U monografiji pod naslovom Alternativne ratarske biljke u konvencionalnom i organskom sistemu gajenja autora Đorđa Glamočlije, Snežane Janković, Vere M. Popović, Vladimira Filipovića, Janje Kuzevski i Vladana Ugrenovića, obrađena su pitanja u vezi sa privrednim značajem, poreklom, biološkim osobinama, odnosom prema uslovima uspevanja i agrotehnikom 44 ratarske biljke koje se na velikom geografskom području, od tropskih do kontinentalnih klimatskih područja. Klimatski uslovi naše zemlje pružaju mogućnost gajenja svih opisanih vrsta i velika su šansa za naše male poljoprivredne proizvođače jer se, uz standardnu poljoprivrednu mehanizaciju i veće učešće ručnog rada, mogu gajiti na manjim površinama i pružiti potpunije angažovanje svih članova domaćinstava. Uz malo veća ulaganja u primarnu preradu glavnog i sekundarnih proizvoda, poljoprivredni proizvođač je u mogućnosti da ostvari veću dobit pri gajenju standardnih ratarskih useva. Pored konvencionalnog sistema gajenja ovih biljaka, u monografiji je prikazan i sistem ekološke (organske) proizvodnje opisanih ratarskih vrsta, tako da potencijalni proizvođači mogu saznati kako mogu da proizvedu zdravstveno bezbedne sirovine za prehrambenu i farmaceutsku industriju. Alternativne ratarske biljke su posebno značajne za organski sistem gajenja jer većina vrsta pripada grupi biljaka koje je čovek gajio još na počecima ratarske proizvodnje. Tokom više hiljada godina proizvodnje ove vrste su se dobro prilagodile različitim agroekološkim i zemljišnim uslovima. Danas su u proizvodnji podjednako zastupljene stare visokoadaptirane populacije i savremene sorte dobijene iz ovog genetičkog materijala. Vrednost ovoj monografiji daje i činjenica da je napisana tako da je može poslužiti kao udžbenik studentima ili kao priručnik poljoprivrednim stručnjacima i svim sadašnjim i budućim proizvođačima ovih „malih“ biljaka velikih proizvodnih mogućnosti.
The aim of this paper is to maintain soil fertility on an organic farm without livestock production by using alfalfa green biomass. The research was carried out on the farm of Mokrin PP company, by modeling and sizing of crop rotation with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) on the non-carbonate humoglay. To ensure a cost-effective technical solution, alfalfa seed production was organized. In the autumn of 2015 alfalfa sowing was carried out in a field of 5 ha. Green biomass of the first and third cuttings, as well as crop residue after harvesting of seeds in the second cutting, were mowed and chopped by harvester for low silage and stored in the silage-pit. After nine months, a mature alfalfa compost was obtained with optimum values of total nitrogen (5.04%), organic matter (42.56%), C/N, pH, humidity, and EC. Two-year alfalfa utilization is the recommended time in this research because to the following benefits: in crop rotation, alfalfa field is provided with nitrogen by symbiotic nitrogen fixation and the alfalfa is cultivated every five years in the same field, while in the middle of that period the field is fertilized with compost produced on the farm. The amount of compost obtained by crop rotation (2016 - 48.80 t; 2017 - 62.30 t) is enough for about 20% of the arable area per year. Thus, the fields are fertilized every fourth year with 10 t ha-1 of compost. Thanks to alfalfa biomass and seed and also nitrogen fixation, maintaining soil fertility is resolved in a sustainable and natural way. [Projects of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III 46005 and Grant no. III 46006]
In addition to true cereals (Poaceae) and legumes (Fabaceae), which are most commonly used as cover crops, plant species from the mustard family (Brassicaceae) are increasingly used due to their biological and agronomic characteristics. Crucifers grow fast, develop high biomass, achieve great land coverage (> 80%) and possess high nutrient uptake. These are the reasons that their use as cover crops has a beneficial effect on soil fertility, erosion prevention, weed suppression and groundwater quality protection. Majority of crucifers contain glucosinolates, the enzymatic conversion of which releases biologically active compounds into the soil, which are toxic to soil pathogens, nematodes and some weeds. In this way, crucifers act as soil biofumigants, and this effect is used in the control of harmful organisms within the cover crops technology. Due to different production systems and agroecological conditions, the release of these compounds in the soil is not constant, so the efficiency is not always the same. In this regard, biofumigation as a biological measure should be seen as a part of an integrated pest management strategy. With its flowers, crucifers attract a large number of insects: pollinators, predators and parasitoids, thus positively affecting the biodiversity of beneficial insects and the biocontrol of harmful ones. The most commonly used multipurpose cover crops are: rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), white mustard (Sinapis alba L.), brown mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.), charcoal turnip (Brassica rapa rapifera), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.), oil radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleifera) and others.
This work is aimed to compare antioxidant and scavenger properties of conventionally and organically produced speltgrass. Moreover, the antioxidant status of spelt was compared with wheatgrass. Three spelt varieties were analyzed:Nirvana, Ebners–Rotkorn variety and Eco-10. Antioxidant enzymes, superoxide-dismutase and guiacol-peroxidase, were determined as well as ferric reducing antioxidant power and DPPH-antiradical power. Total soluble proteins and total phenols were determined and also lipid peroxidation as a parameter of oxidative stress. The organically produced spelt was exposed to the higher levels of oxidative stress than conventionally produced spelt, and also DPPH antiradical power was induced by conventional production, which is also demonstrated using the relative antioxidant capacity index. The best antioxidant properties, better than wheat, showed organically produced spelt genotype Ebners–Rotkorn which is determined by the highest phenol content, superoxide-dismutase activity, DPPH antiradical power and ferric reduced antioxidant power and consequently with the lowest lipid peroxidation intensity.
SOIL FERTILITY MAINTENANCE ON AN ORGANIC FARM THROUGH THE MEANS OF CROP ROTATION MODELING WITH THE PARTICIPATION OF ALFALFA Abstract: The aim of the proposed technical solution is to address the issue of maintaining soil fertility and the protection of biodiversity on organic farms without livestock production. For these issues in organic production, the criteria are prescribed (“Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia”, № 30/2010) need to be fulfilled by an organic producer in the process of control and certification. Organic production is based on environmental practice, a high degree of biodiversity and the preservation of natural resources: soil, water and organic matter. It is desirable that for plants to be fed through soil ecosystems, and not using soluble fertilisers added to it. Particular emphasis is placed on the importance of livestock production for organic farms, since it provides them with the necessary organic matter and nutrients for cultivated soil. However, although the organic production in Serbia is steadily growing, the organic livestock production is run by only 40 producers (Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection of the Republic of Serbia, 2017). Given the ban on the use of synthetic mineral fertilisers, as well as the fact that the application of certified commercial fertilisers for organic production is not often economically justified, the lack of organic livestock production calls into question the sustainability of organic production. This is particularly conspicuous when it comes to the maintainance of the natural fertility of soil and the protection of its biodiversity. This research was carried out at the Agricultural Enterprise “Mokrin”, on an area of 25 ha, through the modeling and dimensioning of a crop rotation with the participation of alfalfa, on the soil of the non-carbonate marsh chernozem type. The alfalfa was sown in autumn 2015 on 5 ha (20% of arable land). Most of the green alfalfa biomass was utilised for the production of compost for the maintenance of soil fertility on the farm. This is precisely where the innovativeness of the proposed technical solution lies, because alfalfa compost has not been produced in Serbia so far. In order to ensure economic viability, the production of alfalfa seed was organised. For the purpose of compost production, the green biomass of the first and the third alfalfa harvest, as well as dried biomass after seed harvesting, they were mowed and chopped by a combine for low silage and storage in trench silos of the Agricultural Enterprise “Mokrin”. The compost pile was maintained by watering, mixing and covering. After nine months, mature lucerne compost was obtained (in the year 2016, 9.76 t ha-1, and in the year 2017, 12.46 t ha-1), which is, according to its physical, agrochemical and microbiological properties, suitable for the use in organic production. The average value of C/N ratio of the compost produced is 8.51. The values of humidity, pH and EC are optimal. According to the measured content of total nitrogen (5.04%), the alfalfa compost is well provided with nitrogen, and the content of organic matter in it is 42.56%. The total microflora is present in a significant number (65.22x106 microorganisms per gram of dry compost), which indicates an intensive microbiological activity in the compost. The determined number of fungi (98,44x104) indicates a high content of organic matter and optimal substrate moisture, which all confirms a good quality of compost. The presence of Azotobacter, as a fertility indicator, confirms good water and air properties of compost, and the presence of amonifiers (7.97x105) confirms a significant presence of nitrogenous organic compounds. The heavy metal content is within the limits of the MPC. Alfalfa is a perennial leguminous plant species on the root of which bumps are developed, in which the Sinorhizobium meliloti (Ensifer meliloti) bacteria live in a symbiotic relationship with the plant, binding the elemental nitrogen from the atmosphere, and returning it to the soil. Nitrogen fixation is higher than it is necessary for the plants in a crop, so, in this way, large quantities of this macroelement are collected in the soil. The results of the research in Mokrin indicate a significant effect of alfalfa on the provision of soil with nitrogen, since the total N in the soil after two years, when the alfalfa stand had been dug (0.25%), was significantly higher than the test plot (0.22%). By digging the alfalfa stand, after two years of alfalfa cultivation, the total number of microorganisms, fungi, Azotobacter and ammonifiers was higher compared to that of the test plot. These results are in correlation with the intensity of respiration, which was twice as high in the soil on which the alfalfa had been grown. The total microflora and the content of the above-mentioned physiological groups of microorganisms affected the synthesis of humus, which was there in considerably higher amounts following the digging of the alfalfa plot compared to that of the test plot, and consequently affected the increase in the fertility of the soil. The alfalfa also greatly influenced the increase in the number of the S. meliloti bacteria in relation to that of the test plot, by which, the nitrogen fixation potential of the soil was increased. The results of the number of total microflora, ammonifiers, fungi and Azotobacter sp. indicate a positive effect of alfalfa on biodiversity and the activity of microorganisms in soil. The total yield of the produced natural alfalfa seed was 1.95 t (0.39 t ha-1) in the first year, and 3.15 t (0.63 t ha-1) in the second one. In the analysed two-year period of the production of seed along with the production of compost, a favorable gross financial result was achieved (64,050.00 RSD ha -1 in 2016 and 112,020.00 RSD ha-1 in 2017). In other words, sufficient remaining funds were made available to cover fixed expenses, and the achieved profit ensures the viability of the proposed new technology. SOIL FERTILITY MAINTENANCE ON this ORGANIC FARM in Mokrin THROUGH THE MEANS OF CROP ROTATION MODELING WITH THE PARTICIPATION OF ALFALFA is in keeping with the the Organic Farming Ordinance (“Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia” № 48/2011), because, for this production, having carried out the inspections, the designated control authority issued the certificate for both years of the research (Certificate № 500/15–17–01).
Soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is a very important crop and a significant source of protein and oil. The average area under soybean in the world in 2013 amounted to 111.3 mil ha and in Serbia 160000 ha. The oil content of soybean seed behave as quantitative traits and depends on the years. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of nitrogen fertilization and seed inoculation with bio-fertilization NS Nitragin on the oil content in soybean grain on pseudogley in two different years, arid and humid. In humid, the average oil content of soybean (23.27%) was higher by 5.1% compared to one year or for an arid 28.07% (18.17%).Variability in the average oil content within the year, was at a low level, ranged from 0.86% <Cv <3.71%, while the variability between years was on the middle level and ranged from 18.17% <Cv <23.27%. On pseudogley increased amounts of nitrogen caused a reduction of oil content in seeds of soybean.
Mulching is a procedure which is carried out in organic crop production, mostly for covering the surface of the soil, intended to simulate the forest litter. For this purpose, straw, dry moved grass, bark of conifers and some deciduous trees, conifer leaves, peat, compost, sawdust, synthetic foil, paper, fiberglass and other matherials are used. In crop production, mulching is carried out as the part of conservation tillage systems. It is most commonly based on the management of plant residues, which can be derived from the main crop, after harvest, or by destroying the cover crop when it forms a dry mulch. In recent years, with the use of technology of perennial cover crops and combined crops, living mulch is more used in the crop production.
Organska poljoprivreda je način proizvodnje hrane koji isključuje upotrebu sintetičkih agrohemikalija. Šire posmatrano to je sistem ekološkog upravljanja proizvodnjom koji čuva i unapređuje biodiverzitet, podstiče biološke cikluse i naglašava korišćenje metoda koje u najvećoj meri isključuju upotrebu imputa van farme (FAO). Pristup poljoprivredi postaje holistički, celovit sistem, a uspešnost se zasniva na tradicionalnim znanjima, ali i na primeni novih tehnologija. U većini poljoprivrednih područja Srbije proizvodnja žita, dugo se praktikuje, a konvecionalni proizvođači su ovladali znanjima i stekli potrebnu opremu za uspešno gajenje. Za prelazak iz konvencionalne proizvodnje u organsku, biljne vrste iz ove grupe veoma su pogodne, jer je njihova proizvodnja manje intezivna. Zbog svojih bioloških i agronomskih osobina žita u organskoj proizvodnji imaju veliki agrotehnički značaj, a zbog nutritivnih i privredni. Njihovom jednostavnom preradom na gazdinstvu mogu se dobiti raznovrsni kvalitetni organski proizvodi (zrno, brašno, griz, pahuljice, mekinje, testenine) zanimljivi za tržište. Time se diverzifikuje proizvodnja na organskom gazdinstvu, pa ono postaje održivije. Takođe žita su izvor i kvalitetne stočne hrane. Neke od ovih biljnih vrsta su manje gajene (krupnik, raž, proso, heljda), ali razvojem organske proizvodnje, sve više dobijaju na značaju. Aktiviranje i očuvanje prirodne plodnosti zemljišta jedan je od osnovnih ciljeva organske biljne proizvodnje. Primena tehnologije pokrovnih useva osnovni je preduslov za uspešno upravljanje tim sistemom proizvodnje. Ukjlučivanjem žita na različite načine u pokrovne useve, može se ostvariti višestruka korist za zemljište i glavni usev: zaštita od erozije, povećanje sadržaja organske materije, upravljanje zemljišnom vlagom, zaštita kavaliteta vode, kontrola korova i štetnih organizama i slično. Proces proizvodnje glavnih useva prilagođava se primeni ove tehnologije sa mogućnostima zasnivanja: međuuseva (postrni, naknadni, ozimi), združenih i zaštitnih pokrovnih useva. Da bi se to sve uskladilo neophodno je u razmatranje uzeti pitanja kao što su: lokalni agroekološki uslovi (na primer: količina i raspored padavina, nastupanje ranih jesenjih i kasnih prolećnih mrazeva…), potrebe glavnih useva, sistem proizvodnje (navodnjavanje ili bez navodnjavanja, konzervacijska ili klasična obrada…) i slično. Kreiranje tehnologije: plodored, izbor vrste i sorte, način obrade zemljišta, metode setve, upravljanje usevom, načini žetve ili berbe, vrši se paralelno i za glavni usev i za pokrovni. Za sve to jedinstvenih rešenja nema, ali aktivnim kreativnim radom, uz poštovanje osnovnih principa, svi tehnološki problemi u proizvodnji biljnih vrsta iz grupe žita, mogu se uspešno rešavati.
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of the variety, locality and year on the morphological and productive parameters of the spelt wheat obtained in the organic production system. Four spelt varieties were grown at three agroecological environment (Pančevo, Bogdanica and Zlatar), in southeast Europe, Serbia. They are used in order to determine general adaptability in different environment in three years trial (2014-2016). Analysis of the selected production parameters of spelt wheat, according to variety, locality and year, were conducted by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The PCA of the presented data explained that the first two components accounted 86.02% of the total multivariance in the eleven variable factor space. The results showed that the highest values of a number of plants, number of stems, number of spikes, plant height,the number of grains in the spikes, weight of grains per spike, yield of above ground biomass, harvest index and yield of hulled grain were observed for the crops grown in Pančevo, regardless of the spelt wheat variety and year. The samples grown in Bogdanica showed to be very sensitive to the spelt wheat variety, in terms of hull index value. The highest value of mortality stems has been found in Zlatar, regardless of the spelt wheat variety, or the year.
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of the variety, locality and year on the morphological and productive parameters of the spelt wheat obtained in the organic production system. Four spelt varieties were grown at three agroecological environment (Pančevo, Bogdanica and Zlatar), in southeast Europe, Serbia. They are used in order to determine general adaptability in different environment in three years trial (2014-2016). Analysis of the selected production parameters of spelt wheat, according to variety, locality and year, were conducted by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The PCA of the presented data explained that the first two components accounted 86.02% of the total multivariance in the eleven variable factor space. The results showed that the highest values of a number of plants, number of stems, number of spikes, plant height,the number of grains in the spikes, weight of grains per spike, yield of above ground biomass, harvest index and yield of hulled grain were observed for the crops grown in Pančevo, regardless of the spelt wheat variety and year. The samples grown in Bogdanica showed to be very sensitive to the spelt wheat variety, in terms of hull index value. The highest value of mortality stems has been found in Zlatar, regardless of the spelt wheat variety, or the year. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III46005]
Izvod U setvi krupnika može se koristiti plevičasto ili oljušteno seme. Podeljena su mišljenja koji je od ova dva oblika pogodniji. Cilj ovog rada je da prikazom rezultata više istraživača doprinese boljem razumevanju pitanja upotrebe semena krupnika različitog stepena dorade u promenljivim agroekološkim uslovima. Dinamika usvajanja vode identična je kod plevičastog i oljuštenog semena krupnika, međutim, razlika u pragu sadržaja vode za klijanje dovodi do razlika u vremenu proticanja tog procesa kod ova dva tipa semena. Negativan uticaj plevičastih omotača na klijanje i nicanje izraženiji je u uslovima suše i u nepovoljnim temperaturnim uslovima. Sa druge strane plevice krupnika bolje štite seme od napada patogenih gljiva, pa to predstavlja pogodnost prilikom upotrebe plevičastog semena u organskoj proizvodnji. Uočena je veća stopa rasta i dužina koleoptile krupnika u odnosu na koleoptilu obične pšenice. U uslovima stresa u previše vlažnom i hladnom zemljištu, krupnik je pokazao izrazito visoku toleranciju na smanjen dotok kiseonika (hipoksija). Brz rast koleoptile, a time i brže nicanje biljaka krupnika, smanjuje vreme trajanja hipoksije. Ove osobine olakšavaju klijanje i nicanje semena krupnika, koja su čvrsto obavijena plevama i plevicama. Naša dosadašnja iskustva sa setvom semena krupnika različitog stepena dorade ukazuju da treba dati određenu prednost oljuštenom i dezinfi kovanom semenu. S druge strane doradom naturalnog semena može se dobiti plevičasto seme takođe dobrog kvaliteta. Ključne reči: krupnik, plevičasto i oljušteno seme. 1 Pregledni rad (review paper) * Ugrenović V., Filipović V., PSS Institut "Tamiš", Novoseljanski put 33,
Wheat with hulled grain is einkorn (Triticum monococcum L), emmer (Triticum dicoccum Schrank) and spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L). During the wheat harvest spikes decompose to spikelets in which the grain (caryopsis) is tightly wrapped in chaffs and glumes. Since this hulled grain is improper for human diet it is necessary to peel it off mechanically before the use. The seed, i.e. the grain of true cereals, has about a hundred of characteristics, of which 20% have significance for the market, while 10-15% is officially studied. Hulled grain or hulled seed is the term that exists in the market of world trade. Introduction of hulled wheat into production and its growing presence on the market imposes the need for a clearer presentation of the grain presence in the crowd of hulled grain. As a result of our previous studies on spelt wheat we defined the term - the hull index (HI), that presents the ratio between the weight of un hulled and hulled grain. H=YDG/YHG x 100 Calculation formula: HI - hull index YDG - yield of dehulled grain YHG - yield of hulled grain This term can be used in research as an indicator of hulled wheat productivity, while in the trade it could indicate the grain quality more clearly, whether it was a seed or mercantile goods.
Izvod Pšenice plevičastog ploda su jednozrnac (Triticum monococcum L), dvozrnac (Triticum dicoccum Schrank) i krupnik (Triticum spelta L). Pri žetvi ovih pšenica klas se raspada na klasiće u kojima je zrno (caryopsis) čvrsto obavijeno plevama i plevicama. Ovakav plevičasti plod nepodesan je za korišćenje u ishrani ljudi, pa ga je pre upotrebe potrebno mašinski oljuštiti. Seme, odnosno zrno pravih žita, ima oko stotinu osobina, od njih 20% ima značaj za tržište, dok se 10-15% zvanično ispituje. Na tržištu u svetskom prometu kao kategorija za plevičaste pšenice, često fi gurira plevičato seme ili zrno. Uvođenje u proizvodnju kao i sve veća zastupljenost proizvoda od zrna ovih pšenica na tržištu, nameće potrebu za jasnijim prikazivanjem odnosa zrna u masi plevičastih plodova. Kao rezultat rada naših predhodnih istraživanja na krupniku, defi nisan je termin-indeks pleva (IP) koji predstavlja odnos između mase oljuštenog zrna i plevičastog zrna. Ovaj termin može poslužiti u istraživačkom radu kao pokazatelj produktivnosti za plevičaste pšenice, a u prometu zrna ovih pšenica može jasnije da ukaže na kvalitet, bilo da se radi o semenskoj ili merkantilnoj robi. Ključne reči: plevičaste pšenice, plevičasti plod, indeks pleva Pregledni stručni rad (Review professional paper) 1Ugrenović V.*, PSS Institut " Tamiš " , Novoseljanski put 33, 26000 Pančevo, Srbija 2Filipović V., Institut za proučavanje lekovitog bilja " Dr Josif Pančić " Tadeuša Koščuška 1, 11000 Beograd 3Popović V., Institut za ratarstvo i povrtarstvo,
The use of cover crops is widespread practice in organic farming systems. Cover crops can be defined as crops that are usually not grown commercially, and can have a multiple role in crop rotations. The benefit of cover crops has been known since long. Legumes are used as biological fixer of nitrogen for the next crop, and are established during periods when the soil is without major crops in order to reduce erosion. In recent years, the role of cover crops has been extended to the biocontrol of weeds, pests and diseases, as well as to the overall improvement of soil quality by increasing organic matter, encouraging the circulation of nutrients and reducing soil compaction. At the same time, their use tends to reduce costs and even create new sources of income on the farm.