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Life on Mars

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Rhawn Gabriel Joseph
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Rocks with numerous deep concave holes similar to trace fossils fashioned by mollusks have been photographed by Viking 2 in Utopia Planitia and the rover Perseverance in the ancient lakes beds of Jezero Crater, Mars. Specimens resembling colonies of worm-like burrowing mollusks occupy some of these concave cavities. A morphological quantitative analysis was conducted comparing various metrics of rock-surface trace fossils created by rock-drilling terrestrial bivalves with rocks with similar deep circular cavities photographed in Jezero Crater and with "heat shield" rock of Meridiani Planum; and additional analysis were performed in comparison to (a) verified meteorites and (b) with Martian and terrestrial vesicular basalt. The morphology, density, size distribution, and spatial patterns of the deep cavities on Jezero Crater rocks and trace fossils created by terrestrial bivalves were significantly statistically similar. The morphology and spatial pattern of these cavities were significantly different from the shallow depressions of meteorites; and the same is true of the Martian "heat shield" rock which is likely an iron-laden sediment that had been colonized by rock-drilling organisms. The Martian and terrestrial borehole rocks are also significantly different from vesicular basalt, and there is no similarity to the wind-carved boulders of Antarctica. Hence, as on Earth, rocks in Utopia Planitia, Meridiani Planum and along an ancient seashore at Jezero crater appear to have been colonized by rock-boring animals. These putative "trace fossils" and worm-like specimens should be considered evidence of life in the ancient inland seas of Mars.
Rhawn Gabriel Joseph
added a research item
Mars has been subject to repeated waxing and waning episodes of extreme chaotic obliquity (axial tilting) for at least four billion years. Obliquity is currently at 25.19 degrees and has exceeded 80◦. Each time obliquity exceeds 40◦ Martian atmospheric pressures and global temperatures increase causing the melting of glaciers and permafrost and subsurface ice, and resulting in oceans, lakes and rivers of water flooding across the surface then stabilizing and enduring for hundreds of thousands of years or longer. There is evidence that within these seas evolved stromatolite constructing cyanobacteria, green algae, acritarchs, foraminifera, seaweed, and marine metazoan invertebrates including sponges, tube worms, crustaceans, reef-building corals, bivalves, and those resembling Kimberella, Namacalathus and Lophophorates; almost all of which (with the exception of algae, fungi and lichens) may have become extinct. The last episode of extreme obliquity may have begun over a million years in the past and endured until 110,000 years ago. Subsequently, as axial tilting declined, the waters of Mars seeped back beneath the surface forming vast aquifers and glacial deposits of water-ice and the remainder froze at the poles and atop dusty layers of icy-sediment: the remnants of previous obliquity-driven freeze-thaw cycles that may have caused life to evolve and oceans and lakes to repeatedly form, stabilize, endure then freeze.
Rhawn Gabriel Joseph
added a research item
In May of 2020, Dr. Rhawn Joseph cancelled the contract with Springer Nature for the printing/publishing of their # 1 most popular most read article: “Life on Venus.” In June of 2020, Springer Nature agreed to cancel all agreements and to issue Plaintiff a refund as documented by exhibits and as admitted by the Defendants. Instead , in a conspiracy involving NASA, “Springer Nature”added defamatory content and reprinted "Life on Venus" with 18 size font, on every page stating “RETRACTED ARTICLE.” Every scientist knows that Retraction is a profound penalty that destroys a scientists reputation. To escape liability, “Springer Nature” created and filed the court an html “click through agreement” that is so obviously fraudulent only an imbecile or a bribe-taking criminally corrupt judge would deem it valid. As Defendants admitted and as proven by exhibits 8, 11-14, and hard copies of the alleged “click through” agreement lacks any means to “click” “check” “sign” or to signify agreement, is devoid of any html programming that would allow the insertion of Dr. Joseph's name, and three times requires a signature but lacks Plaintiff’s signature or any means for Plaintiff to sign. To quote Springer Nature’s attorneys (Exhibit 15, page 7): “the click-through agreement attached to Defendants’ motion to dismiss (Doc. No. 57-2), does not include the full HTML code and thus does not appear as it would on the live webpage with the accompanying Springer logos, headers, and most importantly here, the “accept” button or “check box.” Criminal conduct and bribe taking by judges is commonplace. NASA has resorted to death threats against Dr. Joseph. NASA and Judge Cronan conspired with Defendants to create the fake click through agreement. How many innocent men and women have been sent to prison because Cronan conspired to create fake evidence?
Rhawn Gabriel Joseph
added a research item
Criminal Complaint Filed with USDOJ: Bribery and criminality are commonplace among judges and there is a well documented conspiracy among the Federal Judiciary to deny Pro Se Plaintiffs their 5th and 14th Amendment rights and subvert the Constitution and this constitutes Treason. Federal Judges Cronan, et al. are active participants in this criminal and unconstitutional conspiracy, and took bribes and conspired with Springer Nature and NASA to obstruct justice, commit fraud against the Court, and violate Dr. Joseph’s 1st, 5th and 14 Amendment rights under color of law and to discredit and censor his discoveries documenting evidence of algae, fungi, lichens, bacteria, and other forms of life on Mars. Dr. Joseph et al.’s Discoveries of “Life on Mars” & “Life on Venus” Humiliated and Embarrassed NASA: The U.S. Government (NASA, Federal Judiciary, et al.) Conspired and are Conspiring to Violate Dr. Joseph’s 14th, 5th, and 1st Amendment Rights, Censor His Discoveries, and have Committed Treason Against the USA.
Rhawn Gabriel Joseph
added a research item
Symmetrical micro-structures from 1-2 mm to 1 cm in diameter with multiple appendages and shapes resembling "spiders" have been photographed in Gale Crater, many attached to honeycombed or multi-layered sediments similar to dolomite and archean stromatolites of Earth dated to over 2.2bya. Oval-shaped mm-in-size lifelike specimens with forward-facing-orifices and appendages resembling pleopods and pareiopods were observed, one of which--based on sequential images--appeared in front of a formerly occluded now empty hole, whereas some "spiders" increased in size over a five day period. Some spider-like formations may consist of algae and mushroom-shaped fungi and lichens that have grown together and whose appendages consist of hyphae and mycelium. Similarities with terrestrial stromatolites and embedded "spider-like" formations within, support the hypothesis that as Martian algae-fungi colonies increase in size and number they secrete calcium oxalate and form microbial layers punctuated with symmetrical and spider-like formations. Some "spiders" and other lifelike specimens may be abiogenic mineral-soil concretions. It is possible some specimens are living organisms capable of locomotion and whose "alien" appearance is due to having evolved and adapted to the unique environments of Mars.
Rhawn Gabriel Joseph
added a research item
Despite spending billions of U.S dollars on the exploration of Mars, NASA has refused to equip the Mars rovers with life detection technology. NASA refuses to search for life, refuses to examine any specimens for life, and refuses to acknowledge the evidence of past and current life on Mars published by over 36 scientists . If there is life on Mars is a question NASA does not want asked and does not want answered. Why? NASA intends to secretly transport Martian organisms to Earth via its Mars Sample Return Program; organisms and their DNA that will be worth hundreds of billions of dollars and will likely be stolen and sold to NASA’s “for-profit” partners. Because the public might become terrified by the prospect of disease and plague caused by Martian pathogens, and object to this “get-rich” scheme, NASA and its goon squads have sought to discredit all evidence of life on Mars and threatened and harassed scientists and scientific journals, and partnered with Springer Nature to commit fraud against the Court and to silence, defame and seize the copyright of Dr. Rhawn Joseph, one of the worlds leading experts, RE: Life on Mars.
Rhawn Gabriel Joseph
added a research item
Fungal reproductive behavior, the growth of hyphae and mycelium, and the production of spores, on Earth and Mars, are reviewed. Spherical specimens that nearly 70 experts have identified as fungal "puffballs" ("basidiomycota") have been photographed in the equatorial regions of Mars, within Meridiani Planum in particular. Over two dozen "puffballs" have been photographed emerging from beneath the ground and increasing in size. Networks of what appear to be fungal hyphae and mycelium, structural morphological changes associated with sporing, substances resembling clumps and carpets of white spores adjacent to these spherical "puffballs" and what may be embryonic fungi within these clumps of spores, have been observed. Although the authors have not proven that fungi are sporing on the Red Planet, the evidence coupled with comparative morphology supports the hypothesis that fungi are growing, generating spores, and reproducing on Mars.
Rhawn Gabriel Joseph
added a research item
Astrovirology is the study of beneficial vs harmful viruses that originated from comets, meteors, solar winds, and ejecta from other planets, or which mutated when lofted by winds into the upper atmosphere. That these upper atmospheric and putative extraterrestrial viruses have contributed to the evolution of the biosphere and life on Earth, and caused disease and plague, is discussed, and the role of astro-viruses and endogenous retroviruses in the evolution of life and biosphere is reviewed. Evolution leading to the Cambrian Explosion and continuing to humans is characterized by repeated viral invasions and insertion of retroviral genes into host species' genomes. "Evolution" parallels the genetic-biological engineering of the environment (e.g. oxygen production), which activates inherited retroviral genes. Viral plagues are associated with comets, and have caused extinctions that served to promote evolution and eradicate those not "fit." Given evidence of life on Mars and association of plague with comets, extraterrestrial viruses may be commonplace. Extraterrestrial viruses may have acquired genes via interplanetary horizontal gene transfer which in turn have been transferred to the genomes of eukaryotes on Earth. "Evolution" may be the metamorphosis and replication of life and biospheres that evolved on other planets.
Rhawn Gabriel Joseph
added a research item
In the ancient and recent past, various niches on Mars were habitable and possibly inhabited by organisms that have evolved and adapted to extreme surface and subsurface environments. Habitability is promoted by the high levels of iron that promotes melanization of various organisms that protects against radiation. Glacial and water-ice below the surface provides moisture to organisms at temperatures below freezing due to salts in these ices and heat generated from anomalous thermal sources. Impact craters formed over 3.7 bya appear to be highly magnetized thus providing additional protection against radiation; and if initially hosting a large body of water may have triggered the formation of hydrothermal vents. Tube worms, sulfur-reducing and other chemoautotrophs have thrived and likely still inhabit subsurface aquifers within Endurance Crater which was formed over 3.7 bya, has hosted large bodies of water, and also has the mineralogy of hydrothermal vents and surface holes surrounded by tubular specimens. Formations resembling fossil tube worms have also been observed in the ancient lake beds of Gale Crater which was formed over 3.7 bya. A comparative quantitative analysis of the Gale and Endurance Crater tubular specimens provides additional confirmation for the tube-worm hydrothermal vent hypothesis.
Rhawn Gabriel Joseph
added a research item
In this book we present over 800 photographs that as a collective totality conclusively proves there is life on Mars. These include photos of Martian tube worms, "crab-like" organisms, algae, microbial mats, stromatolites, lichens, fungi, fungus, fossils; and sequential images documenting that Martian organisms are growing out of the ground, increasing in size, moving to new locations; and that fungi are engaging in reproductive behavior by shedding spores that produce embryonic fungus. This conclusive evidence represents the collective investigative efforts of several teams of scientific experts, 24 scientists in total, the names of whom are listed in the publications cited in the Reference section; each article discussing and providing scholarly references for the conclusions reached. This book consists almost entirely of photos and is arranged in 18 sections: 1. Algae and Microbial Mats .... 2. Stromatolites .... 3. Algae & Lichen-Algae .... 4. Algae Fruiting Bodies and Networks of Calcium Oxalate .... 5. Dimpled Lichens & Algae Fruiting Bodies .... 6. Photosynthesis and Gas Bubbles .... 7. Vast Colonies of Rock-Dwelling Lichens .... 8. Fungal Puffballs (vs the Hematite Hoax) .... 9 Fungus, Spores, Embryonic Fungi, Reproductive Behavior .... 10. Colonies Of Arctic Algae, Fungus, Mold, Lichens .... 11. Growth, Movement, Behavior .... 12. Fungus and Bacteria Growth on the Rovers .... 13. Lichen Puffball Calcium Oxalate Fossils .... 14. Fossils: Algae, Tube Worms, “Ediacarans,” Metazoans .... 15. Tube Worms and Spiral Worms .... 16. Crustaceans? .... 17. Spiral Spider Crabs? .... 18. Anomalies ....
Rhawn Gabriel Joseph
added a research item
Hundreds of tubular and spiral specimens resembling terrestrial tube worms and worm tubes were photographed in the soil and atop and protruding from “rocks” on Sols 177, 199 and 299 in the vicinity of Endurance Crater, Meridiani Planum. Dozens of these putative “worms” and tubes are up to 3 mm in size. These tubular specimens display twisting, bending, and curving typical of biology and are different from abiogenic structures. Morphological comparisons with living and fossilized tube worms and worm tubes also supports the hypothesis that the Martian tubular structures may be biological as they are similar and often nearly identical to their terrestrial counterparts. The literature concerning abiotic and biotic formation of mineralized tubular formations is reviewed and the Martian tubular structures meet the criteria for biology. In addition, larger “anomalous” oval-specimens ranging from 3 mm to 5 mm in diameter were photographed and observed to have web-like appendages reminiscent of crustacean pleopods. That marine organisms may have evolved and flourished in the vicinity of Endurance Crater, Meridiani Planum, was originally predicted by NASA’s rover Opportunity crew in 2004, 2005, and 2006. This area is believed to have hosted a briny body of water that was heated by hydrothermal vents; and these are favored habitats of tube worms. Further, all these specimens were photographed adjacent to vents in the surface and the mineralogy of Endurance Crater is similar to that produced by tube worms and their symbiotes. However, if any of these specimens are alive, fossilized, mineralized or dormant is unknown. Abiotic explanations cannot be ruled out and it cannot be stated with absolute certainty they are biological.
Rhawn Gabriel Joseph
added a research item
We present over 200 photographs that as a collective totality proves there is life on Mars. These include photos of Martian algae, microbial mats, stromatolites, lichens, fungi, fungus, fossils, tubular organisms; and sequential images documenting that Martian organisms are growing out of the ground, increasing in size, moving to new locations; and that fungi are engaging in reproductive behavior by shedding spores that produce embryonic fungus. This conclusive evidence represents the collective investigative efforts of several teams of scientific experts, 24 scientists in total, the names of whom are listed in the publications cited in the Reference section; each article discussing and providing scholarly references for the conclusions reached. This document consists almost entirely of photos and is arranged in 15 sections: (1) Algae and Microbial Mats; (2) Stromatolites; (3) Algae & Lichen-Algae; (4) Algae Fruiting Bodies and Networks of Calcium Oxalate; (5) Dimpled Lichens & Algae Fruiting Bodies; (6) Photosynthesis and Gas Bubbles; (7) Vast Colonies of Rock-Dwelling Lichens; (8) Fungal Puffballs (vs the Hematite Hoax); (9) Fungus, Spores, Reproduction, Embryonic Fungi; (10) Colonies Of Arctic Algae, Fungus, Mold, Lichens; (11) Growth, Movement, Behavior; (12) Fungus and Bacteria Growth on the Rovers; (13) Lichen Puffball Calcium Oxalate Fossils; (14) Fossils: Algae, Tube Worms, “Ediacarans,” Metazoans; (15) Tube Worms or Tubular Fungi? We conclude there is life on Mars.
Rhawn Gabriel Joseph
added a research item
Life-bearing meteors, asteroids, comets and frozen bodies of water which had been ejected from Mars or other planets via bolide impact may have caused the Cambrian Explosion of life on Earth 540 million years ago. Reviewed in support of this theory are historical and worldwide reports of blood, gore, flesh and a variety of organisms raining from clear skies on warm days along with freezing rains and ice and sometimes embedded in ice and which a 2008 report in the International Journal of Astrobiology linked to comets and celestial events. Numerous reports have documented, within meteors, fossilized organisms resembling fungi, algae, and diatoms. In 1880 specimens resembling fossilized crinoids, corals and sponges were identified within an assemblage of meteorites that had fallen to Earth and investigators speculated that evolution may have occurred in a similar fashion on other planets. Russian scientists have reported that mosquito larvae, the majority of seeds from a variety of plants, and fish eggs and embryos from crustaceans develop and reproduce normally after 7 to 13 months exposure to space outside the ISS and could travel to and from Earth and Mars and survive. Investigators have identified specimens on Mars that resemble stromatolites, bacterial mats, algae, fungi, and lichens, and fossils resembling tube worms, Ediacarans, Metazoans and other organisms including those with eyes and multiple legs. McKay speculated that evolution may have taken place more rapidly on Mars and experienced a "Cambrian Explosion" in advance of Earth. Eight hundred million years ago an armada of asteroids, comets and meteors more numerous and several times more powerful than the Chicxulub impact, invaded the inner solar system and struck the Earth-Moon system. It is highly probable Mars was also struck and massive amounts of life-bearing debris was cast into space. Genetic studies indicate the first metazoans appeared on Earth 750 to 800 million years ago soon after this impacting event. Given the relatively sudden "explosive" appearance of complex life with bones, brains, and modern eyes, as well as those that were bizarre and quickly became extinct, and given there are no antecedent intermediate forms and that previous life forms consisted of only 11 cell types prior to the Cambrian Explosion, the evidence, in total, supports the theory that life on other planets and Mars may have been transported to Earth 800 million years ago and contributed to the Cambrian Explosion.
Rhawn Gabriel Joseph
added a research item
Reviewed in this report: It took a minimum of 7 billion years of genetic duplicative events for the first gene to become a life sustaining genome; i.e. at least 2.4 billion years before Earth was formed. Potentially habitable planets have been identified at least 5 billion years older than Earth. Microfossils have been found in meteors older than this solar system including evidence of evolutionary progression leading to corals and sponges. There is evidence of life, fossils and evolution on Mars paralleling Earth leading up to the Cambrian Explosion. The implications are: life on Earth-like planets evolves in patterns similar to life on Earth. Megastructures have been observed orbiting our own and distant suns. For thousands of years there have been reports of flying craft (“Unusual Aerial Phenomena”). According to a report by the U.S.A Office of the Director of National Intelligence these “Unidentified Aerial Phenomena” engage in maneuvers at hypersonic speeds that are completely beyond our technological capabilities or understanding. The implications are that Earth and its inhabitants are under surveillance. It is concluded that intelligent life and technologically advanced extraterrestrial civilizations have evolved in this galaxy on numerous Earth-like worlds, including those billions of years older than our own.
Rhawn Gabriel Joseph
added a research item
There is life on Mars as documented with 100 comparative photos. This evidence includes pigmented/melanized fungi and lichens, fungi shedding crustose and secreting calcium oxalate, fungi preparing to spore, spores on the surface sprouting embryonic mushrooms, fungus growing out of the ground, lichens with hollow stalks, vast colonies of lichens attached to rocks and oriented skyward similar to photosynthesizing lichens on Earth, and documentation that the claims of spherical hematite is a hoax--a byproduct of religious extremism at NASA--which is why the hematite claims were immediately rejected as inappropriate and implausible by a number of investigators who proposed instead they are tektites and accretionary lapilli produced by meteor impact and volcano. Be they on the surface or attached to Martian rocks they have no resemblance to terrestrial hematite. The “spheres” of Mars are uniform in shape and size (1mm or 3mm to 6 mm) and all were initially described as “yellow” “orange” “purple” and “blue” the pigmented colors of photosynthesizing organisms. Terrestrial hematite “spheres” are colored red to dark red, consist of less than 2% hematite which form a thin layer on the surface and have a wide variety of sizes and shapes and are infiltrated by fungi and lichens. A review of the Opportunity teams’ methodology and instrumentation reveals that data was contaminated and confounded by numerous uncontrolled variables including problems with instrument calibrations and they relied on inference, speculation, data manipulation, and spectra from panoramic images that were selectively eliminated in a failed attempt to make it conform to laboratory samples. The iron-rich radiation-intense Red Planet provides an ideal environment for fungus and lichens to flourish and promotes growth and sporing and production of melanin which protects against while simultaneously utilizing radiation for metabolic energy. Algae secrete calcium and lichens and fungi produce calcium oxalate that “weathers” and dissolves minerals and metals which are utilized as nutrients and are stored on cellular surfaces. Terrestrial species are iron-rich and precipitate hematite which makes these fungi and lichens ideal bioindicators of metal and minerals; whereas on Mars they are likely supersaturated with these and other minerals and metals as reflected by spectral data. Fungi and lichens secrete calcium oxalate which coats and surrounds mycelium, but upon exposure to dry surface conditions forms waves of calcium “cement” that may cement these organisms to layers of calcium oxalate fossilizing and making them “harder than rock.” Yet others grow out of the ground and are obviously alive. Given evidence documenting biological residue in Martian meteorites, biological activity in soil samples, seasonal increases in methane and oxygen which parallel biological fluctuations on Earth, and pictorial and quantitative morphological evidence of stromatolites fossilized tube worms and metazoans, growth of mushrooms and fungi, and vast colonies of rock-dwelling lichens, it is concluded that the evidence is obvious: There is life on Mars.
Rhawn Gabriel Joseph
added a research item
Fungi thrive in radiation intense environments. Sequential photos document that fungus-like Martian specimens emerge from the soil and increase in size, including those resembling puffballs (Basidiomycota). After obliteration of spherical specimens by the rover wheels, new sphericals--some with stalks--appeared atop the crests of old tracks. Sequences document that thousands of black arctic "araneiforms" grow up to 300 meters in the Spring and disappear by Winter; a pattern repeated each Spring and which may represent massive colonies of black fungi, mould, lichens, algae, methanogens and sulfur reducing species. Black fungi-bacteria-like specimens also appeared atop the rovers. In a series of photographs over three days (Sols) white amorphous specimens within a crevice changed shape and location then disappeared. White protoplasmic-mycelium-like-tendrils with fruiting-body-like appendages form networks upon and above the surface; or increase in mass as documented by sequential photographs. Hundreds of dimpled donut-shaped "mushroom-like" formations approximately 1mm in size are adjacent or attached to these mycelium-like complexes. Additional sequences document that white amorphous masses beneath rock-shelters increase in mass, number, or disappear and that similar white-fungus-like specimens appeared inside an open rover compartment. Comparative statistical analysis of a sample of 9 spherical specimens believed to be fungal "puffballs" photographed on Sol 1145 and 12 specimens that emerged from beneath the soil on Sol 1148 confirmed the nine grew significantly closer together as their diameters expanded and some showed evidence of movement. Cluster analysis and a paired sample 't' test indicates a statistically significant size increase in the average size ratio over all comparisons between and within groups (P = 0.011). Statistical comparisons indicates that arctic "araneiforms" significantly increased in length in parallel following an initial growth spurt. Although similarities in morphology are not proof of life, growth, movement, and changes in shape and location constitute behavior and support the hypothesis there is life on Mars.
Rhawn Gabriel Joseph
added a research item
Numerous massive black and complex araneiforms with features categorized as "trees" "rivers" and dendritic radial "spiders" and ranging from a few meters to over 300 meters in size, appear on the surface of the upper northern and lower southern hemispheres of Mars, during the Spring, paralleling the melting of the polar ice-caps which consist of considerable amounts of water-ice capped by varying levels of frozen carbon dioxide. After increasing in length, width, and diameter these huge black formations disappear by late Summer and Winter. The following Spring, similar patterns emerge. Possibly, fungi, mold and immense colonies of dormant surface organisms, when exposed to melt water, flourish and become pigmented upon absorbing sunlight and then become dormant again when surface water evaporates and freezes. It's also been argued these formations are produced by pressurized jets emitted from beneath sublimating surface ice sheets, or the product of mud volcanoes (MVs) and cold geysers (CGs) that erupt from increasingly pressurized subsurface reservoirs. These MVs and CGs are likely brimming with methane, CO2, organic sludge and possibly microbial life, including methanogens and sulfate reducing colonies that (as on Earth) blacken this watery-mixture. Prolonged exposure to the gamma and ultraviolet radiation that bombards the Martian surface would eventually kill these ejected sulfur-reducing organisms which lose their black coloration. Hence: Subsurface life is jetted to the surface as a microbial infested black organic watery sludge which nourishes and in addition to melt water hydrates enormous colonies of dormant surface life that also develop black sunlight-absorbing pigmentation. Arctic surface life is brief, growth patterns rapid, after a few months, when water seeps beneath the surface, evaporates, and freezes, they form spores, migrate beneath the surface, become dormant, or die.
Rhawn Gabriel Joseph
added a research item
The dried lake beds of Gale Crater have been identified by NASA's rover crews as a likely source of fossils. Formations resembling fossilized stromatolites, algae, acritarchs and metazoans have been previously observed and reported in peer reviewed scientific periodicals. A detailed search of NASA's Gale Crater image-data-base was conducted with a focus on specific areas and days (sols) in which fossilized impressions of what may be metazoans have been observed. Formations resembling the fossilized remains of "Namacalathus," "Lophophorates," "Kimberella" and ichnofossils of burrowing "tube worms" (priapulids) were found. To assist in determining if these Martian specimens are abiogenic geological formations with a superficial resemblance to fossils, a terrestrial-pseudo-fossil image search was conducted employing all relevant key words, and no formations on Earth similar to those on Mars were found, other than genuine fossils. In addition, a quantitative statistical morphological analysis was performed comparing these Martian specimens with analog fossils and two pseudo-fossils from Earth. Formations observed in the dried lake beds of Gale Crater bear a statistically significant, nearly identical resemblance to eukaryotic fossils from the Ediacaran and Cambrian era on Earth but no statistical morphological similarity to pseudo-fossils.
Rhawn Gabriel Joseph
added a research item
In the space of the entire universe, the only conclusive evidence of life, is found on Earth. Although the ultimate source of all life is unknown, many investigators believe Earth, Mars, and Venus may have been seeded with life when these planets, and the sun, were forming in a galactic cluster of thousands of stars and protoplanets. Yet others hypothesize that while and after becoming established members of this solar system, these worlds became contaminated with life during the heavy bombardment phase when struck by millions of life-bearing meteors, asteroids, comets and oceans of ice. Because bolide impacts may eject tons of life-bearing debris into space, and as powerful solar winds may blow upper atmospheric organisms into space, these three planets may have repeatedly exchanged living organisms for billions of years. In support of these hypotheses is evidence suggestive of stromatolites, algae, and lichens on Mars, fungi on Mars and Venus, and formations resembling fossilized acritarchs and metazoans on Mars, and fossilized impressions resembling microbial organisms on the lunar surface, and dormant microbes recovered from the interior of a lunar camera. The evidence reviewed in this report supports the interplanetary transfer hypothesis and that Earth may be seeding this solar system with life.
Rhawn Gabriel Joseph
added 2 research items
The discovery and subsequent investigations of atmospheric oxygen on Mars are reviewed. Free oxygen is a biomarker produced by photosynthesizing organisms. Oxygen is reactive and on Mars may be destroyed in 10 years and is continually replenished. Diurnal and spring/summer increases in oxygen have been documented, and these variations parallel biologically induced fluctuations on Earth. Data from the Viking biological experiments also support active biology, though these results have been disputed. Although there is no conclusive proof of current or past life on Mars, organic matter has been detected and specimens resembling green algae / cyanobacteria, lichens, stromatolites, and open apertures and fenestrae for the venting of oxygen produced via photosynthesis have been observed. These life-like specimens include thousands of lichen-mushroom-shaped structures with thin stems, attached to rocks, topped by bulbous caps, and oriented skyward similar to photosynthesizing organisms. If some of these specimens are fossilized is unknown. However the evidence of so many different types of life-like specimens make it almost indisputable that there is life on Mars. The overall body of evidence indicates are likely producing and replenishing atmospheric oxygen. Abiogenic processes might also contribute to oxygenation via sublimation and seasonal melting of subglacial water-ice deposits coupled with UV splitting of water molecules; a process of abiogenic photosynthesis that could have significantly depleted oceans of water and subsurface ice over the last 4.5 billion years; and, which would have provided moisture to these Martian organisms and their ancestors.
Billions of years ago, the Northern Hemisphere of Mars may have been covered by at least one ocean and thousands of lakes and rivers. These findings, based initially on telescopic observations and images by the Mariner and Viking missions, led investigators to hypothesize that stromatolite fashioning cyanobacteria may have proliferated in the surface waters, and life may have been successfully transferred between Earth and Mars via tons of debris ejected into the space following bolide impact. Studies conducted by NASA's robotic rovers also indicate that Mars was wet and habitable and may have been inhabited in the ancient past. It has been hypothesized that Mars subsequently lost its magnetic field, oceans, and atmosphere when bolides negatively impacted its geodynamo and that the remnants of the Martian seas began to evaporate and became frozen beneath the surface. As reviewed here, twenty-five investigators have published evidence of Martian sedimentary structures that resemble microbial mats and stromatolites, which may have been constructed billions of years ago on ancient lake shores and in receding bodies of water, although if these formations are abiotic or biotic is unknown. These findings parallel the construction of the first stromatolites on Earth. The evidence reviewed here does not prove but supports the hypothesis that ancient Mars had oceans (as well as lakes) and was habitable and inhabited, and life may have been transferred between Earth and Mars billions of years ago due to powerful solar winds and life-bearing ejecta propelled into the space following the bolide impact.
Rhawn Gabriel Joseph
added a research item
The evidence for water on Mars is detailed and reviewed, and photographic evidence for moisture, ice, frost, and mud in the Gale Crater, is presented. In accordance with the predictions of Martinez et al. (2015), the authors document the presence of ice within as well as mud and wet soil on the outside of the aluminum wheels of the rover Curiosity on Sols 469, 472, 476, 528, 529, 597, 605, 610. The adhesion of soil and mud on the rover's aluminum wheels is direct evidence of moisture, and indirect evidence of biological activity which serves to bind, aggregate, and promote soil adhesion to metal surfaces. The implications for life on Mars, are discussed.
Rhawn Gabriel Joseph
added a research item
Throughout its mission at Eagle Crater, Meridiani Planum, the rover Opportunity photographed thousands of mushroom-lichen-like formations with thin stalks and spherical caps, clustered together in colonies attached to and jutting outward from the tops and sides of rocks. Those on top-sides were often collectively oriented, via their caps and stalks, in a similar upward-angled direction as is typical of photosynthesizing organisms. The detection of seasonal increases and replenishment of Martian atmospheric oxygen supports this latter interpretation and parallels seasonal photosynthetic activity and biologically-induced oxygen fluctuations on Earth. Twelve "puffball" fungal-shaped Meridiani Planum spherical specimens were also photographed emerging from beneath the soil and an additional eleven increased in size over a three-day period in the absence of winds which may have contributed to these observations. Growth and the collective skyward orientation of these lichen and fungus-like specimens are indications of behavioral biology; though it is impossible to determine if they are alive without direct examination. Reports claiming these Eagle Crater spheres consist of hematite are reviewed and found to be based on inference as the instruments employed were not hematite specific. The hematite-research group targeted oblong rocks which were mischaracterized as spheres, and selectively eliminated spectra from panoramic images until what remained was interpreted to resemble spectral signatures of terrestrial hematite photographed in a laboratory, when it was a "poor fit." The Eagle Crater environment was never conducive to creating hematite and the spherical hematite hypothesis is refuted. By contrast, lichens and fungi survive in Mars-like analog environments. There are no abiogenic processes that can explain the mushroom-morphology, size, colors and orientation and growth of, and there are no terrestrial geological formations which resemble these mushroom-lichen-shaped specimens. Although the authors have not proven these are living organisms, the evidence supports the hypothesis that mushrooms, algae, lichens, fungi, and related organisms may have colonized the Red Planet and may be engaged in photosynthetic activity and oxygen production on Mars.
Rhawn Gabriel Joseph
added a research item
Gale Crater was an ancient Martian lake that has periodically filled with water and which may still provide a watery environment conducive to the proliferation and fossilization of a wide range of organisms, especially algae. To test this hypothesis and to survey the Martian landscape, over 3,000 photographs from NASA's rover Curiosity Gale Crater image depository were examined by a team of established experts in astrobiology, astrophysics, biophysics, geobiology, microbiology, lichenology, phycology, botany, and mycology. As presented in this report, specimens resembling terrestrial algae, lichens, microbial mats, stromatolites, ooids, tubular-shaped formations, and mineralized fossils of metazoans and calcium-carbonate encrusted cyanobacteria were observed and tentatively identified. Forty-five photos of putative biological specimens are presented. The authors were unable to precisely determine if these specimens are biological or consist of Martian minerals and salt formations that mimic biology. Therefore, a review of Martian minerals and mineralization was conducted and the possibility these formations may be abiogenic is discussed. It is concluded that the overall pattern of evidence is mutually related and that specimens resembling algae-like and other organisms may have colonized the Gale Crater, beginning billions of years ago. That some or most of these specimens may be abiotic, cannot be ruled out. Additional investigation targeting features similar to these should be a priority of future studies devoted to the search for current and past life on Mars.
Rhawn Gabriel Joseph
added 2 research items
Evidence is reviewed which supports the hypothesis that prokaryotes and eukaryotes may have colonized Mars. One source of Martian life, is Earth. A variety of species remain viable after long term exposure to the radiation intense environment of space, and may survive ejection from Earth following meteor strikes, ejection from the stratosphere and mesosphere via solar winds, and sterilization of Mars-bound spacecraft; whereas simulations studies have shown that prokaryotes, fungi and lichens survive in simulated Martian environments-findings which support the hypothesis life may have been repeatedly transferred from Earth to Mars. Four independent investigators have reported what appears to be fungi and lichens on the Martian surface, whereas a fifth investigator reported what may be cyanobacteria. In another study, a statistically significant majority of 70 experts, after examining Martian specimens photographed by NASA, identified and agreed fungi, basidiomycota ("puffballs"), and lichens may have colonized Mars. Fifteen specimens resembling and identified as "puffballs" were photographed emerging from the ground over a three day period. It is possible these latter specimens are hematite and what appears to be "growth" is due to a strong wind which uncovered these specimens-an explanation which cannot account for before and after photos of what appears to be masses of fungi growing atop and within the Mars rovers. Terrestrial hematite is in part fashioned and cemented together by prokaryotes and fungi, and thus Martian hematite may also be evidence of biology. Three independent research teams have identified sediments on Mars resembling stromatolites and outcroppings having micro meso and macro characteristics typical of terrestrial microbialites constructed by cyanobacteria. Quantitative morphological analysis determined these latter specimens are statistically and physically similar to terrestrial stromatolites. Reports of water, biological residue discovered in Martian meteor ALH84001, the seasonal waning and waxing of atmospheric and ground level Martian methane which on Earth is 90% due to biology and plant growth and decay, and results from the 1976 Mars Viking Labeled Release Experiments indicating biological activity, also support the hypothesis that Mars was, and is, a living planet. Nevertheless, much of the evidence remains circumstantial and unverified, and the possibility of life on Mars remains an open question.
Evidence is reviewed which supports the hypothesis that prokaryotes and eukaryotes may have colonized Mars. One source of Martian life, is Earth. A variety of species remain viable after long term exposure to the radiation intense environment of space, and may survive ejection from Earth following meteor strikes, ejection from the stratosphere and mesosphere via solar winds, and sterilization of Mars-bound spacecraft; whereas simulations studies have shown that prokaryotes, fungi and lichens survive in simulated Martian environments-findings which support the hypothesis life may have been repeatedly transferred from Earth to Mars. Four independent investigators have reported what appears to be fungi and lichens on the Martian surface, whereas a fifth investigator reported what may be cyanobacteria. In another study, a statistically significant majority of 70 experts, after examining Martian specimens photographed by NASA, identified and agreed fungi, basidiomycota ("puffballs"), and lichens may have colonized Mars. Fifteen specimens resembling and identified as "puffballs" were photographed emerging from the ground over a three day period. It is possible these latter specimens are hematite and what appears to be "growth" is due to a strong wind which uncovered these specimens-an explanation which cannot account for before and after photos of what appears to be masses of fungi growing atop and within the Mars rovers. Terrestrial hematite is in part fashioned and cemented together by prokaryotes and fungi, and thus Martian hematite may also be evidence of biology. Three independent research teams have identified sediments on Mars resembling stromatolites and outcroppings having micro meso and macro characteristics typical of terrestrial microbialites constructed by cyanobacteria. Quantitative morphological analysis determined these latter specimens are statistically and physically similar to terrestrial stromatolites. Reports of water, biological residue discovered in Martian meteor ALH84001, the seasonal waning and waxing of atmospheric and ground level Martian methane which on Earth is 90% due to biology and plant growth and decay, and results from the 1976 Mars Viking Labeled Release Experiments indicating biological activity, also support the hypothesis that Mars was, and is, a living planet. Nevertheless, much of the evidence remains circumstantial and unverified, and the possibility of life on Mars remains an open question.
Rhawn Gabriel Joseph
added a research item
Seventy experts in fungi, lichens, mineralogy or geomorphology, formed a statistically significant consensus that fungi are growing on Mars. Specifically, 30 Geologists identified by their universities as experts in mineralogy or geomorphology, and 40 Biologists with an expertise in fungus or lichens, examined 30 photos, 5 from Earth and 25 from Mars which depicted specimens previously judged to resemble fungi. Scientists closely examined and rated these photos on a 1 to 4 scale as to the likelihood of life: 1=No. 2=33% Probability. 3=66% Probability. 4=Yes. The majority agreed there is a 33% to 100% probability that specimens on Mars, photographed by NASA's rover Curiosity, are living organisms. A Fisher Exact Test analyses indicates that Biologists (p = <0.0001) and Geologists (p = <0.0001) formed a statistically significant consensus for seven different specimens. Moreover, Biologists identified these specimens as "fungi" "mushrooms", "puffballs" and "Basidiomycota," and further noted that these specimens were growing out of the ground and shedding spores. This data is also consistent with the results from the Viking Labeled Release studies and the waxing and waning of ground level methane in the Gale Crater, in the same general vicinity of where most of these organisms were photographed by NASA. The evidence presented here, supports the likelihood that fungi have colonized Mars.
Rhawn Gabriel Joseph
added a research item
Early in its history Mars appears to have had oceans, streams, and a magnetic field and likely was, and still is, populated by bacteria and other simple life forms as indicated, collectively, by these findings: biological activity documented by the Viking Labeled Release experiments; numerous specimens resembling fungi, mushrooms, and algae (cyanobacteria) growing on the surface; photographs of 12 mushroom-shaped specimens which grew out from beneath the ground over a 3 day period; a statistically significant consensus (p< 0.001) among 70 experts, many of whom identified Martian fungal specimens by name; specimens resembling stromatolites likely constructed by cyanobacteria perhaps over 3.4 billion years ago; quantitative morphological analysis which determined these latter specimens are statistically (p<0.004) and physically similar to terrestrial stromatolites; reports of biological residue discovered in Martian meteor ALH84001 dated to 4 billion years ago; and the waning and waxing of atmospheric and ground level methane which is periodically replenished and is most likely due to biological activity and the decomposition of Martian organisms. Prior to the loss of its oceans and magnetic shield Mars may have resembled a smaller, colder, Earth-like twin, and numerous species likely evolved, only to suffer a probable mass extinction following this catastrophe. In consequence, Mars became a failed Earth where only bacteria, fungi, and perhaps those living deep beneath the soil or within caves and crevices, are able to survive.
Rhawn Gabriel Joseph
added a research item
The “Outer Space Treaty” was approved by acclamation by the United Nations General Assembly on June 19, 1966, was given unanimous consent by the U.S. Senate on April 27, 1967, and entered into force on October 10, 1967. As detailed in this criminal complaint, NASA, an agency of the United States government, has repeatedly and knowingly violated Article IX of the Outer Space Treaty by contaminating Mars with fungi and bacteria. Moreover, NASA is planning to again violate Article IX by transporting Martian organisms to Earth--NASA’s Mars Sample Return Initiative--conduct which may place our entire planet at risk. As detailed in this report, NASA, a U.S. Federal Agency, failed to sterilize space-bound equipment, and has knowingly transferred bacteria and fungi to and has (A) contaminated the International Space Station, and (B) contaminated Mars via the rovers, Viking landers, and other Mars-bound equipment. As documented, upon transport to Mars, attached to the rovers, these organisms began to flourish and thrive and have damaged this equipment and nearly destroyed the rover’s aluminum wheels which have suffered severe biodeterioration despite having been driven less than 10 miles in 5 years on Mars, as depicted in the photos attached to this document and which were taken by NASA’s rovers Curiosity and Opportunity (Joseph & Rabb 2016; Joseph 2017; Rabb 2018). (C) NASA now threatens to contaminate Earth. Consider: In 1976, NASA scientists announced to the world that the Viking LR experiments repeatedly discovered evidence of life on Mars (Levin & Straat, 1976). Days later NASA administrators and U.S. government officials announced Mars is lifeless. NASA has since refused to equip any Mars-bound equipment with life-detection experiments. Instead, despite numerous subsequent studies demonstrating biological activity on Mars (Dass 2017; Joseph 2014, 2016; Kupa 2017; Mumma et al 2003, 2009; Rabb 2015, 2018; Smith 2015; Webster et al. 2014, 2015), NASA plans to transport extremely valuable and hazardous Martian organisms to Earth (NASA (a)) while falsely claiming Mars is lifeless, and there is no need for oversight by elected officials who would fear contamination, plague, disease and contagion by Martian organisms. Until proven otherwise, Martian organisms should be classified as extremely hazardous, and potential weapons of mass destruction. According to Article IX of The Outer Space Treaty: “States Parties to the Treaty shall pursue studies of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, and conduct exploration of them so as to avoid their harmful contamination and also adverse changes in the environment of the Earth resulting from the introduction of extraterrestrial matter and, where necessary, shall adopt appropriate measures for this purpose.” NASA has behaved deceptively and repeatedly violated and plans to continue violating Article IX.
Rhawn Gabriel Joseph
added 3 research items
The evidence for past and current life on Mars is reviewed. Billions of years ago Mars may have been flush with microbiological activity as based on a detailed analyses of Martian meteor ALH 8401. Fossilized stromatolites have also been identified on the surface of Mars, and which were most likely constructed by cyanobacteria. There is also evidence that Martian microbes continue to flourish as based on the results from the Viking Labeled Release studies. In addition, there is evidence of a waxing and waning of methane within the Martian atmosphere and at ground level within the Gale Crater and whose most plausible source is living organisms. Within the Gale Crater, Martian fungi, some which have been photographed growing out of the ground and littering the surrounding surface with spores, have also been identified by 70 experts in geology and biology who formed a consensus that there is life on Mars. Moreover, fungi have been photographed growing atop the rovers Curiosity and Opportunity, and within the rover Curiosity aluminum wheels which appear to have suffered severe biodeterioration. A multi-tentacled specimen photographed within a Gale Crater crevice, has also been identified as a biological organism, by a majority of geologists; though if the creature is fossilized or alive, is unknown. A fossilized impression of a multi-tentacled specimen has also been photographed in the same general vicinity. Additionally, fungi within and beneath Gale Crater Martian rock shelters not only grow in size, but in some locations, completely disappear which raises the possibility they may have been consumed by parasitic fungi or other organisms. It is concluded that various microorganisms and eukaryotes (fungi) have successfully colonized the Red Planet and that complex Martian life forms may have evolved on Mars.
It is well established that chemoautotrophs and Earthly fungi can contaminate and corrode metals, plastics, aluminum, and a variety of other substances. Fungi growing on the outside of the Russian Mir spacecraft were discovered to be corroding and destroying even the titanium windows, and rapidly multiplying. In May of 2016, it was reported that 40 Biologists with an expertise in fungus or lichens, had reached a consensus supporting a low to high probability of life on Mars, as based on an examination of specimens photographed by the rover teams (Joseph 2016). The results were statistically significant, and the majority of experts identified the Martian specimens as fungi. Coupled with the findings from the 1970s Mars Viking experiments and the discoveries of biological residue in three Martian meteorites in the 1990s by Mckay et al, it was predicted that NASA's Mars rovers may be contaminated with Martian bacteria and destructive Martian fungi. An examination of photos taken of the Mars rovers' decks and wheel wells supports this prediction. Martian bacteria and fungi have severely damaged the Rover Curiosity's aluminum wheels despite being driven for less than 10 miles across the Martian surface, and to have infiltrated the upper deck of the rovers Curiosity and Opportunity. The possible catastrophic consequences of transporting these Martian organisms to Earth, are detailed.