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Mudança social e política no Brasil: a leitura interpretativista de Raymundo Faoro

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Maria José de Rezende
added a research item
This analysis focuses on the articulations of the different dominant strata to frame social changes, derived from the political transition process that took place in Brazil between 1973 and 1985, within the limits of the redefinition of political alliances between the different predominant social forces. The socio-economic and political conditions under which the transition ideology was solidified were investigated. It analyzes how the components of the power bloc struggled to resolve the political impasses that worsened during the last government of the military regime.
Maria José de Rezende
added 3 research items
Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Este artigo mapeia as principais posicoes de alguns teoricos filiados ao marxismo sobre a democracia e sua relacao com o socialismo. Buscou-se, a partir das reflexoes desenvolvidas na primeira metade do seculo XX, elucidar as especificidades de um debate vigoroso que se desenvolveu naquele momento. Isto forneceu os elementos para a compreensao das questoes fundamentais que foram levantadas, na segunda metade deste seculo, por uma parte do movimento socialista ocidental que se voltou com grande enfase para a necessaria imbricacao entre a democracia politica e o socialismo.
Este artigo é uma reflexão sobre a problemática da democracia segundos dois importantes pensadores brasileiros: Gilberto Freyre e Sérgio Buarque de Holanda. Buscou-se demonstrar os fundamentos de duas estratégias de análises distintas, as quais elaboraram, cada uma a seu modo, uma reavaliação da sociedade brasileira no que consiste aos seus padrões de domínio e de cultura
The works by Perdigão Malheiros, Tavares Bastos and Joaquim Nabuco built up a set of ideas about social changes, at the end of the XIX th century, which were significantly meaningful and revealing of a particular way of conceiving the country and its social, economical, political and cultural conditions valid for that moment. These scholars's reflections led, inexorably, to the themes which had as a fundamental guide the modernization of the country, the abolition of slavery, the proclamation of the Republic and the constitution of the nation. The problem of the transition and the changing was explicitly and/or implicitly set intrinsic to all these questions.
Maria José de Rezende
added 2 research items
The work of Maria Isaura Pereira de Queiroz has been influential in the understanding of social change in Brazil. Her analyses of the modifications, persistence, adaptations and resistance that have flourished in many spheres of social life provide elements for a reading of the social-anthropological singularities of currentchange processes that have gone on in the countrysince the 1950s. Based on an analysis in which the microsociological and macrosociological aspects are combined, she has not only drawn a sociological profile of some environments (rural neighbourhoods, for example), but also developed an approach that shows how Brazilian society has changed under increasing urbanization and industrialization - processes whichcreate interactions, practices and specific contexts thatare unique to Brazil and do not merely mirror thetrajectory followed by other nations.
The work of Maria Isaura Pereira de Queiroz has been influential in the understanding of social change in Brazil. Her analyses of the modifications, persistence, adaptations and resistance that have flourished in many spheres of social life provide elements for a reading of the social-anthropological singularities of current change processes that have gone on in the country since the 1950s. Based on an analysis in which the microsociological and macrosociological aspects are combined, she has not only drawn a sociological profile of some environments (rural neighbourhoods, for example), but also developed an approach that shows how Brazilian society has changed under increasing urbanization and industrialization - processes which create interactions, practices and specific contexts that are unique to Brazil and do not merely mirror the trajectory followed by other nations.
Maria José de Rezende
added 2 research items
Comprender las tensiones, los conflictos y las disensiones entre los agentes (gobernantes, liderazgos del sector privado y de las ONGs) encargados de efectivar las metas el milenio de la ONU y los responsables de las Naciones Unidas que coordinan el proceso de implementación de acciones y de estrategias que llevan a cabo los ODMs, es el propósito de este artículo que tiene como objetivo poner de manifiesto la naturaleza de las metas de reducción de la pobreza y de las múltiples formas de exclusión.
Maria José de Rezende
added 4 research items
ThepUIpose ofthis study is to map some traces thatmade up the Brazilian authoritarianism inthebeginningofthe so-calledpolitical opening in Brazil. It is our intention to u.nderstand, in textswritten byRaymundo Faoro in the beginning ofthe 80s thatwere made knownby the media, the several arrangements that weremadebythosewho led the politicaldecompressionunderway.Among the most emphasized results are those which detect that the change that was in progress continued to reproduce the political exclusions through attitudes, measures and procedures that hindered the possibility ofnew social agents in the political arena. These strategies used bythe ruling state in order to inhibit democratizationofthe social and political lifewere "the secretofthe eternal old age", •that is, the secret was in a political process that kept, inside itself, elements that were capable ofmaking state practices to be perpetuated.
The work of Alberto Torres is, undoubtedly, one of the best clues to understand the intent of the conservative thought in proposing a form of analysis of the Brazilian society which would undertake an essentially pragmatic character. His writings are proposals of reformation which, according to himself, would have to pass through a vast process of knowledge of our singularities as a people and as a nation, and through the organization and coordination of the diverse areas of the social life by the state and by the government, which would undertake such task based on the actuation of people capable of making an interpretation of the real needs of the country. RESUMO: A obra de Alberto Torres é, sem dúvida, uma das melhores pistas para compreender o intento do pensamento conservador em propor uma fórmula de análise da sociedade brasileira que assumisse um caráter essencialmente pragmático. Seus escritos são propostas de reformas que passariam, segundo ele, por um amplo processo de conhecimento de nossas singularidades como povo e como nação e pela organização e coordenação das diversas áreas da vida social pelo Estado e pelo governo, os quais assumiriam esta tarefa a partir da atuação, no seu interior, de indivíduos capazes de fazer uma leitura das reais necessidades do país.
A constituicao, no Brasil, de um ideario conservador contou com proposicoes semelhantes e divergentes no seu bojo. Neste artigo, especificamente, lidar-se-a somente com as divergencias em torno do modo de conceber o processo de mudanca social no que tange as suas (im)possibilidades. As posicoes de Perdigao Malheiros, Tavares Bastos, Joaquim Nabuco, Silvio Romero, Alberto Torres, Oliveira Vianna e Gilberto Freyre elucidam pontos dissonantes que revelam a nao-existencia de um bloco monolitico de interpretacoes e de acoes constituidoras do pensamento conservador.
Maria José de Rezende
added 10 research items
Neste artigo, será feita uma reflexão sobre o RDH (Relatório do Desenvolvimento Humano), de 2004, que trata da liberdade cultural como um elemento essencial para alcançar um desenvolvimento humano e social nos anos vindouros. É esta uma pesquisa documental que procura decifrar o significado do debate acerca da positividade e dos percalços, para a construção da democracia, da priorização da esfera cultural como lócus de diversas batalhas políticas. O documento do PNUD (Programa para o Desenvolvimento das Nações Unidas) parece tatear em terreno pantanoso, pois ao mesmo tempo que insiste na importância de políticas que valorizem a diversidade cultural tem de lidar também com a possibilidade de haver o florescimento de ações que, em nome da diversidade, se recusam a enfrentar os problemas sociais e políticos postos pela própria diferença.
The purpose of this study is to research authoritarian political procedures crystallized in the practices of several agents that constituted the national political life in 1980. The analysis is carried out through the weekly articles written by Raymundo Faoro, for the Isto É magazine, where he was a columnist. We intend to understand the political life characteristics of the so-called opening period, aiming to verify if there were signs that indicated a dismantling process of attitudes, practices and authoritarian actions in the country. His analysis focused on the way the transition made clear the political inequalities and the society’s colonization by the State.
A finalidade deste estudo é mapear em alguns textos de Raymundo Faoro, publicados semanalmente nos anos 2000 e 2001 na grande imprensa, a sua discussão sobre a democracia e a cidadania no Brasil em meio a um amplo debate intelectual e político sobre as possibilidades de estarem ou não emergindo as condições de efetivação tanto da democracia quanto da cidadania. Ele acentuava que não era possível supor qualquer avanço rumo à condição cidadã enquanto não vigorasse no país um Estado de direito democrático. A cidadania e a democracia são partes de um mesmo processo, segundo ele. O desmonte do Estado de exceção no Brasil levou diversas forças sociais a refletir sobre as possibilidades ou não de estar emergindo uma condição cidadã substantiva, por isso, para ele, a institucionalização democrática deveria ser pensada como um dos principais respaldos para a construção do espaço público. Nos seus artigos em semanários de circulação nacional, ele procurava demonstrar que teria de existir uma estreita relação entre os avanços institucionais rumo à democracia e os avanços sociais rumo à efetivação da cidadania.
Maria José de Rezende
added 6 research items
The purpose of this study is to survey Raymundo Faoro's articles - published weekly in the magazine Senhor during the year of 1984 – in order to map out the processes of political articulation concerning the election of General João Batista Figueiredo's (1979-1985) successor in Brazilian Presidency. Controls, hindrances, disputes, practices of political continuity acquired at that moment a more visible dimension as the regime agonized. Such scenario showed clearly not only the moves of the agents that obstinately searched for the maintenance of their positions of power and control, but also of those willing to redefine some political procedures. However, their involvement in a complex web of political arrangements, agreements and approximations, widened the difficulties in transcending the notion of democratization of those who conducted the opening process.
The purpose of this article is to show that some Brazilian social thinkers (Fernando de Azevedo, Sérgio Buarque de Holanda, Celso Furtado and Raymundo Faoro) were committed to designing analyses proactively concerned with the transformation of the society as well as the Brazilian State. It is considered that, as men of science and men of action, they were searching for ways through which the country could build a civilizational project that should be understood as a nation‟s project, able to fight exclusions and inequalities in the several spheres of social life. Their reflections and action proposals for the building of a public and universal education, for the establishment of institutions and democratic political procedures and for the creation of effective mechanisms to income and resources, can be understood as part of their commitment towards substantial social changes in Brazil.