added 2 research items
Nanotechnology-based drug delivery against tuberculosis
The appearance and rapid spread of drug resistant strains of tuberculosis (TB), one of the deadliest infectious diseases, pose a serious threat to public health and increase the need for shorter, less toxic, and more effective therapies. Developing new drugs is difficult and often associated with side effects, so nanotechnology has emerged as a tool to improve current treatments and to rescue drugs having elevated toxicity or poor solubility. Due to their size and surface chemistry, antimicrobial‐loaded nanocarriers are avidly taken up by macrophages, the main cells hosting Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Macrophages are continuously recruited to infected areas, they can transport drugs with them, making passive targeting a good strategy for TB treatment. Active targeting (decorating surface of nanocarriers with ligands specific to receptors displayed by macrophages) further increases local drug concentration, and thus treatment efficacy. Although in in vivo studies, nanocarriers are often administered intravenously in order to avoid inaccurate dosage in animals, translation to humans requires more convenient routes like pulmonary or oral administration. This report highlights the importance and progress of pulmonary administration, passive and active targeting strategies toward bacteria reservoirs to overcome the challenges in TB treatment. This progress report provides an overview of the potential use of nanotechnology‐based drug delivery toward overcoming the challenges in tuberculosis treatment. Current advances of passive and active targeting of nanocarriers toward infected macrophages and granulomas are presented. Furthermore, the pulmonary administration route as an amenable solution for clinical translation is highlighted.