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Mobile banking analysis with geographic information systems (GIS): Evidence from Uganda
Financial technology (FinTech) is an economic industry composed of companies that use technology to make financial services more efficient. Fintech is recognized as one of the most important innovations in the financial industry and is evolving at a rapid speed, driven in part by the sharing economy, favorable regulation, and information technology. Fintech promises to disrupt and reshape the financial industry by cutting costs, improving the quality of financial services, and creating a more diverse and stable financial landscape. With the advances in e-finance and mobile technologies for financial firms, fintech innovation emerged after the worldwide financial crisis in 2008 by combining the e-finance, internet technologies, social networking services, social media, artificial intelligence, and big data analytics. The valuation of FinTech companies concerns promising startups and some seasoned firms. FinTechs have a hybrid business model, as they operate in the financial (banking) sector deploying their technological attitudes. Evaluators may so wonder if FinTechs follow the typical evaluation patterns of bank/financial intermediaries or those of technological firms. Preliminary empirical evidence shows that the latter interpretation is the one consistent with the stock-market mood, and the business model of FinTechs. Evaluation patterns typically follow Discounted Cash Flows (DCF) or other metrics based on market comparables.
Background: The connection between last-mile hotspots and first-mile hubs is hindered in rural Uganda by geographical barriers, and a shortage of technical, financial and human resources. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is so a chimera for large part of rural population. Technology offers smart and affordable solutions that reduce financial and space-temporal barriers. As rural populations are typically closer to antennas and cell-phones than hospitals, ICT can re-engineer healthcare processes, softening delivery bottlenecks. Process innovations through the introduction of mHealth in rural areas allow to transforms inpatients/outpatients into home-patients, with potential huge savings. improves the connection between first-mile hubs and last-mile hotspots, resulting in and lower costs for both patients and the health system. Methods: This study set up a geographical model which quantifies the time-cost for the population to reach an equipped medical center. This time-cost is used to evaluate the disconnection between healthcare hubs and last-mile hotspot. Based on that, the study identifies the potential demand of mHealth by remote users and employing secondary data obtained from the Uganda Ministry of Health, estimates the mHealth-driven financial savings. Results: In Uganda the average time cost to arrive at a healthcare hub is 75 minutes well above a recommended threshold of 60 minutes. Roughly half of the Ugandans (19.1 million), live above this thresholds. Discussion: mHealth, e.g. mobile points of care, could potentially favor remote diagnosis, decongesting hospitals and producing savings in the public budget. Overall sustainability can be improved, due to lower hospitalization rates. The re-engineering of existing healthcare resources and the introduction of some new technologies can be facilitated by community health workers and private actors through Public Private Partnerships (PPP). The remuneration of the private component can follow innovative results-based financing (RBF). Conclusions: This research examines the disconnection of health care from health care needs in the Uganda population, identifying the demand for mHealth and estimating mHealth driven savings in healthcare deliveries. The study estimates the potential healthcare savings, considering the remote users as the prospective basin for mHealth applications. Reduced hospitalization represents, whenever possible, a mighty goal. The findings can contribute to the improvement of healthcare resource allocation in LMIC like Uganda and can be scaled up geographically.
Smart (technological) hospitals represent long-termed investments where public and private players interact with banking institutions and eventually patients, to satisfy their social needs. Characteristics of smart hospitals are critically examined, together with private actors' involvement and flexible forms of remuneration. Technology-driven smart hospitals are so complicated that they may require sophisticated Public-Private Partnerships (PPP). Public players lack innovative skills, whereas private actors seek additional remuneration for their non-routine efforts and higher risk. PPP represents a feasible framework, especially if linked to Project Financing (PF) investment patterns. Whereas the social impact of healthcare investments seems evident, their financial coverage raises growing concern in a capital rationing context where shrinking public resources must cope with the growing needs of chronic elder patients. Results-Based Financing (RBF) is a pay-by-result methodology that softens traditional PPP criticalities as availability payment sustainability or risk transfer compensation. Waste of public money can consequently be reduced, and private bankability improved. In this study, we examine why and how advanced IT solutions implemented in new "Smart Hospitals" should produce a positive social impact by increasing at the same time health sustainability and quality of care. Patient-centered smart hospitals realized through PPP schemes, reshape traditional healthcare with savings and efficiency gains that improve timeliness and execution of cares.