Observatory of the dynamics of interactions between societies and environment in the Amazon - ODYSSEA
Este é um texto de cunho metodológico apontando conceitos, aplicações, limites e avanços do uso da noção de ação pública (LASCOUMES; LE GALÈS, 2012) para a análise das políticas de agroecologia e produção orgânica. O texto baseia-se na aplicação de um quadro analítico inspirado no pentágono da ação pública de Lascoumes e Le Galès no Distrito Federal (DF) e no estado de São Paulo (SP), sobretudo nas fases de concepção, construção e início de implementação dessas políticas. Nessa perspectiva, ainda é preciso ter em foco os instrumentos, a gênese da ação pública, as ideias e interesses. Além disso, deve-se considerar os diferentes níveis e suas interações na gestão de políticas, a governança e o papel dos profissionais, elites e grupos de interesses envolvidos na política e ação pública. Os territórios de implementação de políticas públicas são únicos em suas nuances e diversidade. Neles ocorrem dinâmicas de ação e de resultados alcançados que não se explicam sem considerar os diferentes elementos do pentágono da ação pública e suas interações. Os estudos no Distrito Federal (SABOURIN; SILVA; AVILA, 2019), no estado de São Paulo e na cidade de São Paulo (CALDAS; COLONNA, 2019) foram realizados entre 2018 e 2019 no marco dos trabalhos do projeto INCT Odisseia e da Rede PP-AL.
Although Brazil is among the world's largest consumers of pesticides, their impacts on local populations have struggled to emerge as a public problem due to a political context that is particularly favourable to industrial agriculture. In this article, we investigate how the knowledge produced on the impact of pesticides contributes (or not) to the emergence of this public problem. We conduct a reflection based on a citizen science process we conducted in the region of Santarem, in the Brazilian Amazon, where soybean has been expanding significantly for the past 20 years. Since 2017, we have built an observatory in partnership with peasant unions to make visible the impact of pesticides used in soy crops on family farmers. Young farmers, trained to become "community researchers", have administered 544 questionnaires to family farmers to learn about their practices and assess the changes caused since the arrival of soy. We conduct an analysis at three levels: at the national level, we follow the emergence of pesticides as a public issue, its consolidation during the Labor government (2003-2016), and then its dismantling; at a local level, the survey reveals how the family farmers are impacted by soy pesticides and at the same time, not so aware of being "victims"; finally, at the territorial level, we question the weakening of the debate between science and politics, particularly within the Regional Forum for the fight against the impact of pesticides set up in Santarém.
The governance of several cross-cutting challenges, such as food security, climate change, and sustainable development, calls for integrative policy approaches. However, efforts to better theorize the drivers of integration beyond listing explanatory factors remain weak. Viewing integration as a process of policy change for dealing with complex problems, this study argues that policy integration analysis can benefit from an advocacy coalition approach (ACF) to address this theoretical gap. It illustrates the analytical framework by empirically investigating the drivers of policy (dis)integration in Brazil’s subnational water policy introduced in the 2010s. The level of conflict between coalitions, adjustment of policy beliefs, coordination within and across coalitions, and existence of venues for interaction and policy-oriented learning were presented as factors that can foster or hinder the integration of public policies. Moreover, the study discusses the potential to acknowledge in ACF the mechanisms for coordinating policy actors and instruments, which would facilitate the analysis of the policy processes of cooperation. It also demonstrates that recent droughts in Northeast Brazil have been increasingly related to the local impacts of climate change, contributing to reframing water management as a cross-sectoral climate and water governance issue. The analysis was based on a literature review, semi-structured interviews, and social network analysis.
Extended Abstract The paper poses the anthropological question "What does man returns to the nature or how he takes care of the nature?" Until the 20th century, man received goods from nature or levied them in counterpart of rituals that guaranteed the sacred and compulsory nature of the rules of management and preservation of natural resources. The extension and globalization of the merchant exchange put an end to it. Facing the inevitable and accelerated degradation of the environment, states and international organizations have been unable to set up a global regulatory environment organization. States and firms only agree on policies of commodification of nature that quickly become carbon market, compensation fund for pollution in the USA and their financialization. There is also a "commodification" of nature through certain forms of payment programs for environmental services (paying landowners and producers for services rendered by nature). Faced with the drifts of speculation in the carbon or biodiversity markets what kind of anti-utilitarian policy alternatives can be proposed? I propose to extend the hypothesis of Ostrom-about management of the common resources by the collective of farmers (peasants, fishermen, foresters) on the basis of practices of gift and reciprocity-to an hypothesis on the production of local public goods by groups or associations of rural people. The paper has two parts: 1) a theoretical return about reciprocity between man and nature 2) an analysis of the commodification of nature through green economy and payment for environmental services policies.
In the climate and land use fields, policy mixes are complex in terms of the levels of governance, actors, and roles. They consist of policy instruments that target different actors and address multiple goals across several policy sectors and levels. The analysis of these complex arrangements extends beyond purely technical efficiency criteria, as several sources of tension between instruments may be identified, such as conflicting interests, goals, and approaches to implementation. The proliferation of governance networks complicates the understanding of actors’ interactions, the types of authority influencing the outcomes of policy mixes, and importance of different levels of governance. This article provides a framework to address these analytical challenges, particularly the interconnected networks of policy actors and policy instruments. It draws on polycentric governance literature to analyse how power matters in policy networks. This includes identifying distinct types of power, actors’ position, and variables that explain patterns of conflict, competition, convergence, and divergence in policy choices and outcomes. The framework is applied to the climate and land use policies implemented in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Several methods were used to clarify these variables and to characterise policy mixes being implemented in the region, including social network analysis.__________________________________________________________ OPEN ACCESS LINK: https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/8ZHVFEEDZDQITMARGZFZ/full?target=10.1080/1523908X.2020.1740658