Wildfires (forest fires) are part of the ecological circle of Mediterranean ecosystems. However, during the last decades, they have become a problem due to the damages they cause. In the second part of the 20th century, the fire problem in the countries of Southern Europe has got worse.
Wildfires (forest fires) are part of the ecological circle of Mediterranean ecosystems. However, during the last decades, they have become a problem due to the damages they cause. In the second part of the 20th century, the fire problem in the countries of Southern Europe has got worse. Abandonment of rural areas, long-term fire exclusion practices and expansion of fast growing species that are highly flammable (e.g. pines), have increased fire hazards.
In Northern Dobrogea, north of the Dunavăţ promontory, the Roman fortress of Halmyris was founded in the late 1st century on a Getae settlement dated back the middle of the 1st millennium BC. 8000 years ago, the area of the later Danube delta was a vast open marine bay. Since the end of the post-glacial marine transgression, the Danube delta has prograded and divided into several arms, first along the Dunavăţ promontory and then to the north and the south leading to the progressive retreat of the sea. The ancient fortress of Halmyris, the most eastern Roman fortification on the Danube, faces the St. George arm that has been the most active arm of the river during Antiquity. Our chronostratigraphic study was undertaken to: (i) understand landscape changes of the area of the latter Halmyris since ca. 7500 years BP, (ii) identify the fluvial environments close to the city in Roman times in order to locate and characterise the harbour. For this study, several cores were extracted from the Danube delta plain for palaeoenvironmental investigations. Here, we concentrate on the study of bio-sedimentological content of the core HAIII that shows a classic regressive sequence dominated by a marine environment at the base of the core, overlain by fluvial sediments. The progress of the delta front seaward led to the formation of a floodplain from the fifth millennium BC onwards. It was characterized by numerous lakes, attested in the core by large organic-rich peat layers. The Roman harbour was probably installed in a secondary channel of the St. George whose depth was at least 175 cm at the end of the 7th century.