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Informationen verknüpfen, Synergien nutzen, Wissen generieren – die Marine Daten-Infrastruktur Deutschland integriert die wesentlichen Datenquellen über alle Fach-, Behörden- und Institutsgrenzen. Mit Hilfe eines Internet-Portals werden die bislang über Bund und Länder verteilten marinen Fachdaten umfassend zur Nutzung bereitgestellt
Web portals are state-of-the-art dissemination centers of data and processed information in many areas of economic and scientific applications. Successful matching of the supply and demand of scientific data relies on the quality of metadata describing available data sets from providers, reports or background information from archives, and scientific publications. Standardized metadata facilitate the cataloging of distributed data bases as service for the scientific community as well as for the general public. Associated web portals then provide the necessary methods to discover information, visualize and access the data.
In 2002, the European parliament and the council of the European Union (EU) formulated a recommendation concerning the implementation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in Europe. This recommendation encourages a more global view on coastal regions in contrast to many R&D projects, which still keep sectoral views on coastal problems with regard to, e.g. coastal protection, tourism, or ecology. Commonly, distributed institutions maintain the necessary information for ICZM with incompatible data formats and different policies concerning the data distribution. We report on standards and tools to support ICZM tasks, which originate from the framework of the North Sea and Baltic Sea Coastal Information System NOKIS, and their enhancements to meet current EU requirements resulting from the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), put forward in 2000. We present the implementation of the international metadata standard ISO19115 with a coastal zone community profile and introduce a user- friendly metadata editor to handle this documentary information. Main focus is on web services provided by a central web portal. Commonly used visualization and analysis tools, which can directly access the distributed data, are key features of the central methods base to support efficient work flows. BACKGROUND The coastal zones of the world are the target area of many different uses. The fact that 1995 over 2.2 billion people accounting for 39% of the world's population lived within 100km from the coast (23) contributes to the conflict of interests. Corresponding numbers for the Baltic Sea drainage basin are 31% (26 million people) of the population living in 50km distance from the coast (22) and ??% (?? million people) for the North Sea region. In 2002, the European Union released a recommendation concerning the implementation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Europe (5). Its member states will report about the ICZM implementation progress in 2006. There is a request for an "adaptive management during a gradual process, which will facilitate adjustment as problems and knowledge develop. This implies the need for a sound scientific basis concerning the evolution of the coastal zone". Even earlier, in 2000, the European Union published the directive, which is commonly known as the Water Framework Directive (4). This directive formulates explicit dates for the completion of different tasks in the field of water monitoring, e.g. a functioning monitoring network has to be set up by the end of 2005.
General The initial motivation for the project NOKIS (German title: Nord- und Ostsee-Küsteninformationssystem) was the absence of an infrastructure for the exchange of geodata across administrative boundaries between the German wadden sea national parks and other governmental administrations (e.g. from water manage- ment and administration of waterways and navigation) on federal and state level. Today, within NOKIS around 20 partners from administration, research and industry are cooperating. The focus of the partici- pants moved from the mere goal of an information system towards the shared internet-based use of exist- ing geodata. The technologies and concepts in NOKIS reflect the common objectives of the participating partners, but they also grew from their different interests, problems and tasks. Some of the frequently discussed top- ics in the project since its start in the year 2000 are data and privacy protection, criteria for the distribution of data and the handling of the copyright of data. The micro cosmos of federalism in Germany can be seen as a biotope, in which the tasks, problems and their handling of the data exchange across institutional and administrative boundaries can be studied. First steps have been done to establish NOKIS as an institution. 2. Use of Standards From the beginning, NOKIS made use of existing and emerging standards. In the field of geodata, the ISO 19100 suite of standards concerning the standardization of metadata is already the de-facto standard for the erection of new geodata infrastructures (GDI). The NOKIS network uses especially the parts ISO 19115 (ISO 2003), ISO 19119 (ISO 2005) and TS 19139 (ISO 2007). In the developing network of differ- ent GDI's, the use of exchange standards is important for the interoperability of systems. NOKIS contrib- utes to the interoperable network by using standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and from the German implementation of the OGC ISO Application Profile for CSW (Catalog-Service for Web, CSW); Open Geospatial Consortium 2005) named DE-Profile (Länderübergreifender Arbeitskreis Metadaten 2005). Within NOKIS, a profile of the ISO 19115 has been developed, which meets the needs of the coastal community. To enable the documentation of time series and research projects within the same system, metadata schemas have been developed to include the necessary information.
Web based tools facilitate intersectoral views of resources by providing for technological solutions of networking and distributed data management in a service oriented architecture, which relies on the ISO standards 19115 for metadata and 19117 for web services. Key features of the described infor- mation infrastructure are a metadata authoring tool, a web portal with detailed discovery interface, where distinct information spaces can be combined for search operations, and workflow embedded mechanisms for metadata production and use.
The North and Baltic Sea Information System (NOKIS) has the goal to estab- lish an information infrastructure for the German coast, driven by metadata. The system is based on a metadata driven framework and provides a set of tools for handling and using coastal data. One of the tools to fi nd datasets is a gazetteer to search for information by toponyms. Beyond that, such a gazetteer-service should be made available as an independent service. As a technical base for implementing the NOKIS gazetteer, the gazetteer of the Alexandria Digital Library project, was selected. Additional characteristics were implemented for the special needs of a coastal gazetteer. The fast-chang- ing geomorphology necessitates that the representative geometrical extensions of toponyms are time-dependent. A multilingual concept supports dialects and the Frisian language. Toponyms and geometries were collected in the area of the Schleswig- Holstein Wadden Sea for testing the WEB-service. These are names of creaks, plates or sandbanks, actual names or historic toponyms. The compilation of geographic names and their spatial representation goes forward to provide a gazetteer service for the whole German coast until 2009.
Die Marine Dateninfrastruktur Deutschland (MDI-DE) bietet mehrere Leitfäden für den Umgang mit Geo- und Metadaten im Kontext einer GDI an. Aktuell wurde der Leitfaden zur Anbindung eines Infrastrukturknotens überarbeitet und an neue Anforderungen von INSPIRE und GDI-DE angepasst. Der Leitfaden gibt praxisbezogene Beispiele zum Aufbau von Infrastrukturknoten (verschiedene Geodatenserverkomponenten), sowie Informationen zu verwendenden Koordinatenreferenzsystemen und Möglichkeiten die bereitgestellten Geo- und Metadaten zu Testen.
The AtomFeedGenerator provides the ability to make INSPIRE relevant datasets available via an atom feed download service. For this purpose, specially customized metadata records are transformed into atom feeds and the referenced datasets are made available via a web interface. In addition, an OpenSearch interface is offered, implemented according to the INSPIRE requirements, that can be integrated in the web browsers search module.
For many environmental models, wind data is an important parameter. This has been well-known for a long time, but data acquisition and transfer could be quite problematic. Thus in 2007 a digital wind atlas for the German sea was established. Unfortunately the technology did not age well, leading to a relaunch, using sustainable web service technology. In the course of this article we will recap the original design and show our efforts to reestablish the wind atlas in its new garb as well as outline our future plans for enhancing the application and integrating it in vaster information networks.
Research in hydroinformatics extensively studies approaches on reducing the complexity of modeling processes. Input data, the CFD-processing and visualization of results are combined in various ways into so-called integrated modeling frameworks or management systems. Community Modeling Systems (CMS) provide users with a concentrated view on data handling and coupling resources and models, in particular. Unfortunately, most web-based hydroinformatics environments lack consistent, standardized documentation of the modeling process. A reusability or reproducibility outside a CMS is only given for single elements like standardized webservices or metadata descriptions for datasets. Using elements of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs), we propose a concept for a metadata-driven architecture for Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations and to integrate model descriptions into SDIs. We illustrate the abilities of such a metadata-based system with two use cases an extensive outlook.