Project

Ordinal Priority Approach (OPA)- MADM method

Goal: http://ordinalpriorityapproach.com
Welcome you all to our global project. This project contains all papers and codes (if available) related to the OPA, a novel MCDM method. Feel free to ask questions and share your OPA-based publications with the members. Best wishes.

Date: 1 January 2020

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Project log

Amin Mahmoudi
added a research item
The synergy between Distributed Ledger Technologies, like blockchain technology and circular economy, can lead to economic, environmental, and social sustainability through protecting natural resources, optimizing processes, fostering system effectiveness, designing out waste, and also providing job opportunities. Nevertheless, industries and their supply chain need to consider several requirements for blockchain implementation to realize a circular economy. To achieve this goal, requirements for implementing blockchain technology in construction supply chain were prioritized based on circular economy attributes. For multiple-criteria decision analysis and making our preference decision, we employed the new-founded multi-attribute decision-making (MADM) method, the “Fuzzy Ordinal Priority Approach (Fuzzy OPA).” Under uncertainty conditions, this method can determine fuzzy weights of circular economy attributes and fuzzy scores of blockchain requirements using linguistic variables. The results obtained from the case study show that three high-ranked requirements for implementing blockchain are (1) developing circular economy attributes on platforms, (2) intra-organizational considerations, and (3) technological requirements and collaboration infrastructure. To discuss the circular economy, we used the ReSOLVE framework, consisting of six attributes “Regenerate, Share, Optimize, Loop, Virtualize, and Exchange.” According to research findings, blockchain implementation can move the construction industry toward a circular economy through (1) regenerating environment, (2) optimizing systems performance, and (3) looping and circulating products.
Amin Mahmoudi
added a research item
Purpose In the digital transformation era, the construction industry is not immune to unintended consequences and disruptions of distributed ledger technologies like blockchain. At the micro-level, construction organizations need an in-depth understanding of blockchain risks to take proactive strategies for being on the safe side. This study seeks to answer “What are the risks associated with blockchain technology from the firm-level perspective? And how can this disruptive technology overshadow the business objectives and impact organizational criteria?” Design/methodology/approach The current research proposes a novel model for risk assessment based on the trapezoidal fuzzy ordinal priority approach (OPA-F) in the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) context. The proposed model handles uncertainties of experts' judgment around three primary parameters: the importance of organizational criteria, the impact of blockchain risks on criteria and the probability of risk occurrence. Findings The case study shows that organizational “communication and information” is exposed to the most blockchain risk. On the contrary, blockchain has less to do with an organization's “corporate social responsibility.” Furthermore, effective blockchain risk management can bring about cost efficiency, quality and improved customer experience for this case study. In the end, the authors develop a conceptual blockchain risk management framework based on findings. Research limitations/implications This study will broaden researchers' horizons regarding “blockchain in construction context” and “blockchain risk management.” Practical implications Furthermore, executives looking for blockchain-based solutions can benefit from research findings and lessons learned from this case study before decision-making. Lastly, the risk assessment model based on trapezoidal OPA-F can be used both for research purposes and industrial decision problems. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, it is for the first time that the OPA-F is employed in a risk assessment model. Also, the original OPA-F is extended to trapezoidal OPA-F using trapezoidal fuzzy numbers, and it is the first attempt to evaluate blockchain risks facing construction organizations and develop a blockchain risk management framework accordingly.
Amin Mahmoudi
added a research item
The suppliers’ performance plays a vital role, with a domino effect, in project success, organizational competitiveness, protecting supply chain and construction industry from disruptions and PESTEL risks (political, economic, social, technological, environmental, and legal). Therefore, measuring the performance of the construction suppliers has become the primary focus of project-oriented organizations and the core of business decision-making, especially during global megatrends. The question that may arise here is, “How can the performance of the construction suppliers be determined under uncertainties considering the post-COVID-19 era?” Organizations need eligible suppliers for the rapid recovery of the supply chain and construction sector at this critical stage. Given the importance of the issue, this study aims to propose a novel approach for measuring the performance of construction suppliers using the fuzzy ordinal priority approach (OPA-F). OPA-F is a recent development in multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) that can determine the criteria weights for performance measurement using fuzzy linguistic variables. We do not always have access to a complete data set in real-world situations and business environments. Nevertheless, OPA-F can handle this dilemma, even with incomplete input data. This research intends to consider three main aspects of the construction suppliers, known as (L-A-D) capabilities, including localization, agility, and digitalization. In this regard, we bring up a case study from the construction industry to demonstrate the application of the proposed framework. The findings show that the most critical criterion is “digitalization” for the case study. This criterion covers “supply chain automation” and “virtualization and dematerialization” of services/products. The proposed approach is practical and straightforward, particularly for academicians and decision-makers; it can also incorporate uncertainties.
Amin Mahmoudi
added a research item
Due to mounting environmental and social challenges, supplier selection has become one of the most critical tasks of project-oriented organizations. Because supplier selection can affect the long-term success and profitability of the organizations and their projects, directly, embracing sustainability can add value in the equation. Considering sustainability measures can positively guide project managers in making better decisions for the projects in the long term. Therefore, the current study attempts to provide a conceptual model for selecting the best supplier based on a sustainability framework in megaprojects. Meanwhile, decision-making methods can be employed as a proper tool to find the best supplier. Ordinal priority approach (OPA) is a recent development in multiple criteria decision making (MCDM), while it has many benefits compared with other methods like analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS). However, this method cannot consider multiple ranks during the decision-making process, and using an uncertainty approach feels strongly. Grey systems theory (GST) can consider uncertainties with no need for large sample or proposing membership function. Hence, the current study employed the GST to consider multiple ranks for criteria and alternatives in the OPA method. This is the first time that a sustainable supplier selection framework has been presented for megaprojects with the aid of the Grey OPA (OPA-G) method. Finally, a case study has been examined to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. The results show that the proposed approach can be used in real-world situations and it has acceptable performance under uncertainty conditions.
Amin Mahmoudi
added a research item
One of the most important activities in any organization is the identification and selection of the right supplier. The responsible organizations determine the performance of their potential suppliers based on the attributes that are aligned with their sustainable development goals. Data regarding these attributes can be qualitative and/or quantitative, and not every supplier selection methodology can handle them simultaneously. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is an influential methodology for measuring the suppliers' performance, especially when there are more than one input and/or output. However, the original DEA model cannot consider human judgment during evaluation. In this regard, the current study proposes a novel methodology with the aid of the Ordinal Priority Approach (OPA) of multiple attributes decision-making and the DEA. The proposed method, the DEA-OPA model, truly enjoys the advantages of both DEA and OPA models, making it more powerful than the original DEA for performance measurement. The proposed model was compared with the original DEA and OPA then retested through incomplete data when the experts lack enough knowledge about inputs and outputs. Finally, a pilot application has been executed in the paper industry, and comprehensive sensitivity analysis has been performed to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed model. The findings are of significant importance to responsible enterprises and organizational decision-makers.
Amin Mahmoudi
added a research item
To facilitate the process of solving Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis Problems using the Ordinal Priority Approach, a web-based solver is provided. This software has no limitation regarding the number of experts, criteria, and alternatives. It is easy to use and freely available for scholars who want to use the Ordinal Priority Approach in Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis Problems. SOFTWARE LINK : https://ordinalpriorityapproach.com
Amin Mahmoudi
added a research item
The construction industry has been recognized as one of the crucial industries of any country. In large-scale public projects, it is frequently observed that the client, who serves the public, seeks the services of several sub-contractors (project outsourcing firms) to execute projects. It also seeks the consulting firms' services to monitor the progress and performance of these sub-contractors. However, performance evaluation of a large number of sub-contractors is not only a challenging phase but also a source of conflict and mistrust between the evaluators and evaluatees because of the subjectivity in the evaluation process. The current study classifies perceived organizational performance into two streams, arguing that the one involving the opinions from the independent evaluators is more objective than the self-evaluation one. The study also makes a pioneering attempt in post-qualification performance evaluation of construction project outsourcing firms through the Ordinal Priority Approach (OPA), a promising multi-attribute decision-making methodology. The deployment of the OPA allows the decision-makers to estimate the weights of the evaluation criteria, the sub-contractors to be evaluated, and the experts who evaluated them simultaneously. Thus, the methodology can minimize the causes of mistrust by uncovering unreliable experts and inappropriate criteria. Also, a novel Relative Performance Index (RPI) has been proposed to standardize the performance evaluation system. The results show that evaluation of the firms does not end at their evaluation as without evaluating the evaluators, such an evaluation is only partially effective.
Amin Mahmoudi
added a research item
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world's economic condition significantly, and construction projects have faced many challenges and disruptions as well. This should be an alarm bell for project-oriented organizations to be prepared for such events and take necessary actions at the earliest time. In this regard, project-oriented organizations should establish their business based on the resilience concept, making them flexible in dealing with risks and decreasing the recovery time after disruptions. The current study proposes a practical conceptual framework for project-oriented organizations to select the most appropriate portfolio based on organizational resilience strategy. First, portfolios are identified, and the projects are clustered based on organizational resilience strategy using the Elbow and Fuzzy C-Means methods. The projects' scores are then determined employing the stakeholders' opinions and Robust Ordinal Priority Approach (OPA-R), which can handle the uncertainty of the input data. After that, each portfolio's score is determined using the obtained scores of the projects, and the best portfolio linked to the organizational resilience strategy is selected. The application of the proposed method to a project-oriented organization is examined, and its usage for the managers of project-oriented organizations is discussed in detail.
Amin Mahmoudi
added a research item
Construction 4.0 has become a buzzword since the penetration of building information modeling (BIM), cyber-physical systems, and digital and computing technologies into the construction industry. Among emerging technologies, distributed ledger technology (DLT), or blockchain, is a powerful business enhancer whose potential can disrupt projects, AEC (architecture, engineering, and construction) firms, and construction supply chain, and in a broader sense, the whole construction industry. This technology has not reached the plateau of productivity due to several barriers and challenges. Previous studies have started to investigate the barriers to implementing DLT in various sectors and segmentations. However, we still need further surveys in the construction industry. This study evaluates the applicability of identified challenges and barriers based on a sustainability perspective. Precisely, we will answer which challenges need to be addressed for the sustainability of the construction industry. To meet the research objective, the ordinal priority approach (OPA) in multiple attributes decision-making (MADM) was utilized. This novel method determines the weight of sustainability attributes and barriers simultaneously. The results show that DLT implementation needs (i) infrastructure for data management, (ii) advanced applications and archetypes, and (iii) customers’ demand, interest, and tendency, and (iv) taxation and reporting. Solving high-ranked challenges is the key to social sustainability from the aspects of “supply chain management and procurement”; “transparency, anti-corruption, and anti-counterfeiting”; and “fair operation and honest competition.”
Amin Mahmoudi
added 2 research items
Ordinal Priority Approach (OPA) in Multiple Attribute Decision-Making: Bibliographical Database
Because of the COVID-19 outbreak, the supply of both essential and non-essential goods and services has been unprecedentedly disrupted. In the absence of any playbook, the need for innovative technologies to aid recovery from the Supply Chain (SC) disruptions quickly and effectively becomes persistent. The study aims to develop an innovative decision-making technology to handle the supplier selection problems arising from the frequent impreciseness and incompleteness in the nowadays' SC reports within the framework of the gresilient supply chain management. Through the integration of green and resilience aspects of the SCs, the supply chain 'gresilience' has been conceptualized. In light of this construct and based on the data collected from a manufacturing firm, the study deploys a twofold decomposition of the core algorithm of the Ordinal Priority Approach (OPA), one for attributes and other for alternatives. It extends the OPA to the Fuzzy OPA (OPA-F) for solving the supplier selection problems. The study illustrates how green and resilience aspects of the SC can be integrated to better understand the gresilient suppliers in the wake of the SC disruptions. A novel construct of SC Gresil-ience is also furnished along with a novel definition of SC Gresilience. It also provides an innovative SC decision-making technology to help procurement managers to evaluate their suppliers. The resultant framework can help them better prepare for the COVID-19 like disruptions in the future.
Amin Mahmoudi
added a research item
The Ordinal Priority Approach (OPA) is a new development in multiple-attribute decision-making context. The OPA can calculate the weights and the ranks of the experts, alternatives, and attributes simultaneously using simple steps. It supports group decision-making without using averaging methods. This software can help you to solve multiple-attribute decision-making problems using the OPA after a few clicks. It is available on my website at http://www.ordinalpriorityapproach.com Cite as: Mahmoudi, Amin. (2021, January 21). OPA Solver: A Solver for Multiple-Attribute Decision-Making Problems (Version 1.00). Zenodo. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4453887
Amin Mahmoudi
added a research item
Nowadays, with the development of information management infrastructures in organizations and the improvement of the data storage process, managers are looking for appropriate decision-making methods based on large volumes of data. Therefore, it is crucial to choose the right approach to make the right decisions based on the volume of available data. The present study seeks to provide a comprehensive framework for the decision-making process using big data, even when it is incomplete. The framework of multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) consists of criteria and alternatives, whereas in real-world cases, decision-makers may face several criteria and alternatives. In this study, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) approach was selected for the criteria clustering. Later, the K-means algorithm is used to cluster the alternatives, which estimates the optimal number of clusters using the Elbow method. The Fuzzy TOPSIS (TOPSIS-F) and Ordinal Priority Approach (OPA) have been used to rank clusters. Ultimately, the best alternative in the top cluster has been identified with the aid of the OPA, which has a unique function to solve MCDM problems with incomplete data. For evaluating the performance of the proposed approach, first, a pilot testing has been executed on a real-world case, and then a practical study was conducted at a refinery equipment manufacturing company with a project-oriented organizational structure. The approach is flexible, interactive, intelligent, and integrative, and significantly reduces the time and computation costs for the decision-makers. The results confirmed the soundness of the proposed approach, which can be used by managers of different companies with confidence.
Amin Mahmoudi
added a research item
The current study aims to present a new method called Ordinal Priority Approach (OPA) in Multiple Attribute Decision-Making (MADM). This method can be used in individual or group decision-making (GDM). In the case of GDM, through this method, we first determine the experts and their priorities. The priority of experts may be determined based on their experience and/or knowledge. After prioritization of the experts, the attributes are prioritized by each expert. Meanwhile, each expert ranks the alternatives based on each attribute, and the sub-attributes if any. Ultimately, by solving the presented linear programming model of this method, the weights of the attributes, alternatives, experts, and sub-attributes would be obtained simultaneously. A significant advantage of the proposed method is that it does not make use of pairwise comparison matrix, decision-making matrix (no need for numerical input), normalization methods, averaging methods for aggregating the opinions of experts (in GDM) and linguistic variables. Another advantage of this method is the possibility for experts to only comment on the attributes and alternatives for which they have sufficient knowledge and experience. The validity of the proposed model has been evaluated using several group and individual instances. Finally, the proposed method has been compared with other methods such as AHP, BWM, TOPSIS, VIKOR, PROMETHEE and QUALIFLEX. Based on comparisons among the weights and ranks using Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficients, the proposed method has an applicable performance compared with other methods.
Amin Mahmoudi
added a project goal
Welcome you all to our global project. This project contains all papers and codes (if available) related to the OPA, a novel MCDM method. Feel free to ask questions and share your OPA-based publications with the members. Best wishes.