mutual-help organizations, focusing on four groups, including Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), Oxford House, GROW, and Schizophrenics Anonymous. The advantages of the transtheoretical model and its potential ability to act as a common language across clinical professionals and mutual-help organizations are discussed. In addition, advantages of bolstering the present mental health system using combinations of both forms of care along the recovery continuum are described.
Leonard A Jason
added a research item
The current study examined the relationships between a personality metatrait (Stability consisting of conscientiousness, agreeableness, and neuroticism), self-esteem, and stress in an adult population of individuals with substance use disorders living in recovery homes. Adults (N ¼ 229) residing in 42 residential recovery settings were interviewed as part of the first wave of a longitudinal study in three sites. Standard error of the mean analysis found significant effects for several demographic variables on Stability, and Stability was significantly related both directly and indirectly to stress. These findings suggest that individual differences at entry may influence recovery home effects and may be important to developing more effective aftercare systems.
Leonard A Jason
added a research item
Oxford Houses (OH) are a peer-run sober living homes that are the largest network of recovery homes with over 2,000 in the US. They are self-run without any professional staff. The current study focused on better understanding the facilitators and barriers to OH entry for transgender individuals. The study explored ways in which transgender people found entry into the OHs and the experiences of transgender residents in OHs in comparison to cisgender residents. We conducted semi-structured interviews of 7 transgender women and 7 cisgender men, using grounded theory methodology. Participants reported fear and apprehensions upon entry into OH due to participants initially feeling that OHs may be similar to past settings that were not sensitive to their needs and gender identity. However, the participants reported diminished fear and comfort shortly after transitioning into OHs. Though discrimination was brought up, it appears that participants could work through minor issues by means of discussion and boundary setting. Both groups of participants followed similar paths in addiction and recovery. Salient themes including familial connections within the house are discussed.
Joseph R Ferrari
added a research item
It is argued that drug and alcohol addiction centers on denial and self-delusion, and successful recovery depends on coming to terms with such problems. Mutual-help programs for substance abuse recovery (eg, 12-step programs) and self-run recovery homes (eg, Oxford House) might decrease self-deception through emphasis on facing reality, strict abstinence rules, and empowering people to direct their own course of recovery. The present study examined how recovery processes (12-step programs vs. recovery residence), substance use, and race/ethnicity predicted self-deception among adult residents of self-run recovery homes (359 men, 152 women). Twelve-step participation but not recovery home residency significantly predicted decreased self-deception across a 4-month period. In addition, race/ethnicity was a significant predictor of self-deception, with African Americans reporting higher levels of self-deception than participants of other racial groups. It is suggested that substance abusing individuals look to 12-step programs such as Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous to reduce denial and gain a realistic self-view, critical steps in addiction recovery.
Josefina Alvarez
added 2 research items
Latinos are exposed to adverse psychosocial factors that impact their health outcomes. Given the heterogeneity and rapid growth of this population, there is an urgent need to understand the mechanisms through which psychosocial factors impact substance abuse and anxiety between immigrant and U.S. born Latino adults. The present study employs a multi-group path analysis using Mplus 7.2 to examine generational differences in the paths between affiliation culture, years of formal education, contact with important people, and length of full-time employment to substance abuse and anxiety in immigrant and U.S. born Latino adults who completed substance abuse treatment. A total of 131 participants (Mage= 36.3, SD ± 10.5, 86.3% males, 48.1% non-U.S. born with a mean length of stay of 19 years in the U.S. (SD ± 13.71) in recovery from substance abuse completed self-report measures. Results from the multi-group path analysis suggest that being more affiliated to the U.S. culture is associated with substance abuse, whereas years of formal education and longer full-time employment is associated with reduced anxiety in the immigrant group. Conversely, frequent contact with important people and affiliation to the U.S. culture are associated with fewer years of substance abuse, whereas longer full-time employment is associated with substance abuse in the U.S. born group. Anxiety and substance abuse was correlated only in the U.S. born group. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Joseph R Ferrari
added 2 research items
The current study explored the relationships within a higher education institution between school sense of community among first-generation U.S. citizen students and first-generation college students compared to students of non-first generation studentship and citizenship (N = 3,025; M age = 27.21), and of varied racial backgrounds. Students at a large, urban, and faith-based university completed a measure of belongingness on campus. In terms of generational status, results found a significant interaction such that students who were both first-generation U.S. citizen students and first-generation college students reported the highest school sense of community. However, the combined first-generation U.S. citizen students and non-first-generation college student group reported the lowest scores. Despite these significant findings, sense of community scores were very similar with few differences between groups, which is further discussed in the discussion and limitation sections. Significant racial differences were not found. Implications for community psychology and higher education policy are discussed.
Josefina Alvarez
added a research item
The current study examined differences in 30-day and lifetime substance use for a sample of Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban American men and women from the Drug Evaluation Network System, a national database on individuals seeking substance abuse treatment. There were significant gender and ethnic differences in recent and lifetime substance use after controlling for age, years of education, employment, medical, and psychological problems. Lifetime and 30-day substance use rates found in this study do not coincide with prevalence rates found in community samples of Latinas/os, indicating that the patterns of substance use may be different among individuals who seek substance abuse treatment than among those in the general population. The results of this study highlight the heterogeneity of Latinas/os who abuse substances.