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Outline of Fungi

Goal: Providing the taxonomic outline of the kingdom Fungi. The Outline will be based on recent publications of Outline of Ascomycota (Wijayawardene et al. 2018; FUDI 88: 167-263), Notes for genera of Basal Clades of Fungi (Wijayawardene et al. 2018; submitted to FUDI) and Notes for genera of Basidiomycota (He et al. (2018; in prep.).

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Marc Stadler
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Xylariomycetidae ( Ascomycota ) is a highly diversified group with variable stromatic characters. Our research focused on inconspicuous stromatic xylarialean taxa from China, Italy, Russia, Thailand and the United Kingdom. Detailed morphological descriptions, illustrations and combined ITS-LSU- rpb 2- tub 2- tef 1 phylogenies revealed 38 taxa from our collections belonging to Amphisphaeriales and Xylariales . A new family ( Appendicosporaceae ), five new genera ( Magnostiolata , Melanostictus , Neoamphisphaeria , Nigropunctata and Paravamsapriya ), 27 new species ( Acrocordiella photiniicola , Allocryptovalsa sichuanensis , Amphisphaeria parvispora , Anthostomella lamiacearum , Apiospora guiyangensis , Ap. sichuanensis , Biscogniauxia magna , Eutypa camelliae , Helicogermslita clypeata , Hypocopra zeae , Magnostiolata mucida , Melanostictus longiostiolatus , Me. thailandicus , Nemania longipedicellata , Ne. delonicis , Ne. paraphysata , Ne. thailandensis , Neoamphisphaeria hyalinospora , Neoanthostomella bambusicola , Nigropunctata bambusicola , Ni. nigrocircularis , Ni. thailandica , Occultitheca rosae , Paravamsapriya ostiolata , Peroneutypa leucaenae , Seiridium italicum and Vamsapriya mucosa ) and seven new host/geographical records are introduced and reported. Divergence time estimates indicate that Delonicicolales diverged from Amphisphaeriales + Xylariales at 161 (123–197) MYA. Amphisphaeriales and Xylariales diverged 154 (117–190) MYA with a crown age of 127 (92–165) MYA and 147 (111–184) MYA, respectively. Appendicosporaceae ( Amphisphaeriales ) has a stem age of 89 (65–117) MYA. Ancestral character state reconstruction indicates that astromatic, clypeate ascomata with aseptate, hyaline ascospores that lack germ slits may probably be ancestral Xylariomycetidae having plant-fungal endophytic associations. The Amphisphaeriales remained mostly astromatic with common septate, hyaline ascospores. Stromatic variations may have developed mostly during the Cretaceous period. Brown ascospores are common in Xylariales , but they first appeared in Amphisphaeriaceae , Melogrammataceae and Sporocadaceae during the early Cretaceous. The ascospore germ slits appeared only in Xylariales during the Cretaceous after the divergence of Lopadostomataceae . Hyaline, filiform and apiospores may have appeared as separate lineages providing the basis to Xylariaceae , which may have diverged independently. The future classification of polyphyletic xylarialean taxa will not be based on stromatic variations, but the type of ring, the colour of the ascospores, and the presence or absence of the type of germ slit.
Danny Haelewaters
added a research item
Species delimitation is one of the most fundamental processes in biology. Biodiversity undertakings, for instance, require explicit species concepts and criteria for species delimitation in order to be relevant and translatable. However, a perfect species concept does not exist for Fungi. Here, we review the species concepts commonly used in Basidiomycota, the second largest phylum of Fungi that contains some of the best known species of mushrooms, rusts, smuts, and jelly fungi. In general, best practice is to delimitate species, publish new taxa, and conduct taxonomic revisions based on as many independent lines of evidence as possible, that is, by applying a so-called unifying (or integrative) conceptual framework. However, the types of data used vary considerably from group to group. For this reason we discuss the different classes of Basidiomycota, and for each provide: (i) a general introduction with difficulties faced in species recognition, (ii) species concepts and methods for species delimitation, and (iii) community recommendations and conclusions.
Marc Stadler
added a research item
Biodiversity loss from disturbances caused by human activities means that species are disappearing at an ever increasing rate. The high number of species that have yet to be described have generated extreme crisis to the taxonomist. Therefore, more than in any other era, effective ways to discover and delimitate species are needed. This paper reviews the historically foremost approaches used to delimit species in Ascomycota, the most speciose phylum of Fungi. These include morphological, biological, and phylogenetic species concepts. We argue that a single property to delineate species boundaries has various defects and each species concept comes with its own advantages and disadvantages. Recently the rate of species discovery has increased because of the advancement of phylogenetic approaches. However, traditional phylogenetic methods with few gene regions lack species-level resolution, and do not allow unambiguous conclusions. We detail the processes that affect gene tree heterogeneity, which acts as barriers to delimiting species boundaries in classical low-rank phylogenies. So far, limited insights were given to the DNA-based methodologies to establish well-supported boundaries among fungal species. In addition to reviewing concepts and methodologies used to delimit species, we present a case study. We applied different species delimitation methods to understand species boundaries in the plant pathogenic and cryptic genus Phyllosticta (Dothideomycetes, Botryosphaeriales). Several DNA-based methods over-split the taxa while in some methods several taxa fall into a single species. These problems can be resolved by using multiple loci and coalescence-based methods. Further, we discuss integrative approaches that are crucial for understanding species boundaries within Ascomycota and provide several examples for ideal and pragmatic approaches of species delimitation.
Marc Stadler
added 2 research items
The unambiguous application of fungal names is important to communicate scientific findings. Names are critical for (clinical) diagnostics, legal compliance, and regulatory controls, such as biosafety, food security, quarantine regulations, and industrial applications. Consequently, the stability of the taxonomic system and the traceability of nomenclatural changes is crucial for a broad range of users and taxonomists. The unambiguous application of names is assured by the preservation of nomenclatural history and the physical organisms representing a name. Fungi are extremely diverse in terms of ecology, lifestyle, and methods of study. Predominantly unicellular fungi known as yeasts are usually investigated as living cultures. Methods to characterize yeasts include physiological (growth) tests and experiments to induce a sexual morph; both methods require viable cultures. Thus, the preservation and availability of viable reference cultures are important, and cultures representing reference material are cited in species descriptions. Historical surveys revealed drawbacks and inconsistencies between past practices and modern requirements as stated in the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants (ICNafp). Improper typification of yeasts is a common problem, resulting in a large number invalid yeast species names. With this opinion letter, we address the problem that culturable microorganisms, notably some fungi and algae, require specific provisions under the ICNafp. We use yeasts as a prominent example of fungi known from cultures. But viable type material is important not only for yeasts, but also for other cultivable Fungi that are characterized by particular morphological structures (a specific type of spores), growth properties, and secondary metabolites. We summarize potential proposals which, in our opinion, will improve the stability of fungal names, in particular by protecting those names for which the reference material can be traced back to the original isolate.
Rajeshkumar K. C.
added a research item
A new hyphomycete genus and species, Brykendrickia catenata , collected on decaying culms of bamboo species from Indian forests, is described and illustrated. Brykendrickia catenata is the type species for a new monotypic genus possessing sporodochial conidiomata. Conidiogenous cells are polyblastic, rarely monoblastic, cylindrical, and hyaline to subhyaline. Conidia are loosely cheiroid, blastocatenate, and produce branches of doliiform to oblong, botuliform, globose or subglobose, sub-hyaline to light grey cells.
Marc Stadler
added a research item
-Accepted for publication in Studies in Mycology- To date little is known about the genetic background that drives the production and diversification of secondary metabolites in the Hypoxylaceae. With the recent availability of high-quality genome sequences for 13 representative species and one relative (Xylaria hypoxylon) we attempted to survey the diversity of biosynthetic pathways in these organisms to investigate their true potential as secondary metabolite producers. Manual search strategies based on the accumulated knowledge on biosynthesis in fungi enabled us to identify 783 biosynthetic pathways across 14 studied species, the majority of which were arranged in biosynthetic gene clusters (BGC). The similarity of BGCs was analysed with the BiG-SCAPE engine which organised the BGCs into 375 gene cluster families (GCF). Only ten GCFs were conserved across all of these fungi indicating that speciation is accompanied by changes in secondary metabolism. From the known compounds produced by the family members some can be directly correlated with identified BGCs which is highlighted herein by the azaphilone, dihydroxynaphthalene, tropolone, cytochalasan, terrequinone, terphenyl and brasilane pathways giving insights into the evolution and diversification of those compound classes. Vice versa, products of various BGCs can be predicted through homology analysis with known pathways from other fungi as shown for the identified ergot alkaloid, trigazaphilone, curvupallide, viridicatumtoxin and swainsonine BGCs. However, the majority of BGCs had no obvious links to known products from the Hypoxylaceae or other well-studied biosynthetic pathways from fungi. These findings highlight that the number of known compounds strongly underrepresents the biosynthetic potential in these fungi and that a tremendous amount of unidentified secondary metabolites are still hidden. Moreover, with increasing numbers of genomes for further Hypoxylaceae species becoming available, the likelihood of revealing new biosynthetic pathways that encode for new, potentially useful compounds will significantly improve. Reaching a better understanding of the biology of these producers, and further development of genetic methods for their manipulation will be crucial to access their treasures.
Marc Stadler
added a research item
It is now a decade since The International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF) produced an overview of requirements and best practices for describing a new fungal species. In the meantime the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICNafp) has changed from its former name (the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature) and introduced new formal requirements for valid publication of species scientific names, including the separation of provisions specific to Fungi and organisms treated as fungi in a new Chapter F. Equally transformative have been changes in the data collection, data dissemination, and analytical tools available to mycologists. This paper provides an updated and expanded discussion of current publication requirements along with best practices for the description of new fungal species and publication of new names and for improving accessibility of their associated metadata that have developed over the last 10 years. Additionally, we provide: (1) model papers for different fungal groups and circumstances; (2) a checklist to simplify meeting (i) the requirements of the ICNafp to ensure the effective, valid and legitimate publication of names of new taxa, and (ii) minimally accepted standards for description; and, (3) templates for preparing standardized species descriptions.
Marc Stadler
added a research item
During a diversity study of entomopathogenic fungi in an agricultural ecosystem, two fungi were collected, isolated, and identified based on molecular phylogenetic analyses of three nuclear loci (LSU, TEF1, and RPB1) combined with morphological data. In this study, one novel species is described, Ophiocordyceps flavida, and a new record of Pseudogibellula formicarum for Thailand. Ophiocordyceps flavida morphologically resembles the Hirsutella anamorph of Ophiocordyceps pruinosa by having a mononematous character of the conidiophores and the same insect host (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Pseudogibellula formicarum is found to occur simultaneously with O. flavida, producing white conidiophores on the host. Additionally, secondary metabolites of both fungi were investigated and the major compound in O. flavida was identified as 2-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-oxirane. Pseudogibellula formicarum from Ghana and Thailand produces 6-methoxy-1H-indole-3-carbonitrile as a main component. These compounds are known from chemical synthesis or as products of biotransformation, respectively. However, they were obtained in our study as genuine fungal metabolites for the first time and may even constitute chemotaxonomic markers for the respective species.
Rafael. F. Castañeda-Ruiz
added a research item
Two new anamorphic fungi, Blodgettia chinensis sp. nov. and Nigrolentilocus saprophyticus sp. nov., are described and illustrated from specimens collected on dead branches of unidentified plants in southern China. Blodgettia chinensis is characterized by monoblastic, integrated, terminal conidiogenous cells that produce broadly ellipsoidal, 5-euseptate, smooth conidia with darkened and thickened bands at the septa. Nigrolentilocus saprophyticus is distinguished by its polyblastic, sympodially extending, terminal and intercalary, integrated conidiogenous cells with conspicuous, lenticular conidiogenous loci and ellipsoidal to fusiform, 3-euseptate, versicolored conidia. A key to Nigrolentilocus species is provided. Anapleurothecium botulisporum is recorded for the first time from China.
Danny Haelewaters
added a research item
Fungal Systematics and Evolution (FUSE) is one of the journal series to address the “fusion” between morphological data and molecular phylogenetic data and to describe new fungal taxa and interesting observations. This paper is the 6th contribution in the FUSE series—presenting one new genus, twelve new species, twelve new country records, and three new combinations. The new genus is: Pseudozeugandromyces (Laboulbeniomycetes, Laboulbeniales). The new species are: Albatrellopsis flettioides from Pakistan, Aureoboletus garciae from Mexico, Entoloma canadense from Canada, E. frigidum from Sweden, E. porphyroleucum from Vietnam, Erythrophylloporus flammans from Vietnam, Marasmiellus boreoorientalis from Kamchatka Peninsula in the Russian Far East, Marasmiellus longistipes from Pakistan, Pseudozeugandromyces tachypori on Tachyporus pusillus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) from Belgium, Robillarda sohagensis from Egypt, Trechispora hondurensis from Honduras, and Tricholoma kenanii from Turkey. The new records are: Arthrorhynchus eucampsipodae on Eucampsipoda africanum (Diptera, Nycteribiidae) from Rwanda and South Africa, and on Nycteribia vexata (Diptera, Nycteribiidae) from Bulgaria; A. nycteribiae on Eucampsipoda africanum from South Africa, on Penicillidia conspicua (Diptera, Nycteribiidae) from Bulgaria (the first undoubtful country record), and on Penicillidia pachymela from Tanzania; Calvatia lilacina from Pakistan; Entoloma shangdongense from Pakistan; Erysiphe quercicola on Ziziphus jujuba (Rosales, Rhamnaceae) and E. urticae on Urtica dioica (Rosales, Urticaceae) from Pakistan; Fanniomyces ceratophorus on Fannia canicularis (Diptera, Faniidae) from the Netherlands; Marasmiellus biformis and M. subnudus from Pakistan; Morchella anatolica from Turkey; Ophiocordyceps ditmarii on Vespula vulgaris (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) from Austria; and Parvacoccum pini on Pinus cembra (Pinales, Pinaceae) from Austria. The new combinations are: Appendiculina gregaria, A. scaptomyzae, and Marasmiellus rodhallii. Analysis of an LSU dataset of Arthrorhynchus including isolates of A. eucampsipodae from Eucampsipoda africanum and Nycteribia spp. hosts, revealed that this taxon is a complex of multiple species segregated by host genus. Analysis of an SSU–LSU dataset of Laboulbeniomycetes sequences revealed support for the recognition of four monophyletic genera within Stigmatomyces sensu lato: Appendiculina, Fanniomyces, Gloeandromyces, and Stigmatomyces sensu stricto. Finally, phylogenetic analyses of Rhytismataceae based on ITS–LSU ribosomal DNA resulted in a close relationship of Parvacoccum pini with Coccomyces strobi.
Marc Stadler
added a research item
In an investigation of stromatic Xylariales in Thailand, several specimens of Daldinia were discovered. Three novel species (D. flavogranulata, D. phadaengensis, and D. chiangdaoensis) were recognized from a molecular phylogeny based on concatenated ITS, LSU, RPB2, and TUB2 sequence data, combined with morphological characters and secondary metabolite profiles based on high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The major components detected were cytochalasins (in D. flavogranulata and D. chiangdaoensis) and daldinin type azaphilones (in D. phadaengensis). In addition, D. brachysperma, which had hitherto only been reported from America, was found for the first time in Asia. Its phylogenetic affinities were studied, confirming previous suspicions from morphological comparisons that the species is closely related to D. eschscholtzii and D. bambusicola, both common in Thailand. Daldinia flavogranulata, one of the new taxa, was found to be closely related to the same taxa. The other two novel species, D. phadaengensis and D. chiangdaoensis, share characters with D. korfii and D. kretzschmarioides, respectively.
Rafael. F. Castañeda-Ruiz
added 3 research items
The website http://outlineoffungi.org, is launched to provide a continuous up-to-date classification of the kingdom Fungi (including fossil fungi) and fungus-like taxa. This is based on 1516 recent publications and on the outline of fungi and fungus-like taxa published recently (Mycosphere 11, 1060-1456, Doi: 10.5943/mycosphere/11/1/8). The website is continuously updated according to latest classification schemes, and will present an important platform for researchers, industries, government officials and other users. Users can provide input about missing genera, new genera, and new data. They will also have the opportunity to express their opinions on classifications with notes published in the 'Notes' section of the webpage following review and editing by the curators and independent experts. The website will provide a system to stay abreast of the continuous changes in fungal classification and provide a general consensus on the systematics of fungi.
In a survey of soil and herbivore dung microfungi in Mexico and Spain, several dendryphiella-like species were found. Phylogenetic analyses based on ITS and LSU sequences showed that these fungi belonged to the family Dictyosporiaceae (Pleosporales) and represent an undescribed monophyletic lineage distant from Dendryphiella. Therefore, the genus Neodendryphiella is proposed to accommodate three new species, N.mali, N.michoacanensis and N.tarraconensis. The novel genus shares morphological features with Dendryphiella such as differentiated conidiophores and polytretic integrated conidiogenous cells, that produce acropetal branched chains of conidia. Neodendryphiella differs in the absence of nodulose conidiophores bearing conidiogenous cells with pores surrounded by a thickened and darkened wall, typical features in the conidiogenous apparatus of Dendryphiella. In addition, the phylogenetic and morphological analysis of several reference strains of different Dendryphiella species, available for comparison, support the proposal of D.variabilissp. nov., which mainly differs from the other species of the genus by having conidia up to 7 septa and highlight that D.vinosa and D.infuscans are obscure species that require further taxonomic review.
The website http://outlineoffungi.org, is launched to provide a continuous up-to-date classification of the kingdom Fungi (including fossil fungi) and fungus-like taxa. This is based on 1516 recent publications and on the outline of fungi and fungus-like taxa published recently (Mycosphere 11, 1060-1456, Doi: 10.5943/mycosphere/11/1/8). The website is continuously updated according to latest classification schemes, and will present an important platform for researchers, industries, government officials and other users. Users can provide input about missing genera, new genera, and new data. They will also have the opportunity to express their opinions on classifications with notes published in the 'Notes' section of the webpage following review and editing by the curators and independent experts. The website will provide a system to stay abreast of the continuous changes in fungal classification and provide a general consensus on the systematics of fungi.
Marc Stadler
added a research item
In an investigation of stromatic Xylariales in Thailand, several specimens of Daldinia were discovered. Three novel species (D. flavogranulata, D. phadaengensis and D. chiangdaoensis) were recognised from a molecular phylogeny based on concatenated ITS, LSU, RPB2 and TUB2 sequence data, combined with morphological characters and secondary metabolite profiles based on high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The major components detected were cytochalasins (in D. flavogranulata and D. chiangdaoensis and daldinin type azaphilones (in D. phadaengensis). In addition, D. brachysperma, which had hitherto only been reported from America, was found for the first time in Asia. Its phylogenetic affinities were studied, confirming previous suspicions from morphological comparisons that the species is closely related to D. eschscholtzii and D. bambusicola, both common in Thailand. Daldinia flavogranulata, one of the new taxa, was found to be closely related to the same taxa. The other two novel species, D. phadaengensis and D. chiangdaoensis share characters with D. korfii and D. kretzschmarioides, respectively.
Danny Haelewaters
added a research item
The Basidiomycota constitutes a major phylum of the kingdom Fungi and is second in species numbers to the Ascomycota. The present work provides an overview of all validly published, currently used basidiomycete genera to date in a single document. An outline of all genera of Basidiomycota is provided, which includes 1928 currently used genera names, with 1263 synonyms, which are distributed in 241 families, 68 orders, 18 classes and four subphyla. We provide brief notes for each accepted genus including information on classification, number of accepted species, type species, life mode, habitat, distribution, and sequence information. Furthermore, three phylogenetic analyses with combined LSU, SSU, 5.8s, rpb1, rpb2, and ef1 datasets for the subphyla Agaricomycotina, Pucciniomycotina and Ustilaginomycotina are conducted, respectively. Divergence time estimates are provided to the family level with 632 species from 62 orders, 168 families and 605 genera. Our study indicates that the divergence times of the subphyla in Basidiomycota are 406–430 Mya, classes are 211–383 Mya, and orders are 99–323 Mya, which are largely consistent with previous studies. In this study, all phylogenetically supported families were dated, with the families of Agaricomycotina diverging from 27–178 Mya, Pucciniomycotina from 85–222 Mya, and Ustilaginomycotina from 79–177 Mya. Divergence times as additional criterion in ranking provide additional evidence to resolve taxonomic problems in the Basidiomycota taxonomic system, and also provide a better understanding of their phylogeny and evolution.
Marc Stadler
added a research item
Thailand is known to be a part of what is called the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot, hosting a vast array of organisms across its diverse ecosystems. This is reflected by the increasing number of new species described over time, especially fungi. However, a very few fungal species from the specialized spider-parasitic genus Gibellula have ever been reported from this region. A survey of invertebrate-pathogenic fungi in Thailand over several decades has led to the discovery of a number of fungal specimens with affinities to this genus. Integration of morphological traits into multi-locus phylogenetic analysis uncovered four new species: G. cebrennini, G. fusiformispora, G. pigmentosinum, and G. scorpioides. All these appear to be exclusively linked with torrubiella-like sexual morphs with the presence of granulomanus-like asexual morph in G. pigmentosinum and G. cebrennini. A remarkably high host specificity of these new species towards their spider hosts was revealed, and for the first time, evidence is presented for manipulation of host behavior in G. scorpioides.
Danny Haelewaters
added a research item
Arthropod–fungus interactions involving the Laboulbeniomycetes have been pondered for several hundred years. Early studies of Laboulbeniomycetes faced several uncertainties. Were they parasitic worms, red algal relatives, or fungi? If they were fungi, to which group did they belong? What was the nature of their interactions with their arthropod hosts? The historical misperceptions resulted from the extraordinary morphological features of these oddly constructed ectoparasitic fungi. More recently, molecular phylogenetic studies, in combination with a better understanding of life histories, have clearly placed these fungi among filamentous Ascomycota (subphylum Pezizomycotina). Species discovery and research on the classification of the group continue today as arthropods, and especially insects, are routinely collected and examined for the presence of Laboulbeniomycetes. Newly armed with molecular methods, mycologists are poised to use Laboulbeniomycetes–insect associations as models for the study of a variety of basic evolutionary and ecological questions involving host–parasite relationships, modes of nutrient intake, population biology, host specificity, biological control, and invasion biology. Collaboration between mycologists and entomologists is essential to successfully advance knowledge of Laboulbeniomycetes and their intimate association with their hosts. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Entomology, Volume 66 is January 11, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Marc Stadler
added a research item
The cosmopolitan plant genus Clematis contains many climbing species that can be found worldwide. The genus occurs in the wild and is grown commercially for horticulture. Microfungi on Clematis were collected from Belgium, China, Italy, Thailand and the UK. They are characterized by morphology and analyses of gene sequence data using an integrated species concept to validate identifications. The study revealed two new families, 12 new genera, 50 new species, 26 new host records with one dimorphic character report, and ten species are transferred to other genera. The new families revealed by multigene phylogeny are Longiostiolaceae and Pseudomassarinaceae in Pleosporales (Dothideomycetes). New genera are Anthodidymella (Didymellaceae), Anthosulcatispora and Parasulcatispora (Sulcatisporaceae), Fusiformispora (Amniculicolaceae), Longispora (Phaeosphaeriaceae), Neobyssosphaeria (Melanommataceae), Neoleptosporella (Chaetosphaeriales, genera incertae sedis), Neostictis (Stictidaceae), Pseudohelminthosporium (Neomassarinaceae), Pseudomassarina (Pseudomassarinaceae), Sclerenchymomyces (Leptosphaeriaceae) and Xenoplectosphaerella (Plectosphaerellaceae). The newly described species are Alloleptosphaeria clematidis, Anthodidymella ranunculacearum, Anthosulcatispora subglobosa, Aquadictyospora clematidis, Brunneofusispora clematidis, Chaetosphaeronema clematidicola, C. clematidis, Chromolaenicola clematidis, Diaporthe clematidina, Dictyocheirospora clematidis, Distoseptispora clematidis, Floricola clematidis, Fusiformispora clematidis, Hermatomyces clematidis, Leptospora clematidis, Longispora clematidis, Massariosphaeria clematidis, Melomastia clematidis, M. fulvicomae, Neobyssosphaeria clematidis, Neoleptosporella clematidis, Neoroussoella clematidis, N. fulvicomae, Neostictis nigricans, Neovaginatispora clematidis, Parasulcatispora clematidis, Parathyridaria clematidis, P. serratifoliae, P. virginianae, Periconia verrucose, Phomatospora uniseriata, Pleopunctum clematidis, Pseudocapulatispora clematidis, Pseudocoleophoma clematidis, Pseudohelminthosporium clematidis, Pseudolophiostoma chiangraiense, P. clematidis, Pseudomassarina clematidis, Ramusculicola clematidis, Sarocladium clematidis, Sclerenchymomyces clematidis, Sigarispora clematidicola, S. clematidis, S. montanae, Sordaria clematidis, Stemphylium clematidis, Wojnowiciella clematidis, Xenodidymella clematidis, Xenomassariosphaeria clematidis and Xenoplectosphaerella clematidis. The following fungi are recorded on Clematis species for the first time: Angustimassarina rosarum, Dendryphion europaeum, Dermatiopleospora mariae, Diaporthe ravennica, D. rudis, Dichotomopilus ramosissimum, Dictyocheirospora xishuangbannaensis, Didymosphaeria rubi-ulmifolii, Fitzroyomyces cyperacearum, Fusarium celtidicola, Leptospora thailandica, Memnoniella oblongispora, Neodidymelliopsis longicolla, Neoeutypella baoshanensis, Neoroussoella heveae, Nigrograna chromolaenae, N. obliqua, Pestalotiopsis verruculosa, Pseudoberkleasmium chiangmaiense, Pseudoophiobolus rosae, Pseudoroussoella chromolaenae, P. elaeicola, Ramusculicola thailandica, Stemphylium vesicarium and Torula chromolaenae. The new combinations are Anthodidymella clematidis (≡ Didymella clematidis), A. vitalbina (≡ Didymella vitalbina), Anthosulcatispora brunnea (≡ Neobambusicola brunnea), Fuscohypha kunmingensis (≡ Plectosphaerella kunmingensis), Magnibotryascoma rubriostiolata (≡ Teichospora rubriostiolata), Pararoussoella mangrovei (≡ Roussoella mangrovei), Pseudoneoconiothyrium euonymi (≡ Roussoella euonymi), Sclerenchymomyces jonesii (≡ Neoleptosphaeria jonesii), Stemphylium rosae (≡ Pleospora rosae), and S. rosae-caninae (≡ Pleospora rosae-caninae). The microfungi on Clematis is distributed in several classes of Ascomycota. The analyses are based on morphological examination of specimens, coupled with phylogenetic sequence data. To the best of our knowledge, the consolidated species concept approach is recommended in validating species.
Marc Stadler
added a research item
The genus Stromatoneurospora was erected in 1973 by Jong and Davis to accommodate the pyrophilic pyrenomycete Sphaeria phoenix and has traditionally been placed in the family Xylariaceae based on morphological features. However, no living culture of this genus has so far been available in the public domain. Molecular data were restricted to an internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence that only confirmed the familial position, and was generated from a strain that is not deposited in a public culture collection. We have recently collected fresh material and were able to culture this fungus from Thailand. The secondary metabolites of this strains were analysed after fermentation in multiple media. The the prominent components of these fermentation were purified, using preparative chromatography. Aside from two new eremophilane sesquiterpenoids named phoenixilanes A-B (1-2), four other components that are known from species of the xylariaceous genera Xylaria and Poronia were identified by spectral methods (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry). Notably, (−)-(R)-6-hydroxy-3-methyl-4-dihydroisocoumarin-5-carboxylic acid (6) has not been reported as a natural product before. Moreover, DNA sequences of Stromatoneurospora phoenix clustered with members of the genera Poronia and Podosordaria in a multi-locus molecular phylogeny. These results confirmed that the genus belongs to the same evolutionary lineage as the coprophilic Xylariaceae. The results also suggest that this lineage has evolved independently from the plant-inhabiting saprotrophs and endophytes that are closely related to the genus Xylaria. These findings are discussed in relation to some theories about the endophytic vs. the pyrophilic/coprophilic fungal life style.
Rafael. F. Castañeda-Ruiz
added 3 research items
Two new microfungi are described and illustrated from a forest in Portugal. Magnohelicospora iberica gen. & sp. nov. is distinguished by polyblastic, integrated, sympodial conidiogenous cells and solitary, doliiform or conical, multi-euseptate, brown conidia tightly coiled in three planes. Phaeodactylium stadleri sp. nov. is characterized by obovoid to clavate, 0- to 2-septate, coarsely verruculose, subhyaline to very pale brown conidia. A key to accepted Phaeodactylium species is provided.
The morphology of Acrospeira mirabilis is described and illustrated based on a collection from Florida, USA. Phylogenies generated from ITS and LSU DNA sequence analyses place the genus Acrospeira in Ceratostomataceae . Based on molecular data, Sphaerodes inferior (≡ Microthecium retisporum var. inferius ) is proposed as Microthecium inferius comb. nov.
LSU DNA sequence analyses place Ellismarsporium parvum in Pleosporales . The morphology of the species in pure culture is described and illustrated. Helminthosporium varium is recombined as E. varium , based on its morphology.
Rafael. F. Castañeda-Ruiz
added a research item
LSU DNA sequence analyses place Ellismarsporium parvum in Pleosporales. The morphology of the species in pure culture is described and illustrated. Helminthosporium varium is recombined as E. varium, based on its morphology.
Marc Stadler
added a research item
True fungi (Fungi) and fungus-like organisms (e.g. Mycetozoa, Oomycota) constitute the second largest group of organisms based on global richness estimates, with around 3 million predicted species. Compared to plants and animals, fungi have simple body plans with often morphologically and ecologically obscure structures. This poses challenges for accurate and precise identifications. Here we provide a conceptual framework for the identification of fungi, encouraging the approach of integrative (polyphasic) taxonomy for species delimitation, i.e. the combination of genealogy (phylogeny), phenotype (including autecology), and reproductive biology (when feasible). This allows objective evaluation of diagnostic characters, either phenotypic or molecular or both. Verification of identifications is crucial but often neglected. Because of clade-specific evolutionary histories, there is currently no single tool for the identification of fungi, although DNA barcoding using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) remains a first diagnosis, particularly in metabarcoding studies. Secondary DNA barcodes are increasingly implemented for groups where ITS does not provide sufficient precision. Issues of pairwise sequence similarity-based identifications and OTU clustering are discussed, and multiple sequence alignment-based phylogenetic approaches with subsequent verification are recommended as more accurate alternatives. In metabarcoding approaches, the trade-off between speed and accuracy and precision of molecular identifications must be carefully considered. Intragenomic variation of the ITS and other barcoding markers should be properly documented, as phylotype diversity is not necessarily a proxy of species richness. Important strategies to improve molecular identification of fungi are: (1) broadly document intraspecific and intragenomic variation of barcoding markers; (2) substantially expand sequence repositories, focusing on undersampled clades and missing taxa; (3) improve curation of sequence labels in primary repositories and substantially increase the number of sequences based on verified material; (4) link sequence data to digital information of voucher specimens including imagery. In parallel, technological improvements to genome sequencing offer promising alternatives to DNA barcoding in the future. Despite the prevalence of DNA-based fungal taxonomy, phenotype-based approaches remain an important strategy to catalog the global diversity of fungi and establish initial species hypotheses.
Marc Stadler
added a research item
Eight diketopiperazines including five previously unreported derivatives were isolated from an endophytic fungus cultured from the medicinal plant Globularia alypum collected in Algeria. The strain was characterised by means of morphological studies and molecular phylogenetic methods and was found to represent a species of a new genus in the Chaetomiaceae, for which we propose the name Batnamyces globulariicola. The taxonomic position of the new genus, which appears phylogenetically related to Stolonocarpus and Madurella, was evaluated by a multi-locus genealogy and by morphological studies in comparison to DNA sequence data reported in the recent monographs of the family. The culture remained sterile on several culture media despite repeated attempts to induce sporulation, and only some chlamydospores were formed. After fermentation in submerged culture and extraction of the cultures with organic solvents, the major secondary metabolites of B. globulariicola were isolated and their chemical structures were elucidated by extensive spectral analysis including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, high-resolution electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HRESIMS), and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) measurements. The isolated compounds were tested for their biological activities against various bacteria, fungi, and two mammalian cell lines, but only three of them exhibited weak cytotoxicity against KB3.1 cells, but no antimicrobial effects were observed.
Marc Stadler
added a research item
This article provides morphological descriptions and illustrations of microfungi associated with the invasive weed, Chromolaena odorata, which were mainly collected in northern Thailand. Seventy-seven taxa distributed in ten orders, 23 families (of which Neomassarinaceae is new), 12 new genera (Chromolaenicola, Chromolaenomyces, Longiappendispora, Pseudocapulatispora, Murichromolaenicola, Neoophiobolus, Paraleptospora, Pseudoroussoella, Pseudostaurosphaeria, Pseudothyridariella, Setoarthopyrenia, Xenoroussoella), 47 new species (Aplosporella chromolaenae, Arthrinium chromolaenae, Chromolaenicola chiangraiensis, C. lampangensis, C. nanensis, C. thailandensis, Chromolaenomyces appendiculatus, Diaporthe chromolaenae, Didymella chromolaenae, Dyfrolomyces chromolaenae, Leptospora chromolaenae, L. phraeana, Longiappendispora chromolaenae, Memnoniella chromolaenae, Montagnula chiangraiensis, M. chromolaenae, M. chromolaenicola, M. thailandica, Murichromolaenicola chiangraiensis, M. chromolaenae, Muyocopron chromolaenae, M. chromolaenicola, Neomassarina chromolaenae, Neoophiobolus chromolaenae, Neopyrenochaeta chiangraiensis, N. chromolaenae, N. thailandica, N. triseptatispora, Nigrograna chromolaenae, Nothophoma chromolaenae, Paraleptospora chromolaenae, P. chromolaenicola, Patellaria chromolaenae, Pseudocapulatispora longiappendiculata, Pseudoroussoella chromolaenae, Pseudostaurosphaeria chromolaenae, P. chromolaenicola, Pseudothyridariella chromolaenae, Pyrenochaetopsis chromolaenae, Rhytidhysteron chromolaenae, Setoarthopyrenia chromolaenae, Sphaeropsis chromolaenicola, Tremateia chiangraiensis, T. chromolaenae, T. thailandensis, Xenoroussoella triseptata, Yunnanensis chromolaenae), 12 new host records, three new taxonomic combinations (Chromolaenicola siamensis, Pseudoroussoella elaeicola, Pseudothyridariella mahakashae), and two reference specimens (Torula chromolaenae, T. fici) are described and illustrated. Unlike some other hosts, e.g. bamboo (Poaceae) and Pandanaceae, the dominant group of fungi on Siam weed were Dothideomycetes. Only 15 species previously recorded from northern Thailand were found in this study. Most of the taxa are likely to have jumped hosts from surrounding plants and are unlikely to be a specialist to Siam weed. Most fungal families found on Siam weed had divergence estimates with stem ages in the Cretaceous, which coincided with the expected origin of the host family (Asteraceae). This further indicates that the species have jumped hosts, as it is unlikely that the taxa on the alien Siam weed came from the Americas with its host. They may, however, have jumped from other Asteraceae hosts. In a preliminary screening 40 (65%) of the 62 species tested showed antimicrobial activity and thus, the fungi associated with C. odorata may be promising sources of novel bioactive compound discovery. We provide a checklist of fungi associated with C. odorata based on the USDA Systematic Mycology and Microbiology Laboratory (SMML) database, relevant literature and our study. In total, 130 taxa (116 identified and 14 unidentified species) are distributed in 20 orders, 48 families and 85 genera. Pseudocercospora is the most commonly encountered genus on Siam weed.
Nalin Wijayawardene
added a research item
This article provides an outline of the classification of the kingdom Fungi (including fossil fungi. i.e. dispersed spores, mycelia, sporophores, mycorrhizas). We treat 19 phyla of fungi. These are Aphelidiomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiobolomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Calcarisporiellomycota, Caulochytriomycota, Chytridiomycota, Entomophthoromycota, Entorrhizomycota, Glomeromycota, Kickxellomycota, Monoblepharomycota, Mortierellomycota, Mucoromycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Olpidiomycota, Rozellomycota and Zoopagomycota. The placement of all fungal genera is provided at the class-, order- and family-level. The described number of species per genus is also given. Notes are provided of taxa for which recent changes or disagreements have been presented. Fungus-like taxa that were traditionally treated as fungi are also incorporated in this outline (i.e. Eumycetozoa, Dictyosteliomycetes, Ceratiomyxomycetes and Myxomycetes). Four new taxa are introduced: Amblyosporida ord. nov. Neopereziida ord. nov. and Ovavesiculida ord. nov. in Rozellomycota, and Protosporangiaceae fam. nov. in Dictyosteliomycetes. Two different classifications (in outline section and in discussion) are provided for Glomeromycota and Leotiomycetes based on recent studies. The phylogenetic reconstruction of a four-gene dataset (18S and 28S rRNA, RPB1, RPB2) of 433 taxa is presented, including all currently described orders of fungi.
Marc Stadler
added a research item
Three new species of Hypoxylon (Hypoxylaceae, Xylariales) are described based on a polyphasic approach that included morphological examination, molecular phylogeny and chemotaxonomic studies of specimens collected in Panama. Specifically, we compared the sexual morph (stromata, asci, and ascospores) of the specimens collected with known species of Hypoxylon and inferred a phylogeny of this genus based on a Randomized Axelerated Maximum Likelihood (RAxML) analysis of partial β-tubulin (TUB2) DNA sequences and the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS). Hypoxylon baruense sp. nov. is phylogenetically related to H. subgilvum but differs in the shape of stromata, and by having larger ascospores and a smooth perispore. Hypoxylon bellicolor sp. nov. is phylogenetically well differentiated, featuring effused-pulvinate stromata with orange granules and ostioles lower than the stromatal surface. Hypoxylon sporistriatatunicum sp. nov., is phylogenetically related to H. shearii var. minor but differs in the shape of the stromata, in having ostioles higher than the stromatal surface, and in having larger ascospores. The secondary metabolite profiles of these species were studied by HPLC-DAD-MS and these correspond to the results of the morphological and phylogenetic studies. Additionally, we also report Amphirosellinia evansii, H. howeanum, H. cinnabarinum and Stilbohypoxylon quisquiliarum from Panama for the first time and Citrus sinensis as a new host of H. cinnabarinum. With this work, the number of species of Xylariales and Hypoxylon reported from Panama have increased to 103 and 18, respectively.
Nalin Wijayawardene
added an update
The published paper!
 
Marc Stadler
added a research item
We are proud to publish a special issue of Fungal Diversity in honour of the contributions made by Erio Camporesi, who has promoted mycological research as a prodigious amateur mycologist and collector of fungi. The special issue includes Fungal Diversity notes 11, with many taxa named in Erio’s honour and a monograph of hyaline-spored Coelomycetes, both incorporating many of Erio’s collections.
Nalin Wijayawardene
added an update
Sudhir Navathe
added a research item
This article provides an outline of the classification of the kingdom Fungi (including fossil fungi. i.e. dispersed spores, mycelia, sporophores, mycorrhizas). We treat 19 phyla of fungi. These are Aphelidiomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiobolomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Calcarisporiellomycota, Caulochytriomycota, Chytridiomycota, Entomophthoromycota, Entorrhizomycota, Glomeromycota, Kickxellomycota, Monoblepharomycota, Mortierellomycota, Mucoromycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Olpidiomycota, Rozellomycota and Zoopagomycota. The placement of all fungal genera is provided at the class-, order- and family-level. The described number of species per genus is also given. Notes are provided of taxa for which recent changes or disagreements have been presented. Fungus-like taxa that were traditionally treated as fungi are also incorporated in this outline (i.e. Eumycetozoa, Dictyosteliomycetes, Ceratiomyxomycetes and Myxomycetes). Four new taxa are introduced: Amblyosporida ord. nov. Neopereziida ord. nov. and Ovavesiculida ord. nov. in Rozellomycota, and Protosporangiaceae fam. nov. in Dictyosteliomycetes. Two different classifications (in outline section and in discussion) are provided for Glomeromycota and Leotiomycetes based on recent studies. The phylogenetic reconstruction of a four-gene dataset (18S and 28S rRNA, RPB1, RPB2) of 433 taxa is presented, including all currently described orders of fungi.
Marc Stadler
added a research item
Molecular phylogenetic studies of cultures derived from some specimens of plant-inhabiting Sordariomycetes using ITS, LSU, rpb2 and tub2 DNA sequence data revealed close affinities to strains of Muscodor. The taxonomy of this biotechnologically important genus, which exclusively consists of endophytes with sterile mycelia that produce antibiotic volatile secondary metabolites, was based on a rather tentative taxonomic concept. Even though it was accommodated in Xylariaceae, its phylogenetic position had so far remained obscure. Our phylogeny shows that Muscodor species have affinities to the xylarialean genera Emarcea and Induratia, which is corroborated by the fact that their sexual states produce characteristic apiospores. These data allow for the integration of Muscodor in Induratia, i.e. the genus that was historically described first. The multi-locus phylogenetic tree clearly revealed that a clade comprising Emarcea and Induratia forms a monophylum separate from representatives of Xylariaceae, for which we propose the new family Induratiaceae. Divergence time estimations revealed that Induratiaceae has been diverged from the Xylariaceae + Clypeosphaeriaceae clade at 93 (69–119) million years ago (Mya) with the crown age of 61 (39–85) Mya during the Cretaceous period. The ascospore-derived cultures were studied for the production of volatile metabolites, using both, dual cultures for assessment of antimicrobial effects and extensive analyses using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The antimicrobial effects observed were significant, but not as strong as in the case of the previous reports on Muscodor species. The GC–MS results give rise to some doubt on the validity of the previous identification of certain volatiles. Many peaks in the GC–MS chromatograms could not be safely identified by database searches and may represent new natural products. The isolation of these compounds by preparative chromatography and their subsequent characterisation by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy or total synthesis will allow for a more concise identification of these volatiles, and they should also be checked for their individual contribution to the observed antibiotic effects. This will be an important prerequisite for the development of biocontrol strains.
Marc Stadler
added a research item
The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) has been established (and is generally accepted) as a primary "universal" genetic barcode for fungi for many years, but the actual value for taxonomy has been heavily disputed among mycologists. Recently, twelve draft genome sequences, mainly derived from type species of the family Hypoxylaceae (Xylariales, Ascomycota) and the ex-epitype strain of Xylaria hypoxylon have become available during the course of a large phylogenomic study that was primarily aimed at establishing a correlation between the existing multi-gene-based genealogy with a genome-based phylogeny and the discovery of novel biosynthetic gene clusters encoding for secondary metabolites. The genome sequences were obtained using combinations of Illumina and Oxford nanopore technologies or PacBio sequencing, respectively, and resulted in high-quality sequences with an average N50 of 3.2 Mbp. While the main results will be published concurrently in a separate paper, the current case study was dedicated to the detection of ITS nrDNA copies in the genomes, in an attempt to explain certain incongruities and apparent mismatches between phenotypes and genotypes that had been observed during previous polyphasic studies. The results revealed that all of the studied strains had at least three copies of rDNA in their genomes, with Hypoxylon fragiforme having at least 19 copies of the ITS region, followed by Xylaria hypoxylon with at least 13 copies. Several of the genomes contained 2-3 copies that were nearly identical, but in some cases drastic differences, below 97% identity were observed. In one case, ascribable to the presence of a pseudogene, the deviations of the ITS sequences from the same genome resulted in only ca. 90% of overall homology. These results are discussed in the scope of the current trends to use ITS data for species recognition and segregation of fungi. We propose that additional genomes should be checked for such ITS polymorphisms to reassess the validity of this non-coding part of the fungal DNA for molecular identification.
Marc Stadler
added a research item
The global bio-diversity of fungi has been extensively investigated and their species number has been estimated. Notably, the development of molecular phylogeny has revealed an unexpected fungal diversity and utilisation of culture-independent approaches including high-throughput amplicon sequencing has dramatically increased number of fungal operational taxonomic units. A number of novel taxa including new divisions, classes, orders and new families have been established in last decade.Many cryptic species were identified by molecular phylogeny. Based on recently generated data from culture-dependent and -independent survey on same samples, the fungal species on the earth were estimated to be 12 (11.7–13.2) million compared to 2.2–3.8 million species recently estimated by a variety of the estimation techniques. Moreover, it has been speculated that the current use of high throughput sequencing techniques would reveal an even higher diversity than our current estimation. Recently, the formal classification of environmental sequences and permission of DNA sequence data as fungal names’ type were proposed but strongly objected by the mycologist community. Surveys on fungi in unusual niches have indicated that many previously regarded “unculturable fungi” could be cultured on certain substrates under specific conditions. Moreover, the high-throughput amplicon sequencing, shotgun metagenomics and a single-cell genomics could be a powerful means to detect novel taxa. Here, we propose to separate the fungal types into physical type based on specimen, genome DNA (gDNA) type based on complete genome sequence of culturable and uncluturable fungal specimen and digital type based on environmental DNA sequence data. The physical and gDNA type should have priority, while the digital type can be temporal supplementary before the physical type and gDNA type being available. The fungal name based on the “digital type” could be assigned as the“clade” name + species name. The “clade” name could be the name of genus, family or order, etc. which the sequence of digital type affiliates to. Facilitating future cultivation efforts should be encouraged. Also, with the advancement in knowledge of fungi inhabiting various environments mostly because of rapid development of new detection technologies, more information should be expected for fungal diversity on our planet.
Marc Stadler
added 2 research items
On the occasion of this special issue, we are very honored and pleased to have the task to present the curriculum vitae of our dear late mentor and close personal friend K. Walter Gams, who has suddenly passed away in April 2017 in the age of 83 years in his beloved "second home" near Bomarzo, Italy. We are looking back to many decades of close interactions with Walter ourselves and are very pleased that this special issue includes contributions from many other colleagues who are likewise looking back to several decades of collaborative research on fungal biodiversity with him. As some obituaries have already been published even in Wikipedia, we decided to do without the usual, meticulous account of his outstanding scientific accomplishments. We rather want to emphasize on the importance of his life work for the future of mycology.
Kretzschmaria hedjaroudei and Kretzschmaria iranica are described as new species based on collections from dead wood in northern Iran and on evidence from morphology and molecular phylogenetic data. Kretzschmaria hedjaroudei is phylogenetically close to Kretzschmaria deusta, from which it differs in its stromatal morphology, ascospore size and the size of the apical apparatus. Kretzschmaria iranica is similar to Kretzschmaria pavimentosa, but distinguishable by smaller ascospore size. Phylogenetic analyses of a combined matrix of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear rDNA and of α-actin (ACT1) gene sequences strongly support their status as two distinct new species within the genus Kretzschmaria. Moreover, Kretzschmaria zonata, a species previously only known from tropical countries, is encountered for the first time in Iran.
Marc Stadler
added 8 research items
A multigene phylogeny was constructed including a significant number of representative species of the main lineages in the Xylariaceae and four DNA loci – the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), the large subunit (LSU) of the nuclear rDNA; the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II (RPB2) and beta-tubulin (TUB2). Specimens were selected based on more than a decade of intensive morphological and chemotaxonomic work and cautious taxon sampling was performed to cover the major lineages of the Xylariaceae, however with emphasis on hypoxyloid species. The comprehensive phylogenetic analysis revealed a clear-cut segregation of the Xylariaceae into several major clades, which was well in accordance with previously established morphological and chemotaxonomic concepts. One of these clades contained Annulohypoxylon, Hypoxylon, Daldinia and other related genera that have stromatal pigments and a nodulisporium-like anamorph. They are accommodated in the family Hypoxylaceae, which is resurrected and emended. Representatives of genera with a nodulisporium-like anamorph and bipartite stromata, lacking stromatal pigments (i.e. Biscogniauxia, Camillea and Obolarina) appeared in a clade basal to the xylarioid taxa. As they clustered with Graphostroma platystomum, they are accommodated in the Graphostromataceae. The new genus Jackrogersella with J. multiformis as type species is segregated from Annulohypoxylon. The genus Pyrenopolyporus is resurrected for Hypoxylon polyporus and allied species. The genus Daldinia and its allies Entonaema, Rhopalostroma, Ruwenzoria and Thamnomyces appeared in two separate subclades, which may warrant further splitting of Daldinia in the future, and even Hypoxylon was divided in several clades. However, more species of these genera need to be studied before a conclusive taxonomic rearrangement can be envisaged. Epitypes were designated for several important species in which living cultures and molecular data are available, in order to stabilise the taxonomy of the Xylariales.
A list of all generic names that have been connected with the Orbiliomycetes is provided. Recommendations are made as to which names should be used in accordance with the rules and the different generic concepts. There is a mismatch in the current generic concepts within Orbiliomycetes regarding the two morphs: a narrow concept is used for the asexual morphs, but a broad concept relies on the sexual morphs. As a consequence, many more generic names have been established for the asexual morphs. A number of previous generic concepts are artificial, since they were based on single characters without molecular support. In order to provide solutions for this mismatch, we present three different generic concepts within the Orbiliomycetes. A broad concept recognizes a large genus Orbilia, with which most of the listed names fall into synonymy, but could be maintained as infrageneric names. Due to the lack of data proving phylogenetic relationships, this broad concept, at present, is the most practicable and recommended one. A moderate concept subdivides Orbilia into several genera, with all nematode-trapping fungi merged in Arthrobotrys. A narrow generic concept accepts genera based on differences in trapping organs, but also subdivides the remaining groups of Orbilia into ad- ditional genera. Trapping of invertebrates (zoophagy) is not restricted to Arthrobotrys in a broad sense, but occurs also in the more distant basal genera Hyalorbilia and Lecophagus, which mainly prey on rhizopods and rotifers. Whether these predatory capabilities trace back to a common ancestor is not clear. The following new combinations are proposed:Hyalorbilia oviparasitica, Hyalorbilia quadridens, Hyalorbilia tenuifusaria, and Orbilia fissilis.
This study deals with an extensive evaluation focusing on phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic infrageneric relationships of the genus Annulohypoxylon (Xylariaceae, Ascomycota), whose species are ubiquitously associated with seed plants as endophytes and saprotrophs in all forestedareas of the world. Using evidence from phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and morphological data, various varieties within the genus are raised to species level, leading to the new combinations for A. areolatum (: A. bovei var. microsporum), A. macrosporum (: A. leptascum var. macrosporum), and A. microdiscum (: A. moriforme var. microdiscum). Annulohypoxylon substygium nom. nov. is applied for A. stygium var. annulatum and the four new tropical and subtropical species A. massivum, A. violaceopigmentum, A. viridistratum and A. yungensis are introduced. Furthermore, A. leucadendri is excluded from the genus as its morphological characters disagree with the generic concept, the recently erected A. palmicola is synonymized with A. leptascum and A. austrobahiense has been reassigned to the genus Hypoxylon. In addition, the key taxa A. annulatum and A. truncatum have been reinvestigated and epitypes have been defined. For the first time, a dichotomous key to the genus is provided. A phylogenetic b-tubulin tree in conjunction with stromatal HPLC profiles clearly shows that Annulohypoxylon comprises two distinct lineages. The A. cohaerens/multiforme group might eventually warrant seg- regation into a new genus as further molecular data become available
Nalin Wijayawardene
added a project goal
Providing the taxonomic outline of the kingdom Fungi. The Outline will be based on recent publications of Outline of Ascomycota (Wijayawardene et al. 2018; FUDI 88: 167-263), Notes for genera of Basal Clades of Fungi (Wijayawardene et al. 2018; submitted to FUDI) and Notes for genera of Basidiomycota (He et al. (2018; in prep.).