added a research item
Aktuell findet eine große Debatte um Sexismus in der Online-Kommunikation statt. Dabei kann Sexismus die Form von sexistischer Online-Hassrede annehmen. Dieser Beitrag möchte die Frage beantworten, welche Randbedingungen mit sexistischer Online-Hassrede auf Videoplattformen zusammenhängen. Dazu wurde eine quantitative Inhaltsanalyse von Wotanis & McMillan fünffach repliziert (N = 24.244 Videokommentare). Die Studien untersuchten unter Variation der Randbedingungen, ob Frauen auf YouTube mehr Hasskommentare erhalten als Männer. Als relevante Randbedingungen wurden berücksichtigt: Plattform, Videotyp, Videogenre und Land/Kultur. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Frauen im Schnitt häufiger von Online-Hassrede betroffen zu sein scheinen als Männer, aber neben dem Geschlecht anscheinend auch die Randbedingungen eine wichtige Rolle spielen. Da noch nicht alle relevanten Randbedingungen untersucht wurden, sind weitere Studien nötig, die z. B. die Rolle von Videothema, Ethnie/Hautfarbe und sexueller Orientierung untersuchen könnten. Dringend nötig wären auch Studien zu präventiven Maßnahmen.
Online hate speech in general, and gendered online hate speech in particular, have become an issue of growing concern both in public and academic discourses. How-ever, although YouTube is the most important social media platform today and the popu-larity of social live streaming services (SLSS) such as Twitch, Periscope and YouNow is constantly growing, research on gendered online hate speech on video platforms is scarce. To bridge this empirical gap, two studies investigated gendered online hate speech in video comments on YouTube and YouNow, thereby systematically replicating a study by Wotanis and McMillan (2014). Study 1 investigated YouTube in the form of a content analysis of N = 8,000 publicly available video comments that were addressed towards four pairs of female and male German-speaking YouTubers within the popular genres Comedy, Gaming, HowTo & Style, and Sports [Fitness]. Study 2 examined YouNow, with a quantitative con-tent analysis of N = 6,844 publicly available video comments made during the video streams of 16 female and 14 male popular German-speaking YouNowers. Study 1 success-fully replicated the findings of Wotanis and McMillan (2014) that compared to male You-Tubers, female YouTubers received more negative video comments (including sexist, racist, and sexually aggressive hate speech) (H1a). In addition, they received fewer positive video comments regarding personality and video content but more positive video comments re-garding physical appearance (H2a). Study 2 partly confirmed the earlier findings: It found that, compared to male YouNowers, the video comments received by female YouNowers were more sexist and sexually aggressive, but not generally more hostile or negative (H1b). They received more positive video comments regarding their physical appearance but did not receive fewer positive video comments regarding their personality or the content of their videos (H2b). With some exceptions, the findings of study 2 were comparable to the findings of study 1 (RQ1). In both studies, most effect sizes were small. Overall, females on the video platforms YouTube and YouNow seem to be disproportionately affected by both hostile and benevolent sexism expressed in viewer comments. The results are in line with the Expectation States Theory and the Ambivalent Sexism Theory. The total number of public hate comments was probably underestimated because inappropriate comments can be deleted by moderators and users. Future research directions and practical implications are discussed. Supplementary material can be retrieved from https://osf.io/da8tw
Fail videos showing mishaps/accidents are very popular on YouTube. But is this genre affected by sexism, that is, are women portrayed more often than men in an objectifying, sexualized manner in the video clips (H1), and are women more likely than men to be the target of gendered online hate speech in the video comments (H2)? Quantitative content analyses of 500 video clips (derived from 50 videos) and of 1,000 video comments (derived from 5 “male” and 5 “female” videos) from YouTube’s most popular fail video channel FailArmy were conducted. Women in fail videos were portrayed in an objectifying, sexualized manner twice as often (H1), and were the target of gendered hate comments nearly five times more often (H2) compared to men. Future research could analyze videos and comments from additional fail channels and investigate the reasons for the sexualized portrayals as well as for the audience’s hateful reactions.
Interpersonale Gewalt und Aggression werden heutzutage oft mittels digitaler Medien ausgeübt: Online Hate Speech, Cybermobbing, Online Grooming, Revenge Porn, Online Stalking, Trolling, Scamming und weitere Erscheinungsformen sind zu beobachten. Was wissen wir über diese Phänomene, ihre Ursachen und Erscheinungsformen sowie wirksame Gegenmaßnahmen?
This study conceptually and empirically extends a study by Wotanis and McMillan in which the authors claimed that female video producers are underrepresented on YouTube and receive much more negative (including hostile and sexist) feedback than male YouTubers. Using quantitative content analysis, this study supported the claim of female underrepresentation. Among the top 100 most subscribed YouTube channels in nine different countries (N = 900 channels), with a statistically significant proportion of only 25%, female video producers were strongly underrepresented. Additionally, a second content analysis of N = 2,400 video comments directly replicated the original study’s main quantitative results. This analysis confirmed that the popular female US comedy YouTuber Jenna Mourey (“JennaMarbles”) received much more negative (including hostile and sexist) feedback than her male counterpart Ryan Higa (“nigahiga”). However, a third content analysis of N = 6,000 video comments from five other pairs of comparable comedy YouTubers did not reveal that women’s videos generally attract a larger number of negative video comments. Possibly, women attract more negative comments only if they display their sexuality (like Jenna Mourey) or address feminist topics, but not if they conform to gender role expectations. Future research directions and practical implications are discussed.