added a research item
The conversion of somatic cells back into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) or embryonic-like stem cells involves the introduction of four genes commonly called Yamanaka factors, i.e., Sox2, Oct4, Klf4, and c-Myc, into the cells. Because these genes and the viral vectors used to introduce them into cells have the potential to cause cancer, iPSC lines are not clinically useful. Most instances of direct reprogramming have been achieved by the forced expression of defined factors using viral vectors. Here, we show that Metadichol® has the potential to generate iPSCs nonvirally and may be helpful in clinical applications. Metadichol is a nanoformulation of long-chain alcohols derived from food. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blotting showed that OCT4, SOX2, and Nanog are expressed when fibroblasts were treated with Metadichol at one picogram to 100 nanograms. Reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) also revealed that OCT4, KLF4, Nanog, and Sox2 levels increased compared to controls by 4.01-, 3.51-and 1.26-, and 2.5-fold, respectively, in A549 cancer cells. In Colo-205 cells, OCT4, KLF4, and Sox2 were increased by 1.79-, 13.17-, and 2.25-fold, respectively. Metadichol treatment with triple-negative primary breast cancer (HCAF-TNPBC) primary cancer cells led to multifold increases in OKSM factors by 19-, 6-, 8.07-, 2.45-, and 6.91-fold in concentration ranges of 1 picogram to 100 nanograms. Metadichol is a natural product that induces the expression of Yamanaka factors needed for reprogramming and Klotho, an antiaging gene, and curbs the expression of the TP53 gene, which is critical for reprogramming somatic cells into IPSCs. Metadichol increases endogenous vitamin C levels, leading to the efficient reprogramming of somatic cells into iPSCs. Metadichol is nontoxic and commercially available as a nutritional supplement. Thus, it can be directly tested in vivo in human subjects to confirm that cells can indeed be programmed into a state of induced pluripotency and cause the mitigation of disease conditions.
Umbilical cord blood has found use in the clinic for more than 40 years in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation therapies to treat patients with bone marrow diseases or to reconstitute the bone of those cancer patients who had to have theirs wiped out to cure their leukemia or lymphoma. A feature is the presence of CD34 antigen in of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. These cells can differentiate and are self-renewing, multipotent stem cells that give rise to all blood cells of the immune system and erythrocytes), and lymphoid (T cells, B cells, and NK cells) lineages. This study describes increased CD34 gene expression in Umbilical Cord (UC) cells upon treatment with Metadichol which is an inverse agonist of AHR (Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor). UC cells were subjected to treatment at one picogram, 100 picograms, 1nanogram, 100 nanograms and 1microgram per ml of Metadichol for 72 hrs. Cells treated at 1ng have shown the highest increase in expression of CD34 compared to untreated Control. The cells treated with 1pg, 100 picogram/ml demonstrated the multiplicity of CD34 expression as indicated by peak shift compared to treatment with 1ng, 100 ng, and 1 μg